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“We have a tariff carefully drawn, which has when it came to him fifteen years ago, there was served us well. That tariff is only five years nothing aggressive in his nature, and he fre. old. It has brought us away up on the hillside quently spoke to his intimates of the huge forof success. It has no connection with great tune left him as a misfortune which had precorporations, except what it has with small cor vented him from following his native taste for porations and individuals. No attack by repeal- art and literature. He was of a mild and amiaing the Dingley act can hurt one without hurting ble disposition, disliking publicity and the bustle all. Any disturbance of that kind would disturb and glamour of public life. trade in ways with which we are all too familiar. “At Villa Hugel, near Essen, he dispensed on

“A tariff bill at any time is not and cannot many occasions more than royal hospitality, and be the creature of one mind. It means the re he associated with monarchs on terms of intisult of a contest by all interests and all minds. macy. Yet he was never a happy man, and his Hence, whenever any man thinks of a tariff he career, which was determined by an inheritance would make, he always thinks of a tariff bill whose responsibilities he could not shirk, was which will never be enacted."

not the career that he would have chosen if he had been free to choose. The Emperor of Ger

many was his intimate friend, and to him he PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LATE

once said : This big fortune has been a curse HERR KRUPP.

to me.

1f I had not had it, my predilections HE late Friedrich Alfred Krupp, third head would have been for art and literature.'

“ He had great natural talent and a sound and a very different man from his predecessors, ac well-trained taste. He was a generous but judicording to Mr. Wolf Von Schierbrand, in the cious patron of art. His admirable collection of World's Work for January. Although he con paintings in Villa Hugel, which comprises none ducted the great business with success, and left but masterpieces, and his fine aggregation of ob. it several times as large and as prosperous as jets de vertu attest this. During conversation he

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FRIEDRICHSHOF, ONE OF THE KRUPP COLONIES, FORMERLY TENEMENT BUILDINGS.

would often dwell regretfully on the fact that of great enterprises of which more than 70 per the responsibilities of his position left him no cent. of the total values produced are other choice in life, and he cordially disliked pomp things than guns and ammunition-things like and circumstance, affectation and insincerity. railroad and ship implements that work for He married a lady of rank, Margaret Baroness peaceful ends. He was a foe to war, a thorough von Ende, and the match was a love match. He, man of peace. He led a spotless and tender like his father before him, scorned all titles and family life, and was a most devoted and indul. distinctions, except those that came to him in gent husband and father. He leaves no sons ; the way of business. He preferred to remain but two daughters, Barbara and Bertha, surplain Herr Krupp. He entertained his friend, vive him. The management of the firm will the Kaiser, many times and (just to name a few devolve upon his nephew, who has been very others) the Emporer Francis Joseph of Austria, active in it for a number of years. In demeanor King Edward VII. when he was Prince of Wales, he was singularly gentle, almost shy, and this King Carlos of Portugal, and King Leopold of was probably, at least in part, due to the fact Belgium ; but his manner toward them was that he never enjoyed robust health.

His digesnever tinged with that obsequiousness to which tion was weak, and he was debarred from most monarchs are accustomed. With them, as with of the pleasures of the table. At the grand ban. his workmen, he was always unaffected and un quets he used to give he contented himself with assuming.

Apollinaris water, and he rarely was allowed a " He was a man of fine feelings, of a lofty cigar or cigarette by his physician. For several nature, and of thorough and wide culture. His years past, too, he had been under constant education had been most comprehensive. He medical treatment because of a nervous depreswent through the usual eight years' course at sion. This, with some organic troubles that the public ·gymnasium' (or lower college) in came to torment him, made the last five or six Essen, then studied in several of the best Ger. years of his life a burden rather than a pleasure. man universities, and was afterward appointed His failing health was generally understood and Commercienrath (Counselor of Commerce), later discussed in Essen for years; but it is probable on Wirklicher Geheimer Rath (or Privy Coun that but for the savage attack upon him by the selor of the Crown), and was made a member of Socialist press his life would have been prothe Prussian Staatsrath (Council of State). In longed. He was one of the greatest captains of 1893, he was elected to the Reichstag, and was industry that modern conditions have produced.” likewise elected to the Prussian Diet.

OLD-AGE INSURANCE.
HE FORETOLD AMERICAN COMPETITION.

M. to

GRANDMAISON contributes the Without being an enthusiast as a manufac

second November number of the Revue turer, as his father had been, the son's wider

des Deux Mondes an excellent article on insurhorizon had doubtless much to do with the

ance against old age and incapacity to work. phenomenal growth of the firm under his leader

In a very striking passage he pictures the pantship. During a visit paid the Essen Works a ing multitude of workers, crushed by toil, eternumber of years ago I had the pleasure of a

nally struggling for their daily bread. These conversation with him, in which he spoke about

poor people implore help, and hitherto they the industrial development of the United States have been met with merely the dry statement in a manner which showed him little less than a

that the problem is insoluble. prophet. His remarks then came particularly

PHILANTHROPY HELPLESS. true as regards that branch of trade with which the great ironmaster was most familiar,—viz., M. Grandmaison declares that it is no the production and utilization of iron and steel. waiting for a perfect system, but that we must And a year before, at the Chicago World's Fair, join with the working class to find some fairly Herr Krupp had already proved by the quality, practicable solution. Of course, in every civilsize, and arrangement of his special exhibit, ized country the number of persons who are what an immense importance he attached to this annually laid on the shelf, either by sickness or market and its coming competition.

old age, added to the number of those depend. ing on them, has passed far beyond the power

of private charity to relieve. The efforts of “ He had some peculiarities. For one thing; philanthropic societies and the alms of the charhe hated to be spoken of as the Gun King.' itable are the merest palliatives.

In each coun Small wonder, for whatever the firm may have try the state has been obliged to do more or been in his father's time, it now owns a series less to meet the problem.

use

A MAN OF PEACE.

WHAT HAS BEEN DONE IN GERMANY.

HOW THE SYSTEM IS WORKED.

sion is withdrawn if the worker's incapacity It is needless to follow M. Grandmaison

arises from any crime or misdemeanor or volunthrough his interesting sketch of what has been

tary mutilation. The pension for incapacity is

divided into two parts,-one of them fixed, and attempted in France, because it is much more instructive to note what has been done in Ger

the other varying according to the classes of

workers. The minimum is $36.25, and the many. In that country, where the form of

maximum is $163.75. Pensions are paid at post government so well deserves the epithet of “pa

offices on orders issued by the insurance offices. ternal,” the law embraces in its scope practi

These pensions are protected from seizure by cally every person who works for wages or salary, provided that the remuneration in each creditors, and cannot be alienated. case does not exceed $500 a year. This rule incidentally brings under the law some twelve million souls. The difficulties which arise in

One of the most original provisions of the law

is the right which it gives to the insurance offices applying the law are dealt with by the Federal Council ; and it is to be noted that foreigners

to watch over the health of the insured, and to

This are excluded from the benefit of the insurance,

impose upon them medical treatment.

medical treatment is in some cases preventive, although their employers are obliged to contribute just as much as if the said foreigners checking the progress of tuberculosis in Ger

and is thought to have had a certain effect in were Germans. In return for his or her contributions the worker is guaranteed (1) a pension

many. Broadly speaking, the German system in case of incapacity to go on working ; (2) an

of combining state aid with the contributions

both of the worker and of his employer seems old-age pension, to begin at seventy ; (3) med. ical attendance ; (4) in certain cases the repay.

to meet a great many social and economic objecment of the contributions paid in.

tions which are frequently urged against all oldage pension proposals. Of course, a great deal

depends in the practical working of the scheme It will be observed that what might seem to

on the relative proportions of these three contri

butions, and it is notable that since the inaugube the long postponement of the old-age pen

ration of this German system, in 1889, a good sion is mitigated by the fact that in almost every case the worker begins to draw the pen

many modifications in points of detail have had sion for incapacity to go on working before at

to be made as the result of experience. The

German system 'is largely worked in its details taining the age of seventy.

No one can draw

by means of cards, on which the worker or his the old-age pension who has not attained the

employer places certain special stamps, which age of seventy, and has not paid his contribu

are bought at the post offices, and these cards, tions for 1,200 weeks. The old-age pension is composed of two parts : (1) of an annual sum

when they have reached a sufficient face value,

are transmitted by the police to the insurance of $12.50, being the amount of the state subvention ; and (2) of the sum which is the result

offices, to be placed to the credit of the workers of the worker's insurance itself. This sum de

whose names they bear. Curiously enough, this

system, which seems very simple, is not very pends on the worker's wages, and for this pur

popular in Germany. pose the workers are divided into five classes :

THE OLD-AGE PENSION.

IT is

IV
V

30.00
37.50

212.50 to 287.50

Class.
Annual wages.
Pension.

PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT'S FIRST YEAR.

T is natural that at the end of President Roose. $87.50 $15.00

velt's first year in office there should be $87.50 to $137.50

22.50 III. 137.50 to 212.50

various attempts to summarize his achievements. Above $287.50

45.00

The North American Review for December presents two such estimates written from wholly

different points of view. The first, by “A ProTHE PENSION FOR INCAPACITY.

gressive Republican," who is described by the The pension for incapacity to go on working editor of the North American as “a thoughtful is only granted at the end of twenty-seven weeks student of politics who holds a chair in one of of sickness, and then only if all hope of a quick the inost prominent of American universities,” cure seems to be gone. The worker must have makes no attempt to disguise its author's warm paid his contribution for at least two hundred personal admiration of Mr. Roosevelt. Recalling weeks if the insurance is compulsory, and for the circumstances under which President Roosefive hundred weeks if it is optional. The pen velt assumed office, this writer declares that al

though the President has been faithful to the pioneer priests in the Northwest, who carried pledge of his accession, preserving the policy of his altar upon his back through the forest and his predecessor, still he has translated that policy across the plains, and whenever he came to a into terms of his own temperament. In addition settlement put it down and celebrated mass. to the twofold duties of the office, the execution He has spoken to the people on the state of of existing laws and the recommendation to Con. the Union,' and recommended to them measgress of measures deemed necessary and expedi ures necessary and expedient ;' and through ent for the future, Mr. Roosevelt has added a them he delivers messages to a Congress not third duty,—that of informing public opinion altogether sympathetic. Yet, in doing this he in the present.

While this last is not an en has divided his party; at the same time he has tirely new Presidential function, it may be temporarily strengthened it." doubted whether any of Mr. Roosevelt's predeces The recent elections can only be interpreted as sors has so deliberately or extensively or directly a vote of confidence in the President's personal exercised it.

policies. A WELL-EQUIPPED EXECUTIVE.

INFLUENCE ON LEGISLATION. As to the first class of duties, those of a purely As to President Roosevelt's relations with executive nature, - A Progressive Republican Congress, this writer admits that he has enjoyed asserts that no one has ever come into the Presi no such relationship with the legislative body as dency with a better practical knowledge of the did his predecessor. But he holds that while gear of government. Mr. Roosevelt, he says. President McKinley was most successful in get"did not know the ways and the personnel of the ting his wishes recorded, there was nevertheless legislative department as President McKinley a serious encroachment of the legislative upon did ; and I imagine that the judiciary had for the executive, and the independence of the Chief his mind, bent on equity and somewhat irreverent Executive was menaced. “ The coming into the of precedent, many mysteries ; but he did know Presidency of one who is a comparative stranger the executive in all its complexity and detail. to Congress has necessitated the putting up of He had expert knowledge of the navy; he had the line fences again, and they are not likely to with remarkable acquisitiveness amassed experi be broken through or moved at any rate toward ence in the army ; he knew the civil service from the White House." It is to be placed to Presitop to bottom ; he knew, moreover, as state ex dent Roosevelt's credit, however, that even the ecutive, of the correlation of federal and State opponents of the Panama route in Congress were functions, and he had had a conspicuous part in willing to vote for the Isthmian Canal bill in its working out a difficult municipal problem in final shape, while the success of the arid land New York.” The greatest of Mr. Roosevelt's legislation is also to be credited in good measure achievements, in this writer's opinion, is that he to the support of the President. It was his has used the specialized knowledge gained in his spirit that helped us to keep our pledge in quitprevious official career with an eye single to the ting Cuba ; and any future legislation in extengood of the service.

sion of the Sherman anti-trust law, or a modifiAs to President Roosevelt's appointments, it cation of the tariff to make it consistent with is deemed that a catalogue of them would not changed conditions, will be in no small part due furnish a list of eligibles for Sunday-school su to the support of the President. perintendencies or college professorships ; but,

A JEFFERSONIAN DEMOCRAT'S IMPRESSIONS. on the whole, there has been a patent fitness of the man for the office. A few seeming excep " A Jeffersonian Democrat,” described by the tions only serve to emphasize the generality of editor of the North American as “a well-known fitness. According to this writer, there has writer who, from the point of view of erudition been a toning up of the whole civil service. and wide political knowledge, is probably the “Every effort is made to keep good, efficient ablest Jeffersonian Democrat in the country," men in office, and to keep the other sort out." takes a surprisingly favorable view, all things

considered, of the President's administration.

He declares that Jeffersonian Democrats gener“A Progressive Republican” has special ally will applaud Mr. Roosevelt's treatment of praise for the President's capacity in influencing the Cuban reciprocity question, his forbearance public opinion. "His speech is homely; it is toward China, his firm adherence to the Monroe void of grace, but it is effective. He does not Doctrine, and his cordial attitude toward Eng. speak merely in felicitous phrase ; he must land. His apparent desire to revise the tariff proselyte. He is like one of those old French will be commended. His ultimate exhibition of

A LEADER OF PUBLIC OPINION.

THE WHEAT POSSIBILITIES.

a wish to curb the trusts through the exercise of Mr. Cy Warman described what Mr. Francis powers conferred by the Constitution rather than Clergue, of Maine, was doing at the Canadian through a constitutional amendment will also be “Soo," and he is but one of many.

The timber regarded with approval. The only act of the privileges are being bought up by corporations, President that seems to meet with the severe each of which owns many thousands of square disapprobation of “ A Jeffersonian Democrat" is miles. The pulp is of a high quality, and his appointment of the anthracite coal commis is driving the Scandinavian article from the sion. This, he declares, “is a first step in the markets of Europe. It is supplying many mills perilous pathway that leads to the assertion of of the United States, and is largely used in autocratic authority, an act that seems destined Australia, India, and Japan. to give the Roosevelt administration a bad emi This timber belt of Canada stretches from the nence in American history."

Atlantic Coast to the plains beyond the Great
Lakes, and from the slopes of the Rocky Moun-

tains to the Pacific Ocean, while on the north, THE AMERICAN INVASION OF CANADA.

beyond the “Height of Land," is a vast area of THE "HE marvelous resources of British North timber sweeping across the continent from Lab

America, and the ways in which the citi rador to Alaska, 700 miles in width and 4,000 in zens of the United States are developing them, length. A single district,—that of Lake St. form the subject of Mr. Robert H. Montgomery's John, north of Quebec, --hears spruce equal to article in the January World's Work. Probably the entire forest area of Norway. the most important single industrial enterprise in Canada is the building of the Dominion Coal Company and the Dominion Iron and Steel Com Mr. Montgomery quotes an authority on wheat pany in Nova Scotia by Mr. Henry M. Whitney, who has recently calculated that in ten years, at of Boston. It is said that coal can be mined and the present rate of immigration into Canada, put on shipboard at Nova Scotia at less than there would be farmers enough to produce 250,one dollar a ton, and that whereas the cost of 000,000 bushels of wheat a year. Deducting producing hematite iron is $15.65 a ton in Eng. the comparatively small amount required for land, $13.50 in Germany, and $9.50 in Pitts home consumption, Canada will export cargoes burg, the cost in Sydney is only $7.45 per ton. nearly double those of the American shipment Even this quotation is made without deducting of to-day. In Manitoba and the Northwest terthe government bonus of $2.70 on each ton of ritories, 260,000,000 acres of arable land await native ore, and $1.80 a ton for foreign ore manu the plow. Mr. Montgomery calculates that there factured in Canada, which would lower the net are already 70,000 people of American extraccost to $5.65 or $4.75 a ton, according to the tion in the Canadian wheat lands. It is not source of the ore. When the works at Sydney merely the failures or the dissatisfied that leave are completed, they will turn out half a million America for these Canadian farms. The Indiana, tons of steel a year, and already plans are on Montana, Dakota, or Nebraska farmer who can foot to begin shipbuilding there.

sell his old place for from $30 to $40 an acre and Mr. Montgomery points out that Sydney is buy as good or better land under the British 1,200 miles nearer European ports than Balti flag for from $7 to $10 an acre, thinks it is a more, the port nearest Pittsburg, 2,300 miles good thing to try. A certain proportion of each nearer Liverpool than Pensacola, the port near new township is of crown lands, on which the est the Alabama iron district; and to the fact homesteader may secure an allotment on paynot usually borne in mind, that South America ment of a nominal fee of $10 for 160 acres of lies far to the east of the United States, and land, and after a residence of three years and Sydney is 600 miles nearer Rio Janeiro and compliance of homestead regulations, receive an Buenos Ayres than New Orleans and Mobile. absolute title. Or he may purchase lands from It is also 900 miles nearer Cape Town than the large grants owned by the Canadian Pacific these gulf ports are.

and Canadian Northern railroads, or buy a farm

from one of the many land companies, chiefly CANADA'S WEALTH OF STANDING TIMBER.

American, which have recently acquired large Canada has about twice as much standing tracts of the railway lands. The Hudson Bay timber as the United States, and the enterprising Company also controls enormous holdings. The American paper makers are expending every year total land sales during the summer of 1902 were millions of dollars on huge pulp mills equipped fivefold those of 1901, with prices steadily riswith the best American machinery. In the ing. Land selling at $3 an acre five years ago December number of the REVIEW OF REVIEWS, is now bringing double or treble that price. The

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