Gambar halaman

soil is deep and exceptionally fertile, and is in ficient to throw back the development of the many communities yielding twenty bushels of colony by Englishmen a whole decade. Mr. wheat to the acre.

Hurd, however, says that the immigration of

Americans, who thoroughly know the Canadian From the British Point of View.

climate, shows that the climate is a good one. Englishmen who, like Mr. W. T. Stead, have As the result of it all we witness the developcome to believe that the Americanization of the ment of a Canadian policy which, if not antiBritish Empire is inevitable, and cannot be long British, is not pro-British. The Canadian imdeferred, will find much to confirm their opinions migration officials regard the problem solely from in an article contributed to the Fortnightly Re a Canadian point of view, and welcome the view for December by Mr. Archibald S. Hurd. wealthy and enterprising American who crosses

Mr. Hurd's paper deals with “ The Foreign their frontier. Mr. Hurd thinks that this threatInvasion of Canada." Canada, he points out, is, ening movement can be checked by spreading firstly, being de- Anglicized by foreign immigra juster knowledge among Britishers in regard to tion and by the growth of the French ; and, the Canadian climate. But in view of the insecondly, Americanized by the phenomenal flood creasing disinclination of Englishmen for counof immigrants from across the frontier. The try life, it seems more probable that the Amerinatural growth of the Canadian population is canization of the British Empire has definitely small. The census of 1881 showed an increase begun in Canada. in ten years of 19 per cent. ; in 1901, the increase had fallen to 11.14 per cent. And it is

Decline of Imperial Prestige. not the British, but the French, who account for In an article in the Monthly Review on" Canada most of this small increase. The French-Cana and Imperial Ignorance,” Mr. W. Beach Thomas dians double in numbers every twenty-five years. lays stress on the Americanization of the counFamilies of eighteen and twenty children are try : not infrequent ; and in Quebec the birth rate is “ American ideas, if not America, are taking 36.86 per thousand. The French-Canadians, the country captive. The Americans have no Mr. Hurd insists, are not well affected to Eng. insidious intentions, no arrière pensée, an Ameri. land, and they enjoy their liberties as sops given can seldom has. He is generally candid, if not by the British nation in the hope of keeping honest, to a degree. He goes where he goes to them quiet. Meantime immigration from the make money, and makes no pretense of ulterior European Continent has increased, while the objects ; he neither simulates nor dissimulates. number of British and Irish born settlers is 100, But power goes with the making of money as an 000 less than it was thirty years ago.

inseparable accident; and the American is apt to win other prizes than millions. It is no small

achievement that the press is completely capThe British element in Canada is therefore rel tured. It has been done merely in the way of atively falling off. Settlers from the United business ; but so effectively that in the last ten States are flooding the country. Last year only years English magazines have been practically 25 per cent. of the immigrants came from the banisheù. Private people and the clubs still United Kingdom, while 35 per cent. came across take in this or that weekly paper, but it may be the frontier. In 1901, there were 17,987 immi said that there is practically no public sale at grants from the United States, and only 9,401 all ; no agents who take English papers, no from England and Wales, 1,476 from Scotland, public which demands them. Some of the and 923 from Ireland. In 1902, down to the shells may be seen, but an inspection of the beginning of October, 27,000 Americans had contents reveals the American edition, in which entered Canada. The immigrants bring consid. articles especially designed to suit American erable capital with them, and become permanent tastes have been substituted in New York for settlers. Of the 127,891 who had settled in the more typical English material.” Canada prior to 1902, 84,493 have already been Mr. Thomas argues that the Britisli are losing naturalized.

their hold on Canada owing to the ignorance of Canada is, in fact, becoming Americanized. that colony which is so common in England, an British immigration is becoming every day less ignorance which leads some Englishmen to adimportant. Mr. Hurd explains this largely by dress their letters, Ottawa, Canada, the United the erroneous ideas which are so widespread in States." He thinks that it would be more prof. England as to the severity of the Canadian cli. itable to expend the $60,000,000 a year now mate. Mr. Kipling's description of Canada as spent in Great Britain on maintaining paupers “Our Lady of the Snows," has been itself suf in making immigration easy.


[ocr errors]

MR. BRYCE ON THE POWERS OF THE BRITISH mission ? Suppose that a ministry which has CROWN.

been defeated in the House of Commons believes THE HE Christmas number of the Windsor Muga that a general election would give it a majority.

zine contains a disquisition by Mr. James Ought the crown, as a matter of course, to asBryce, M.P., on the powers of the crown in Eng sent to a dissolution ? " land as exercised down to the beginning of the He answers that “nothing but the subsequent present reign. He regards Queen Victoria's reign approval of a considerable majority of the as the time in which the principles of the con nation could justify what would be, prima facie, stitution first became firmly settled in practice an unusual stretching of the functions of the and definitely accepted by all sections and parties crown as they have been understood for many in the state. After tracing the gradual trans years past.” Mr. Bryce thinks that the monarch formation of the royal power from almost abso may be especially useful as an adviser in foreign lute authority to the Reform Act of 1832, Mr. affairs through his family connections with other Bryce observes that the power which at Queen crowned heads. As regards the appointment to Victoria's accession remained in the hands of posts in the public service, he says

the army

and the sovereign, considered as an individual person, navy are by long tradition a little more closely. may to day be described as being of the nature connected with the crown than is the civil serrather of influence than of legal power.

He vice, and the crown has a large share in the points out that the personal preferences of the selection of bishops. crown may count in the choice of the particular person who is first invited to become prime minister at a ministerial crisis, and in the choice

THE MAD MULLAH. possible

offices. raised by Mr. Bryce. He says :

the Mad Mullah, contributed by M. Hugues Le

Roux to the Revue de Paris. The writer, who WHEN MAY THE CROWN DISMISS MINISTERS ?

entitles his article “ The New Mahdi,” spent last " There are some students of the constitution year in Somaliland, and he gathered many interwho have argued that when the crown is con esting particulars concerning Abdulla Achur, vinced that ministers do not possess the confi whose religious crusade in that country has met dence of the nation (which, of course, implies that with such unexpected success, and who will, M. the House of Commons, in continuing to sup Le Roux declares, end by becoming as formi. port them, does not possess that confidence), it dable an adversary as he who was vanquished at may of its own motion dismiss its ministers and Omdurman. commission some statesman to form a new admini tio It would, of course, be necessary that in taking such a course the crown should Some years ago Abdulla Achur was already have, first of all, requested ministers to dissolve much discussed among the Mussulman popula. Parliament, and that it should feel sure that a tion of Aden and of the surrounding country man could be found who would be able to form the Europeans made light of the new Mahdi,” a strong administration.”

as he was already styled, and at Aden was first Mr. Bryce observes “that the power (if still invented for him the foolish and misleading nickexisting) has not been exercised for a very long name of the Mad Mullah. time ; and that it would be imprudent for the Abdulla seems to have first appeared on the crown to exercise it unless in a very exceptional horizon five years ago ; he had then performed case, where it was perfectly clear that the House four times the lengthy and difficult pilgrimage of Commons had ceased to represent the real to Mecca, and he edified all the Mussulmans with sentiment of the people, and that ministers were, whom he came in contact by his piety and learnin fact, disregarding the popular will. This is a

ing. The new Mahdi is some thirty-two years highly improbable contingency."

of age ; he is a true Somali, tall, vigorous, and with regular features. His past career, like that

of all Mohammedan “saints," has been very adPARLIAMENT ?

venturous; his father was a shepherd in the The second question which he puts is : Somali country, and he was brought up among

" Is it consistent with the established use and the herds. There he was met by a Mohammepractice of the government of England for the dan missionary, who offered to buy him from his crown to refuse to its ministers permission to parents, and to bring him up to a religious life. dissolve Parliament when they ask for such per His first pilgrimage to Mecca took place when





the soldiers of Menelik ; since then the Mullah avoids his northern neighbors.

M. Le Roux pays a high tribute to Colonel Swayne, who, he says, knows Somaliland better than any Englishman alive, and who, he declares, must have known well the determined foe against whom he was pitted with such insufficient forces. The French writer tells the story of the repulse. He evidently considers that the Mad Mullah may develop into a very serious adversary, and he advises the British Government to prepare a serious campaign for February, which is, he says, the best season of the year for the enterprise. The question is much complicated, because certain loyal tribes, while perfectly willing to live contented and happy lives under British rule, are determined to resist every effort made to compel them to fight their co-religionists.



At Aden the new Mahdi is no longer called the Mad Mullah ; indeed, the local paper spoke of him as “another De Wet," for, like the Boer general, Abdulla seems to have a remarkable power of darting from one point to another. Meanwhile, the Emperor Menelik is watching what is to him a most interesting game with intense attention ; he also is anti-Mullah, but, according to M. Le Roux, he is waiting to be asked to lend his powerful aid to Great Britain, for then he will be able to ask in exchange that his new ally should formally recognize the existence of Abyssinia, which his French friend considers should be regarded as an eastern Switzerland, or No-man's Land.


(Drawn by R. Caton Woodville for the Nlustrated London


he was twenty, and he produced so great an impression on the Sheik Mohammed Salah, the supreme head of the mysterious confraternity known as Tariqa Mahadia, that the latter kept him with him, and now Abdulla is the favorite disciple of this important religious leader.

[ocr errors]


[merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small]


ο Burao



Abdulla, in spite of the fact that he is regarded more or less as a savage by his adversaries, is a man of considerable learning, familiar with every kind of theological subtlety, and quite able to work on the religious fanaticism of his followers. Already the Mad Mullah has obtained extraordinary influence over the inhabitants of Somaliland. He has passed various decrees, of which one makes it illegal to be married by an ordinary Cadi who is subject to the King of England ; such marriages, he declares, are null and void. He also freely excommunicates all those who do not follow his peculiar tenets, and in all sorts of ways he recalls, as no other Mahdi has ever done, his great predecessor Mohammed. Up to the present time, Abdulla has met with only one important reverse.

This was inflicted on him in the spring of 1900 by


O Erego




Sellers says :



THE RUSSIAN TEMPERANCE COMMITTEES. betake themselves whenever on enjoyment bent.

The building, which is the old Nijni-Novgorod article in the Nineteenth Century describing Exhibition building renovated, is situated close the movement in favor of people's theaters in

to the Neva in a beautiful park, with great trees Russia. That movement has developed largely around it, and flower beds dotted here and there. under the stimulus of the so-called “ Temperance

The building is divided into five parts,

—a great Committees " instituted by M. de Witte for the entrance hall, a restaurant, a concert hall, a purpose of organizing counter attractions to theater, and a reading room,-into all of which drink. In the December Contemporary Review

admission costs only 5 cents. The average price there is an extremely interesting article by Miss paid for dinner is only 5 cents. The restaurant Edith Sellers, dealing with these committees, is a perfect model of what such a place should both as to their theatrical and their other ac be." In the theater there is room for 2,000 tivities. Miss Sellers is inclined to take a spectators. Of her visit to this theater Miss more favorable view of the Russian spirit monopoly than is generally taken in Russia, but “Evidently the play appealed in a quite speher account of the counter-attraction side of

cial degree to the audience, for even the roughthe monopoly is very instructive and very est among them followed it with close attention. interesting

Some of them, indeed, were quite transformed as they listened ; there was real distress in

their faces when the hero's plans seemed going Every Russian town and every Russian prov agley, and their eyes glowed with excitement ince has

a temperance committee, and when he finally put his foes to rout. They sat every village has a temperance guardian. These as if spellbound so long as each scene lasted, committees have several functions, the chief of and then shook the very building with their apwhich is to create counter attractions to drink. plause. Never have I seen a more appreciative The committees are largely composed of officials. audience, or one more enthusiastic. When the Their campaign against drink is based largely play was over they turned to one another, eagerupon the principle that the lack of good food ly comparing notes and discussing its bearing. and the want of rational amusement are the chief Evidently the theater serves its purpose admicauses of the evil. The committees have carried rably if that purpose be to put new ideas into on their campaign in such a way that Miss the heads of those who frequent it and give Sellers thinks that the working class of Moscow them something to think about.” and St. Petersburg are to be envied by the same

THE QUESTION OF FINANCE. class in England in the provision which is made both for their mental and bodily needs.

How are all these amenities given to the of the “people's houses” outside Moscow men people for nothing? The answer is that the are decently lodged for 2} cents a night, and government subsidizes them out of the profits boarded and lodged for 12 cents a day. A of the spirit monopoly. The provincial com“people's house," as understood in Moscow, is a mittees receive 50,000 rubles a year, and the St. workingman's restaurant, club, library, and Petersburg and Moscow committees get annual much besides. The restaurants are fine large subsidies of 500,000 rubles and 300,000 rubles. rooms, well lighted and well ventilated and In addition, the St. Petersburg Committee was beautifully clean ; soap, water, and towels are granted 1,000,000 rubles for the purpose of supplied gratis to the visitors. They are open building the People's Palace. Altogether, M. froin early morning till late at night, breakfasts, de Witte handed over to the committees in 1900 dinners, and suppers being supplied. The food nearly 4,000,000 rubles, and the amount was supplied is both good and cheap, and only the increased when the monopoly system embraced bare cost is charged, the other expenses being the whole country. As the profit from the paid out of the government subsidy. In one of monopoly in 1897 was 20,375.000 rubles, he the people's houses there is a labor bureau, and could well afford to do so. others have reading rooms, where visitors may

"A WORK OF REAL CHARITY.” pass their whole day if they desire.

Miss Sellers gives high praise to the energy THE PEOPLE'S PALACE IN ST. PETERSBURG.

and capacity of the officials who are intrustThe St. Petersburg Committee's People's ed with the task of carrying on the work of House is exactly what London's People's Palace the committees. They have gone on the prinwas intended to be and is not. It is a pleasure ciple of gaining the confidence of the working resort for the poor, a place where they may class.

In one


“ Russian temperance committees not makes them shaky,' said an official, and the ideal institutions ; they have their faults, of strongest-minded generally become childish when course; still they are undoubtedly doing much they have been here for five or six.' • But why useful work, work which will make its influence is it ?' I asked. My friend walked to the window felt more and more from year to year.

For and pointed to the mournful, desolate street, the they are not only fighting against intemperance, dismal drab hovels, and frozen, pine-fringed but they are fighting for civilization, for a river darkening in the dusk. That,' he said, higher standard of life among the workers, for and the awful silence—day after day, year after their social and intellectual development. They year, not a sound.'' are striving, too, so far as in them lies, to intro Mr. de Windt concludes with the hope that duce purple patches into dull, gray existences, the “clemency of a wise and merciful ruler may and thus render this world of ours a pleasanter yet be extended toward the unhappy outcasts place than it is. And this in itself is a work of in that Siberian hell of famine, cold, and darkreal charity. It is a great thing for a nation to ness, scarcely less terrible in its ghastly lonelihave, as Russia has, thousands of men and ness than those frozen realms of eternal silence women banded together for the express purpose which enshrine the mystery of the world." of giving a helping hand to the poor, of removing stones from the path of the weak, and rendering life all round better worth living. As I

RELIGION IN ITALY TO-DAY. went about among the Moscow workers and THE religious condition of Italy is the subject well.cooked dinners before them, I often wished the Church Quarterly Review. The writer has that English workers were as well catered for lived for several years in Italy, and acknowlas these Russians are. I often wished, too, edges the generous friendship of not a few of when in St. Petersburg, that London had, as the most learned and most devout clergy as the that city ha its pleasure resorts for the poor, source of almost all his information. He states its people's theaters, nay, even its variety shows, that among the younger and more enlightened with performing Chinamen and ditty-singing clergy there is a large and growing section negroes."

which would indorse the words of one of them :

“ The temporal power is impossible ; thank God, AN ARCTIC PRISON-VILLAGE.

it is impossible.” The tension between the papacy R. HARRY DE WINDT, who reported so and the monarchy is, he thinks, injurious to re

favorably on the prisons in western Si. ligion, excluding, as it tends to do, devout Cathoberia, and who has always maintained that, lics from Parliament, and forcing the monarchy were he sentenced to a term of penal servitude, to favor anti-clerical movements. The confisca. he would infinitely sooner serve it in Siberia than tion of monastic property has thrown out of culin England, writes in the Strand on darkest Si. tivation the land formerly tilled by the monks, beria and its political exiles. He describes a and has done great temporal injury to the poor, colony of such exiles at Sredni-Kolymsk, away for whom there is no legal provision. in the remote northeast. He states that physical

WORSHIP IN THE VILLAGES. brutality is a thing of the past. A convict who shot a police officer for cruelty to a comrade will, The writer gives his general impression : he expects, be acquitted. But the physical priva “ With all allowance for a considerable minortions in respect to food and warmth are portrayed ity who have rejected Christianity, there can be in lurid colors. Yet this is the worst count in no doubt that by far the greater part of the his indictment :

Italian people profess and practice the Catholic religion. The churches are numerous, and gen

erally well attended. ... There is something “ The most pitiable peculiarity about Sredni. beautiful and touching in the unanimity of an Kolymsk is. perhaps, the morbid influence of the Italian village in matters of religion. The Eng. place and its surroundings on the mental powers. lish visitor may be moved to a righteous envy The first thing noticeable among those who had when he observes the whole population flocking passed some years here was the utter vacancy together to the house of God, and compares with of mind, even of men who, in Europe, had shone this pleasant scene some village at home, where in the various professions. Indeed, I can safely a great part of the population spends the Sunday state that, with three exceptions, there was not a morning in bed, and the rest of the day in the perfectly sane man or woman among all the public house or at the street corner; where those exiles I saw here. · A couple of years usually who worship worship in hostile church and


« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »