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places at the present time should be read by all values in the suburbs of cities preclude a reducwho are prejudiced through ignorance of the tion in the cost of burial. The expense of cre. facts.

mation is $25 only, and could be largely reduced "In a modern crematory the unclad corpse, if the custom became more general. simply wrapped in a damp winding sheet, is “Let our intelligent population set the exnoiselessly rolled to the retort, and quickly con ample, as it does in San Francisco, where almost sumed by air that has been heated to fifteen a thousand bodies are annually cremated, and hundred degrees Fahrenheit. Gases are con the ignorant masses will be sure to follow. Con. sumed in the same furnace in which the body is sidering the marvelous progress we have made burned, so that it may not offend the nostrils of in every other direction, it is strange that we the most skeptical critic. Some crematories have have failed to adopt the most rational means for been erected in the very heart of modern cities, the disposition of dead bodies. We hardly are and would draw no attention but for the peculiar abreast of Homer's contemporaries, who realized construction of the edifice. Those who prefer that, however well a cemetery may be managed, not to witness the act may listen to the sermon corpses can do harm but ashes never can. True of their pastor or rabbi in comfortable pews or a religion does not and never ca teach that it is chapel, while they are protected against the heat godly to injure those we leave behind when we of incineration as well as against the wind and die." weather of open burial grounds. Too many meet an untimely death because of the disease

THE RELATION OF OXYGEN TO EART contracted when they honor' their departed friends.

A TIVITY.
ECONOMIC ARGUMENTS.

ANY of our readers will recall the an-
MANY

nouncement, about one y-11 ago, of dis“Cremation merely reaches in a shorter pe. coveries by Dr. Jacques Loeb, of the University riod the same final result as burial. Fleshy parts of Chicago, regarding the effect of sodium chlo. of the corpse decompose in the earth in five or ride (common salt) on the heart-beat (see REVIEW ten years ; during the whole period of decom OF REViews, March, 1902, pages 355–357). Dr. position they constitute nothing but a putrid David J. Lingle, who was associated with Di. mass of carrion. Bones, which take centuries to Loeb in this investigation, has since conducted crumble, are unceremoniously carted from one a series of experiments that seem to confirm cemetery to another when necessity compels to a remarkable degree what is now known among their removal, and increase the horror of death physiologists as the sodium-chloride theory. after they have ceased to be identified and These experiments are all described in a highly claimed. If they are converted, with the flesh, interesting paper contributed by Dr. Lingle to into ashes in one hour, they are insured against the November number of the American Journal desecration. The volume and weight of bodies of Physiology. are reduced by the process of cremation some An independent development of Dr. Lingle's 95 per cent. If ashes were placed in the work, which does not seem to have been anticigrave of an urn cemetery, as occasionally is pated by other physiologists, was his discovery done, the dead would leave more room for the regarding the action of oxygen gas on strips of living than their intact bodies demand. Two a turtle's heart. His own account of his obserhundred city lots are now required to bury in vations, as embodied in the paper already cited, the old-fashioned way

the

seventy thousand per is as follows: sons that annually die in Greater New York. If heart strips are subjected to an atmosWe probably could save more than a hundred phere of pure oxygen in a moist chamber, they and fifty of these precious lots if the ashes of the show certain peculiarities that strikingly reveal seventy thousand were placed in urn cemeteries, the fundamental importance of sodium chloride preserved in niches of a columbarium, or strewn in heart beat phenomena. If a strip is placed in on the waves of a river. As cemeteries are sodium chloride solution until it beats begin, and exempt from taxation, the municipality would then, while beating, is removed to a moist chamderive an income from the lots which the living ber containing oxygen, the force of its beats is then would use, and from the improvements strengthened and the rhythm sustained. In they would make upon them.

some instances beats under these conditions “ Another important advantage would accrue lasted seventy-two hours, and apparently stopped to every needy mourner in saving him from use then because putrefaction destroyed the strip. less extravagance.

He incurs at present the ex These experiments were made during excessivepense of $50 at least for a plain funeral ; land ly hot weather, and is putrefaction could have

HEART-BEATS MAINTAINED IN OXYGEN GAS.

and this is sustained in pure oxygen gas as long LRcharming studies in animal intelligence to

been prevented the strips probably would have also improve the beats of strips in a solution contracted longer, for in some cases the lower with a mixture of salts. These facts throw a fourth of a strip was yellow and putrid twenty little light on the role of salts in causing strips four hours before the upper part ceased beating. to beat, and they modify, in some respects, the

present theories explaining the role of salts in

such cases." “ Under these circumstances we have a series of rhythmic -eats originated under the influence

THE SENSE-PERCEPTION OF INSECTS. of a bath containing a single salt in solution,

ORD AVEBURY contributes one of his as rhythms usually are in a solution with a mixture of salts. Such an experiment shows the ex the Christinas number of the London. It is ceptional position held by sodium chloride among headed, “Can Insects Reason?” The question agents that originate heart-beats, for treatment really considered is the extent of sense-percepwith no other solution of a single salt accom tion possessed by insects. Can they distinguish plishes the same result. It also may be consid colors ? He tested bees by putting honey on ered as partially confirming one side of Loeb's different-colored slips of paper, and after each theory as to the action of sodium chloride. In visit of the bee he shifted the slips from one the experiment described, beats are only started place to another. The bee that had first filled in the sodium chloride solution. Had the heart itself with honey from the blue slip, on its restrips remained in this they would have stopped turn sought out the same blue slip, though after a short time. But the withdrawal from changed in place. By another similar experithe solution while beats were beginning pre ment he discovered the preference of the bees vented the development of the unfavorable stage for the several colors. He found that the bees produced by the diffusion of an excessive amount had a marked preference for blue, then white, of sodium chloride into the strips, and when this then successively yellow, green, red, and orange. . is avoided in the presence of oxygen there is no

ANTS' TASTE IN COLORS. sodium chloride standstill. Air has the same power as pure oxygen, but its influence is not so Yet more interesting was his experiment with marked. In the experiments made with strips ants : taken from a salt solution and exposed to moist “I tried to ascertain whether ants were caair, the contractions were always much smaller pable of distinguishing colors. . . . It occurred than in pure oxygen. Furthermore, oxygen gas, to me to avail myself of the dislike which ants, like hydrogen peroxide, can restore beats in when in their nests, have of light. Of course, strips when they have run down in a sodium they have no such dread when they are out in chloride solution. If a strip in this condition is search of food ; but if light is let in upon a nest, removed from the sodium chloride solution, and they at once hurry up and down in search of transferred to a moist chamber full of oxygen dark shelter, where, no doubt, they think they gas, a latent period follows, then feeble beats re are again in safety. For facility of observation appear which gradually grow stronger until a I used to keep my ants in nests consisting of two maximum is reached, and this is sustained for plates of glass about ten inches square, and just long time.

The whole series continues twenty so far apart as to leave the ants room to move four hours, or, in some instances, longer. In about without touching the upper plate. I then this case recovery occurs without any diffusion fastened the glasses in a wooden frame, filled up of salts, which indicates clearly that the ordinary the

space with common garden earth, and left a sodium chloride arrest is largely due to a lack door at one corner. The ants then entered and of oxygen."

excavated chambers and galleries for themselves. Summing up the action of oxygen, as shown I kept them covered up, as they like being in by his experiments, Dr. Lingle says:

the dark, but by uncovering them at any mo. It cannot start beats when sodium chloride ment I could see exactly what was passing in is lacking. Combined with sodium chloride, it the nest. If, for instance, I uncovered any of increases the force of the beats and lengthens my nests excepting one part, the ants soon the duration of the rhythm. It also restores collected there. I then procured some slips of beats in strips that have ceased to beat in a glass of different colors and placed them over sodium chloride solution. Oxygen and sodium the nest, so that the ants could go under red, chloride together can maintain beats as long as green, yellow, or violet glass. I transposed the a mixture of salts, provided the sodium chloride glasses from time to time, and then counted the does not act for too long a time. Oxygen will ants under each color. They avoided the violet

a

hundred and ninety ants under the red glass and PROFESSOR BECQUEREL, of Paris, is one

in the most marked manner. For instance, in THE WONDERS OF THE BECQUEREL RAYS.

were eight

of the famous family of physicists, three only five under the violet, though to our eyes generations of whom have especially distin. the violet looked as dark or darker than the red.

guished themselves in researches in the phenomEvidently the colors affected them differently." ena of phosphorescence. Professor Becquerel

found that uranium would give out something THEIR PERCEPTION OF ULTRA-VIOLET RAYS.

similar to Röntgen rays when he kept it in a state Not content with this conclusion, he wished to of phosphorescence by exposure to sunlight. In ascertain whether ants perceived or felt the rays his experiments in taking photographs with these of light which run beyond our ken—the ultra rays he accidentally found out that uranium violet rays, as they are called. The late Mr. emitted the rays even when it was not phosPaul Bert had asserted that animals saw only phorescing. This scientist established by some the same rays as we, no more and no less. This simple experiments then that the emission of was Lord Avebury's experiment :

this radiation is a property of the uranium “ There are some liquids which, though they itself, and is not dependent upon any previous are transparent to the visible rays of light, are stimulation. opaque to those which are beyond the violet Professor Joseph J. Thomson, of Cambridge, the ultra-violet-rays as they are called. Bi England, tells in the January Harper's of the chromate of potash, for instance, a yellow liquid, newest marvels discovered by the physicists in is one of them. Again, bisulphite of carbon is experiments with the so-called Becquerel rays. to our eyes entirely transparent and colorless. It looks just like water, only a trifle oily, but it

A VELOCITY OF 120,000 MILES A SECOND. has the remarkable property of stopping all These Becquerel rays partake of the nature ultra-violet rays. I then placed flat bottles con both of Röntgen and cathode rays, or rather taining different colored fluids over the ants, and seem to be a mixture of these two. The speed in this way I could contract them with another of cathode rays has been measured as high as containing bisulphide of carbon. I must not, of 70,000 miles a second, when the rays are procourse, occupy your time with the details of all duced by sending electrical discharges through the experiments ; I will only allude to one illus

The velocity of the rays emitted tration. I uncovered a nest, and over one part from uranium is much higher, while Becquerel I put a layer of water, over another a layer of has established that the rays emitted by a subbisulphide of carbon, and over a third a layer of stance known as radium travel at a speed of over violet liquid (ammonio-sulphate of copper). To 120,000 miles per second. The rays themselves our eyes, the ants under the violet liquid were seem to consist of small particles called corpuspretty well hidden.

On the contrary, the cles, very much smaller than the atoms of any water and the bisulphide of carbon were both known substance, charged with negative elecquite transparent, and, to our eyes, identical. . tricity, and moving at the almost inconceivable The ants, we know, would desire to get under the rates of speed described above. darkest part, and yet under such circumstances they always went under the layer of bisulphide of carbon. Evidently, then, though it seemed Two indefatigable investigators in this field perfectly transparent to us, it was not so to them. have recently been extracting the radium from These experiments, then, clearly demonstrated pitchblende. Monsieur and Madame Curie have that they were able to see the ultra-violet rays, been able to detect the presence of qualities of which are quite invisible to us."

radium in pitchblende, even though there is far He tried similar experiments with the daph less of the sought-for substance than there is nias, and with similar results. He concludes gold in sea water. This has been done by that these considerations raise the reflection how the use of the wonderfully delicate test of different the world may appear to other animals radio-activity. The substances exhibiting radiofrom what it does to us. Between the forty activity,—that is, substances sending out these thousand vibrations per second of the air at cathode rays,—produce an electrical conductivity which sound ceases to be audible, and the four in gases. Testing by this property, the Curies hundred millions of millions of vibrations at found it possible to detect quantities of radium which light begins to be visible to our retina, and other substances millions of times less than we have no organ of sense capable of receiving can be detected by chemical analysis, and thouthe impression, yet between these two any num sands of times less even than can be detected by ber of sensations may exist.

spectrum analysis. Indeed, of the three sub

a vacuum.

THE RESEARCHES OF THE CURIES.

stances exhibiting radio-activity and obtainable earth which are radio-active are, in fact, cathodes from pitciblende,-radium, polonium, and ac discharging cathode rays into the air. 6. Thus tinum.--the first is the only one which has been cathode rays, which have only comparatively re. detected by chemical or spectroscopic means. cently been discovered, and then by the help of

The radium obtained by these investigators most elaborate apparatus, are in all probability from pitchblende exhibited radio-activity of re. so widely distributed and occur so frequently markable strength,—more than 100,000 times that there is hardly a patch of ground on the that of uranium.

earth's surface which does not contain an active

source of these rays." WONDERFUL PROPERTIES OF RADIUM. Radium emits negatively electrified particles

FACTS ABOUT PARASITIC WORMS. with a velocity sometimes approaching that of light. “This continued emission of particles

THE

"HE habits of parasitic worms and their defrom the radium of course implies that the velopment from the egg to adult life preradium is losing mass and energy.

The loss of sent one of the most interesting subjects of mass is exceedingly small; from the results biology. given by Curie for the amount of negative elec In the last number of the Zoologischer Anzeiger, tricity emitted by the radium it follows that the Dr. H. von Thering contributes to the literature loss of mass would only amount to about one of this subject by descriptions of new parasites thousandth of a milligram in a million years for from foreign countries, and suggestions as to each square centimeter of surface. In conse the history of the development of parasitic quence of the tremendous velocity with which worms based upon their distribution over the the particles are projected, the amount of energy world. radiated is quite an appreciable amount, being A parasitic worm may remain near the outer sufficient, if converted into heat, to melt in a surface of the animal which serves as host or it million years a layer of ice of the same area of may take up its abode within the digestive cavthe radium and more than a quarter of a mile ity of the animal, where it appropriates food dithick. This loss of energy goes on without in. gested and prepared for the nourishment of its termission, and has been going on—as far as we host. Dr. von Thering has given special atten. know-for whatever number of millions of years tion to this class of internal parasites. the radium may have existed.”

Among the families of worms there are parasitic and non-parasitic forms which are related

to each other and yet show great diversity of Professor Thomson, in the course of recount structure according to the degree of dependence ing other extraordinary discoveries of the in upon the host, for among the worms or elsevestigators in this field, mentions the feat of where, dependence results in degeneration. The Elster and Geitel in proving that substances worms under consideration attain their adult could be made radio-active without the aid of form in some vertebrate, as man, the pig, rat, radium or thorium. “ All that is necessary is to fish, etc., and have reached the greatest degree hang them up in the open air or in a very large of degeneration. The mouth is surrounded with room, and charge them strongly with negative hooks and spines, by means of which the worm electricity ; after a few hours they become bores into the flesh and holds itself firmly in radio-active." Photographs have been taken place. The digestive organs are lacking, and with the rays emitted from the scrapings of a would be useless if present, for the worm floats copper rod which had been treated in this way. in a solution of digested food, which it absorbs In fact, Professor Thomson goes on to say there through its skin. is radio-activity all around us. The earth itself

VARIATIONS IN THE PREY OF THE SAME PARASITE. is negatively electrified, and the natural electrification of any pointed conductors connected Different worms prey upon different animals, with the earth is sufficient to make them radio and even the same worm preys upon a different active without further electrification. Thus, the host during different periods of its development. points of lightning conductors, pointed leaves, For example, the eggs are found floating in the and spines of trees are always radio-active, and water of stagnant ponds, where they are eaten by it has been lately shown that freshly fallen rain small crustaceans or by water insects. Within is so too, and that it retains this property for the digestive tract of this first host the egg about an hour.

hatches, and the worm goes through the early Professor Thomson says that leaves of trees phases of its development, in some way resisting and the countless objects on the surface of the the action of the digestive fluids surrounding it.

RADIO-ACTIVITY EVERYWHERE.

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION.

In time the host may be eaten by a fish, or it may the general distribution and relations of these he swallowed by some land animal while drink worms, it seems probable that they represent an ing, and when, after the digestion of its first host, old group of the animal kingdom, and that the it becomes free in the stomach of the second ancestral mammals existing in early geological host, it develops to its perfect, adult form. times were preyed upon by representatives of

The necessity for two different hosts makes the chief forms of parasites of the present day. life very uncertain for this group of worms, for the eggs may escape notice and not be eaten, or

CARAN D'ACHE AND HIS WORK. the necessary insect or crustacean may not be present in that particular pond, and even if the

CARA

'ARAN D'ACHE (Russian •for “pencil ”), egg is taken up by the first host, it must still whose name is chiefly associated with the find its second host before it can complete its Figaro, is perhaps the most widely known French development.

caricaturist of the day. In a recent issue of Harmsworth's Magazine, Mr.J. N. Raphael, writing

on “Stories Without Words," describes a visit to On this account it is somewhat surprising to the artist. The article is fully illustrated with ind these parasites reported as distributed in most amusing reproductions of Caran D'Ache's all parts of the earth. No matter to what ex. work, both cartoons and · Stories Without tent the vertebrate host animal might have wan Words,”—the story of the lazy artist, and how dered from country to country they nor their he soothed his irate landlord ; the story of the descendants were not freed from their parasites, wily serpent's practical joke upon the innocent for the lower animals serving as intermediate Englishman (Caran d'Ache would be lost withhosts present analogous relations all over the out the Englishman), and the story of the fare earth, indicating that in the early history of the who was in a hurry and the Parisian cabby who earth conditions were similar in all these regions. was not, and others. If new parasites appear in part in the animals of Caran d'Ache's real name is Emmanuel Poirée, the new regions, still the old relations remain and though he is called the Sir John Tenniel of unchanged for the most part. This is especially Paris, he personally is little known to the Paristrue in South America, whose parasites, peculiar ians. You may call on him at any hour of the to North American animals, are not associated day or night and never find him at home. Even with the native animals, but only with birds and if you succeed in getting an appointment you may mammals which have invaded the country. ring and ring before getting admittance to his

The fresh-water fishes of South America have erratic household, and then, perhaps, be received characteristic parasites. The American alligator by its master masquerading as a footman with has no parasite in common with the alligator of broom and white apron. Caran d'Ache is half the Old World. On the other hand, the wolves, Polish and half French, and comes of a line of jackals, dogs, and other representatives of canis, distinguished soldiers. His serious sketcheswhether in Germany, Asia, or South America, for he does draw some—are exquisitely accurate are infested with the same group of worms, in- studies of Russian and French military life. But dicating a very close relationship at some time. he never uses a model.

“ I am absolutely incapable of drawing direct ANTIQUITY OF THE WORMS.

from nature. . . . After I have seen my model Islands which have been long disconnected for an instant, I never forget a single detail in from their continents show the fauna which they the dress or of the features, even though I do had at the period of isolation sometimes un not draw them till ten years later." changed and sometimes modified under the in Caran d'Ache will not talk politics, but he is fluence of changed conditions. If parasitic worms more than suspected of being a strong French occur in the animals of the islands which are Jingo, and very anti-English. He draws a thinalso found in the corresponding forms of neigh legged Englishman in an impossible tourist suit, boring continents, then the age of the group of and big-footed, big-toothed English women. worms must date back to a period preceding the He finds human attributes in most animals, separation of the islands.

and frequently walks round the Parisian Zoo. We know of such islands cut off in the ter But largely as animals figure in his drawings, tiary epoch, and in the Jurassic; and, no doubt, he rarely draws a cat, -he detests them. the parasites found here are related to old groups His drawings fetch from $60 to $100 each ; already well developed in the Mesozoic. From he is very rich, and lives very luxuriously.

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