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characteristic of the nation, of some homely IN the Scottish Geographical. Magazine, the Rev.
chapel ; where most of those who worship in table. It is to be feared that the standard of church think they have fulfilled the obligations sexual morality is not high. An Anglican of Sunday by listening to matins, and where friend tells us that a prelate lamented to him only a tiny minority offer the Lord's service on that a certain cardinal was not elected at the the Lord's Day."
last conclave. • But,' our friend replied, “he is a The writer laments the apparent indifference man of conspicuous immorality.' No doubt,' was of Italians during the most solemn act of wor the answer ; but you Anglicans seem to think ship, yet hazards the opinion that “ Italians there is no virtue but chastity. The cardinal realize more than we do the privilege and the has not that, but he is an honest man.'” duty of prayer.
Yet prayer is often regarded Nevertheless, the writer regards clerical maras a charm rather than an intelligent devotion.” riage as outside the limits of practical reform. Of prayer to the blessed Lord, he says, we find
We have never come across an auvery little ; of prayer to the Eternal Father, thenticated case of the misuse of the confes. hardly a trace. The Madonna is the principal sional for the service of vice." Not profligacy object of worship. He says that devotion to but sloth is the besetting sin of the Italian priest. our Lord is maintained in Italy chiefly by rev. The writer adds that he cannot " welcome the erence to the blessed sacrament.
movement which bears the name of Christian THE ITALIANS' LOVE OF ORATORY.
Democracy,” and laments the lack of the intelli
gent study of theology. He sees few signs of
-to The great and increasing need of definite re the results of Japanese colonization in Formosa. ligious instruction is urged. The writer gathers His descriptions of the reforms and improve" that in the majority of communal schools there ments introduced are of great value, in that is a certain amount of religious instruction, but they show to the ignorant that the Japanese are that in many places it does not go beyond the thoroughly convinced of the necessity of intellirecitation of a prayer, and perhaps a slight gence and common sense in such work. Mr. amount of teaching of gospel history from a Campbell visited the Taichu prison, and says manual. In the government schools of a higher
of it: grade, the Ginnasio and the Liceo, there is no “ The whole thing was intensely interesting religious teaching at all, so that it is possible for to me, because on every hand one could see the a lad to be trained for one of the learned pro operation of high intelligence, firmness, and fessions without ever learning a word of the even of mercy in grappling with evils which are Christian faith."
found among people of every land. Before
coming away the governor remarked to me that THE MORALITY OF THE CLERGY.
the entire group of buildings, including the surAs to the moral character of the clergy, wit rounding walls, was the outcome of convict lanesses who can hardly be charged with clerical bor; and it did, indeed, seem to be a feature of prejudices give, on the whole, a favorable ac the system here that no prisoner was allowed to count of the northern priesthood.
shirk duty who was really able to work. Nor "We cannot speak with equal assurance of can any one question the soundness of this printhe south. An eminent Roman priest lent us a ciple, for the healthful appearance of the large pamphlet by a German pastor in Naples, which companies I saw engaged in the manufacture of gives a horrible account of clerical immorality. straw mattresses, and as brickmakers, builders, We returned the pamphlet to him with the re carpenters, and coolies, was in favor of it ; while mark that it was the work of an enemy. Yes,' statistics given me regarding the after-career of he replied, “but of an enemy who speaks the those who had served their terms of confinetruth. The worst statement in this book is the ment also showed that prison life in Taichu was assertion that people are not shocked by clerical both bearable and distinctly reformatory in its immorality, but regard it as natural and inevi. tendency."
JAPAN AND THE OPIUM TRADE.
WHAT JAPAN HAS ACCOMPLISHED.
ernment hospitals in the island, at which about Dealing with the question of the opium traffic,
60,000 patients are treated gratuitously every which in Formosa is one of the government
year, while sanitary precautions and free vaccimonopolies, Mr. Campbell writes :
nation have become so general that the danger
from visitations like smallpox and plague has " As to the attitude of Japan in regard to the opium trade, it may be said that the government
been very much reduced." at Tokyo has never wavered in its opposition to opium as an article of commerce ; and this op
THE SIZE OF ALASKA. position, coupled with a general knowledge throughout Japan of the origin and conse WHE
HEN we say that the area of Alaska is quences of the trade elsewhere, has led to the
about 600,000 square miles, only a vague Japanese having kept themselves wholly clean
idea is conveyed to most minds. In order to
visualize the statement, we must have the outfrom the enervating effects of the opium curse.”
line of the Territory superimposed upon the map of some country with which we are familiar.
The accompanying illustration represents a chart Mr. Campbell sums up what has been done in prepared by Mr. Alfred A. Brooks, geologist of Formosa as follows:
the United States Survey, in charge of the Gov" At the outset it should be remembered that, ernment work of exploration and geological inwhen they arrived in 1895, instead of being al vestigation of the Territory. Mr. Brooks has lowed to take quiet possession, they found the drawn upon the map of the United States this people everywhere up in arms against them, and map of Alaska in solid black, in order to show had literally to fight their way from north to the relative areas most effectively. The scale south before anything like settled government used in both instances is the same. could be established. Immediately after As pointed out by Mr. George B. Hollister, some measure of peace had been restored, the of the Geological Survey, in the Popular Science executive sent out qualified experts to engage Monthly for December, when Point Barrow, the in survey work, and to report on the resources most northerly extremity of Alaska, is placed of their newly ceded territory.
upon the Canadian border in northern Minne“A complete census of the population was sota, Mount St. Elias falls near the Ohio River taken in 1897, 800 miles of roads were made, between western Kentucky and Indiana, and the and a tramway line laid down from Takow to main portion of the Territory covers almost the Sin-tek. This was followed by construction of entire area of the Great Plains and Mississippi the main line of railway from Kelung to Takow, Valley as far south as Arkansas. The extreme about one-half of which has already been opened southeasterly portion of the narrow strip of for goods and passenger traffic. Three cables Alaska, upon which Sitka and Juneau are situwere also laid down, connecting Formosa with ated, would extend to the Atlantic Ocean at Japan, Foochow, and the Pescadores, and over the existing 1,500 miles of telegraph and telephone wires immediate communication has been made possible with every important inland center. The post offices recently opened in Formosa number over a hundred, and letters can now be sent to any part of the empire for two cents each. Up till the close of 1899, one hundred and twenty-two government edu.
TEXAS cational institutions had been established, only nine of those being for Japanese, and one hundred and thirteen for natives. There are at present ten principal gov.
ALASKA'S AREA COMPARED WITH THAT OF THE UNITED STATES,
Georgia; the celebrated Nome district would as well as three large islands west of Ellesmere fall in western South Dakota, near the Wyoming Island ; they have explored the northern coast line, and the most westerly of the Aleutian Island of North Devon ; they have connected Belcher's group would lie upon the Pacific coast line near work with the coasts of Jones Sound ; they have Los Angeles, the intermediate islands touching reached a point within sixty miles of Aldrich's the Mexican border in Arizona and New Mexico. farthest; and they have discovered that land In other words, the Territory of Alaska is suf north of the Parry Islands, the existence of which ficient in geographical extent to reach from the was conjectured, as far west as the longitude of Atlantic to the Pacific and from Canada to Mexi. the eastern coast of Melville Island. This inco. Placed in this position on the United States, cludes the discovery of the northern sides of
Scale of Miles 50 100
Lady Franklin sa
Lady Ann So
Prerr flashour 1
Alaska would cover, in whole or in part, twenty North Cornwall and Findlay Island. In addithree States and Territories, and the western tion to the main Arctic problem which is thus third of Lake Superior.
solved, it is likely that the region discovered will be of exceptional interest, from the winds and
currents, the varying character of the ice, the SVERDRUP'S WORK IN THE ARCTICS.
existence of coal beds, and the abundance of HE accompanying map, which appears in animal life. A systematic survey has been made
the December number of the National Geo of these important discoveries, checked by astrographic Magazine, shows the routes followed and nomical observations. We must look forward the coast line explored by Captain Sverdrup in to an account of these things, and to the details his last four years of Arctic work. This work of the expedition, with the deepest interest; and of Sverdrup and his associates is summarized by meanwhile we may well express admiration for Sir Clements R. Markham in the November the way in which the work was conceived and number of the Geographical Journal as fol executed, and at the perfect harmony with lows :
which all loyally worked under their chief. “ They have discovered the western side of Without such harmonious work success was not Ellesmere Island and its intricate system of fiords, possible.”
E on a large scale, at the World's Fair of
CABLEGRAMS AT TWO CENTS A WORD. west coast of Africa. From Paris to Senegal HE nationalization of ocean cables is the the French charge is only 1 franc a word.
subject of an article by Mr. Henniker From London to Lagos (British), 100 miles be. Heaton in the Magazine of Commerce. In the yond, the charge is 6s. 5d. a word. In 1899. course of his argument this writer says :
1900, my friend at Lagos sent his telegrams to " People in the United Kingdom who study London via Senegal and Paris. Surely an imthese tables, know that they annually spend perial postmaster will remedy this state of £1,000,000 in cabling to America (including things!” Canada), £412,000 in cabling to Australia, £366,000 in cabling to South Africa, £300,000
A NEW DEVICE IN ARCHITECTURAL METHOD. in cabling to India, and another £300,000 in , .
“ in , cious pocket to the tune of £6,755 every day of 1893, the architects have been finding new uses the week, except Sundays, to cable to his cus for this beautiful and inexpensive imitation of tomers and clients and cousins over seas," white marble. This material is especially ator a total sum every year of £3,278,000 ($16, tractive to those who are fond of experimenta390,000). At the same time England's mail tion. The most notable instance of such utilizapacket service to America, Australia, India, and tion of “staff" is the erection, in full size, of a China costs $7,500,000 only, and he thinks that whole bay of the great New York Public Lifor Britain's $4,500,000,000 worth of exports a brary, the corner stone of which has only reless costly cable communication is necessary. cently been laid. Some of the reasons for this Mr. Heaton proceeds :
unusual procedure on the part of the architects “I assert that we shall have imperial federa of the building are set forth by a writer in the tion in a true sense only when we can telegraph Architectural Record as follows : from London to New Zealand as cheaply as we The man is apt to assume that it is part now telegraph from London to Ireland. And of the art and mystery of the architect's craft, why not? In Australia we send a word three that he knows, ex-officio, how details on a draw. thousand miles for a penny—the same distance, ing-board are going to look, when they are exewithin five hundred miles, that divides England cuted from drawings in which they are not seen from India, to which a word now sent costs us, in their real relations or at their
distance. not one penny, as it ought, but thirty-six pennies. An eminent engineer has been heard to say All parts of the world, excepting America, can scornfully of the present experiment, that it was be cable-connected by land, barring one thin a “confession of incompetency.' But, in fact, it blue line of sea ; and land lines cost only one is such a confession as a candid architect can fifth of submarine cables—in other words, land very well afford to make.
An architect of great lines are laid at an outlay of £40 a mile, and eminence and long experience was
once ad sea-cables at £200 a mile. On the other hand, dressed by a lay acquaintance : «With your exland lines carry five times more messages than perience, I suppose you can tell beforehand just are carried by cables.”
how your detail will look at a given distance from the eye and at a given elevation,' and he
rejoined : "On the contrary, I find myself deHe goes beyond the imperialization of the ceiving myself on just that point all the time. ' cables, and urges that in any question of pur
FULL-SIZE MODELS OF ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES. chasing the cables the American and British governments should join hands. He enforces “The modern practice of carving detail in the all these contentions by one of his delightful place, instead of much more handily and cheaply collections of anomalies :
at the stoneyard, is a very inadequate resource. “It costs 6 d. a word to telegraph from Lon It has been remarked that if the carver could don to Fao, the head of the Persian Gulf ; it stand on the sidewalk, from which his work is costs ls. 2d. to Egypt, half the distance. It to be apprehended, and cut it on the cornice, costs 6s. 3d. a word to telegraph to Lagos, half say, the device would be effectual. Not so when way to the Cape, and it costs only 3s. to tele his own nose is buried in it, nor is the matter graph to the Cape. But the most striking in greatly bettered if the designer stands on the stance of how the French look after their col sidewalk and throws suggestions to him.
But onists is afforded by their treatment of the peo to put the detail actually in place and try the ple of Senegal and the Ivory Coast, as compared effect of it is a very different business. This is with our treatment of our people, also on the a kind of help which no architect in the world
ANOMALIES IN PRESENT RATES.
“When the designer has satisfied himself as to the effect of his bay, he has in effect satisfied himself about the effect of the whole curtain wall of which it is to form an integral part. To set up a fragment which is also a unit, so that not only the designer but the wayfaring man may study and appraise it, and search out what, if anything, is the matter with it, is a process for which, quite irrespectively of the merits of the architecture it embodies, the judicious can find nothing but praise. It is as different as possible from the order of Pietro de Medici to Michael Angelo to build him a statue in snow, which Ruskin holds up to the odium of succeeding generations. If the order had been for a model to be subsequently done in marble, and the monarch had been able to guarantee the sculptor against a thaw until he had studied. marked, and inwardly digested the effect of the snow image, the procedure, if accompanied with a bona fide order for the production of the work of art, would have, whether from an artistic or a professional' point of view, been entirely un. objectionable and even praiseworthy. And it is such an opportunity that the clients of the architects of the New York Public Library have af. forded to those designers. It is so commend. able an example that it seems likely to impose itself upon
all owners and representatives of owners in charge of public and monumental ar. chitecture.”
(Erected in “staff.")
DISPOSAL OF THE DEAD IN CITIES. can afford to disdain or reject when he can af: THE burial of the dead of our great cities in it.
dif of one feature, or of a dozen features, of so im ficult as the years go by, although it seldom re. portant and costly a work as the new Public ceives the attention that its importance merits. Library of New York is to be is worth many The distance of the cemeteries from the populamultiples of its comparatively trifling cost. And tion centers—required by sanitary considera. evidently the device is more useful according to tions—and the growing values of suburban real the extent to which you can carry it. Here not estate combine to add to the cost of city funerals, merely a detail but a whole feature is repro which is already a great burden on the poor. duced, and a feature, moreover, which consti The advocates of cremation have as yet made tutes one of the main architectural units of the very slight headway in this country, but theirs building, for such is a whole bay of the long is the only plan that promises relief from the curtain wall which is to connect the central present unsatisfactory conditions. The believer pavilion that contains the entrance with the ter in this method of disposal of the dead inevitably minal pavilions. It is in this curtain that the runs counter to the sensibilities of many of his effect of length, in a front very noteworthy in readers in anything that he may write on the deed in New York in that dimension, is mainly subject, but this should not prevent a candid to be conveyed, and that the actual dimension examination of his arguments. is as much as possible to be increased to the eye The most recent statement of the cremation by architectural device, by that magnitude and proposition in its social and economic aspects is repetition which, according to one æsthetician, contained in an article contributed by Mr. Louis constitute (the artificial infinite.' Upon the Windmüller to the current number of Municipal effect of the unit very largely depends the effect Affairs. This writer's account of the process of of the series.
cremation as it is actually conducted in many