« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »
IN CITY AND COUNTRY.
the latter average being based on 250 cases. In approximately the same period, New York University's average dropped from 4 to 2.5. The The suggestion that the decrease may be the Harvard average for the '70's was 1.99.
result of race infertility is supported by an ed. itorial article in the same magazine, in which it
is maintained that race sterility is quite possible. Commenting on the statistical showing made " It seems to conflict with the principle of by the reports of the three colleges, Professor natural selection, as fertility might be supposed Thorndike remarks :
to have a high selective value. Natural selec“ These figures are from a sufficient number tion, however, can only select,-it cannot proof cases to be substantially reliable. For instance, duce variations. If size of head is more variable there is not one chance in a thousand that the than size of pelvis, and is equally important for Harvard average is 10 per cent. too low. The survival, the increasing difficulties of childbearexistence and approximate amount of the de. ing are not inexplicable on the theory of natural crease in the size of family is thus certain. Its selection. If sterility increases, we must assume substantial identity in Middlebury, a country that the conditions of the environment have college in Vermont with a local attendance ; in altered too rapidly for variation and natural se. New York University, a city college, and in lection to keep pace with them. 'Indeed, the exWesleyan University, a strongly sectarian col- isting conditions may be due in part to our lege with an attendance drawn from the North interference with natural selection. The decreaseastern States, makes it probable that it has pre- ing death rate on which we pride ourselves may vailed throughout the college population of the in part be responsible for the decreasing birth north Atlantic States. It must depend upon rate. When children who cannot be born natsome fundamental cause.
urally or cannot be nursed survive, we may be “ City life and advanced age at marriage are producing a sterile race.
No statistics in regard out of question. The former
would to miscarriages are at hand, but there is good work to a far greater extent upon New York reason to believe that they increase as the numUniversity or Harvard graduates than upon ber of children decreases. Middlebury graduates, all of whom come from “ There is no positive proof of race senescence and most of whom go back to life in small towns.
On the contrary, we know that the Ital. Yet in the statistics there is little difference. ians and the French Canadians have large famiAn increase in the age at marriage cannot have lies, though there is as much reason for them to been the cause, for the simple reason that such suffer from racial exhaustion as the inhabitants increase, as I have elsewhere shown, amounts of France, and the Chinese seem to be in no danonly to a very few months. An increase in the ger of extermination. But we know that aniage at marriage of the wives of our group of mals bred for special traits tend to become inmen would be a more efficient cause. I know of fertile, and selection for our civilization may no available statistics to decide the question, but have the same result. Physicists tell us that the it would seem extremely unlikely that the age of earth may be uninhabitable in twenty million wives should have increased much when the age years ;
be uninhabited by men in twenty of husbands has increased so little.
centuries." “ The most plausible explanation attributes the change to the custom of conscious restric
CAN I AFFORD. AN AUTOMOBILE? tion of offspring. Greater prudence, higher ideals of education for children, more interest THE question of what a good motor costs, and in the health of women, interests of women in the yearly expense of maintenance, is disaffairs outside the home, the increased knowl. cussed in the June World's Work by Mr. Henry edge of certain fields of physiology and medi. Norman. He gives a careful calculation of the cine, a decline in the religious sense of the im expense of getting and running two typical piety of interference with things in general, the classes of automobiles. It is to be remembered, longing for freedom from household cares, however, that no particular calculation would any or all of these may be assigned as the hold true for everybody. The same machine motive for the restriction. The only other ex will cost one man twice as much as it will cost planation which to the present writer seems ade his neighbor, so far as maintenance is concerned. quate assigns the decreased productivity of col. “One owner will keep no account, allow his lege men to real physiological infertility of the driver to take the machine to the repair shop as social and perhaps of the racial group to which often as he likes, make no attempt to understand college men and their wives belong.”
it himself and bring his own more educated in.
telligence to bear upon its problems ; let his that the total yearly cost of keeping an automoaccumulators be injured by running down and bile of this class is $2,179. his bearings worn by his oil-cup not being kept Coming to the second typical class chosen for full, pay 30 cents a gallon for his gasoline and purpose of illustration, for the family who would $1.75 a gallon for his lubricating oil, leave cuts not keep a horse, it is assumed that they will unrepaired in his tires, and permit his machine buy a two-seated automobile. This may be a to be left all night with the mud on. The other graceful, good-looking vehicle of five or six will study his machine till he knows what it is horse-power, with pneumatic tires, upholstered doing and what should not be done to it, keep every want of his machine regularly supplied, find a keen pleasure in doing all trifling repairs at home, insist that its body and wheels should be as scrupulously washed and leathered as the most costly brougham, pay 20 cents a gallon for his gasoline and $1.25 for his oil, and generally act toward his property like a careful and sensible man."
With this understanding, that no figures can be true for all automobile-owners, Mr. Norman proceeds to inquire what two classes of machines will cost,—the first, one such as a man who has kept a horse, carriage, and groom might think of adopting instead ; the other, such as a man who has never kept a horse might consider within his means.
The machine for the first of the two classes will cost from $1,500 to $2,000. This will purchase a ten-horse-power, two-cylinder, four-speed, full-leather-upholstered, smart-looking machine,
(Weighs less than 500 pounds and costs from $650 to $750. capable of a maximum speed of from twenty
Gasoline is the fuel producing the steam.) five to thirty miles an hour on the level, and an average all day of from sixteen to eighteen miles. in leather, capable of climbing any reasonable The depreciation account will be about 20 per hill on its low speed, and of running from twenty cent. per annum if the automobile is carefully
to twenty-five miles an hour on its higher speed kept. Tires will cost, perhaps, $100 a year ; gas
on the level. Such an automobile will cost from $650 to $1,000.
An automobile of this kind, if taken care of, should sell for half its cost at the end of two years. The expenses of running it are tabulated as follows, assuming that the owner manages the machine without the services of a driver :
STEAM MOTOR STANHOPE.
AUTOMOBILE FOR TWO, WITHOUT DRIVER.
75.00 Gasoline (4,000 miles at 20 miles per 22 cents gallon). 44.00 Oils, etc..
75.00 TYPE OF THE MORE COSTLY GASOLINE CARS, SEATING FOUR.
Less saving in cab and railway fares......
.$370.00 oline, at an average of twenty miles to a gallon, will cost for, say, four thousand miles a year, $44. “I fancy that the possibility of the ownership Other supplies, such as lubricating oil, kerosene of a charming and efficient little machine, with for the side-lamps, and calcium carbide for the all the pleasure, the variety, the health, and the headlight, are placed at $75. Repairs and replace advantages it will add to his life for a total sum ments ought not to exceed $50. Adding to the of $370 (and I think it can be done for $340), sum of these figures the cost of the driver and will come as a surprise to most people of modest his special clothing, Mr. Norman figures out
I would on no account mislead them,
and I feel confident that, given intelligent and are no instruments better suited for handling by careful management, these figures may be re a woman than the violin and the violincello, and garded as substantially accurate."
that this is becoming more and more appreciated is shown by the fact that at the Guildhall School
of Music, not long ago, there were two thousand WOMAN AND MUSIC.
lady students of the violin, while at the Royal IN N the Gentleman's Magazine for May there is a
College of Music, last session, there was not a very interesting article contributed by Mr.
single male student of the violincello, all the J. Cuthbert Haddon, entitled “ Woman and students being ladies. In a great many cases, Music.” Mr. Haddon regrets that as yet their lady violinists in orchestras are declared to be, sex has not produced a truly great composer ; in many respects, more satisfactory than men. but this he considers largely due to the fact that Mr. Haddon rejoices in the fact that “we have women have not been and are even yet not got the length of recognizing that the piano is allowed to devote the time to the study of music not the only instrument suitable for women ; the that is indispensable. He says:
full result of this recognition must be only a “As has been truly remarked, it needs but a question of time.” glance at the lives of the great composers to In conclusion, Mr. Haddon hopefully declares show us that the high gift of original creation that, although as yet there have been no great has ever had to be fostered by active care and women composers, it does not follow that there congenial surroundings—that, moreover, it ex. will never be. acts for its full fruition a degree of detachment from the common concerns of life which would
A NEW SOURCE OF HEAT: RADIUM. be sure to overwhelm the solicitous soul of many
the herAnd is just here that , either of her own choice or of necessity, has failed to busy trying to account for its wonderful propersecure the advantages and conditions necessary ties, among which have been noted its power of to her development as an artist.”
giving out light perpetually without any exciting Mr. Haddon gives as an example the case of cause, its emission of rays that penetrate solids Mendelssohn's sister, Fanny, who in her early like the X-ray, its faculty of acting on sensitized years offered the greater musical promise. But, plates, and of causing air to conduct electricity. because she was a girl, what happened ?
As if these were not sufficient distinctions for " Precisely what has always happened, and this remarkable substance, it has been found, what, under similar circumstances, would proba within the past few months, that radium emits bly happen still, in spite of the boasted emanci heat. This discovery was announced by MM. pation of the sex; the training of each gradually Curie and Laborde at a meeting of the French diverged,-stopped short, in fact, with the girl, Academy of Sciences held in March. Some of while the boy was encouraged and assisted by the difficulties attending the experiments are set every available means. The girl was simply forth by Dr. Henry Carrington Bolton in the taught, as girls are taught now, to dally with the Popular Science Monthly for May. keys of an instrument; the boy was prepared It is safe to say that very few people who have for an exacting art in an exacting manner.” read about radium in the scientific journals and
Even now, the very fact that a woman is a elsewhere have any conception of the rarity of woman is made the pretext for criticising her the material. Dr. Bolton thinks that a teaspoon work differently from that of a man.
would probably hold all the pure radium as yet woman,' says the critic, the composition is re prepared ; its price would amount to thousands markably good. Just as if art were a matter of dollars. This fact has, of course, been a of sex !”
serious bar to experiments. “Tons of minerals," says Dr. Bolton, “have been submitted to labo.
rious processes in the chemical laboratory to Speaking of woman as an instrumentalist, Mr. obtain a few grams of the precious material ; Haddon considers wind instruments to be essen and at the end of the task the conscientious tially for men. It is not easy for one to imagine scientist can only claim that the product is such a woman struggling with the bassoon, or the and such a salt, containing a small, unknown ophicleide, or the saxophone. “A woman must' percentage of radium.” When we are told that look very charming indeed look nice when a very small sample of the material is valued at she is throwing the whole strength of her lungs twenty-five dollars, we can readily understand into a wind instrument." But, he says, there that experimentation with radium has been a
66. For a
INSTRUMENTS SUITED TO WOMEN.
costly, as well as a laborious, undertaking. The power of emitting heat ? Will not scientists be wonder is that so much has been learned about compelled to revise some of the theories of physthe properties of this new body in so short a ics that they regard at present as cardinal ? time.
And what are the conditions in the earth beneath As explained by Dr. Bolton, the discovery by our feet, when inert matter manifests energy to Curie and Laborde that radium emits heat was such an amazing extent without a known cause ? the result of two experiments. “ By a thermo. The future opened to students and to philosophers electric method they ascertained that a specimen is fraught with mysteries the solution of which of barium chloride containing one-sixth of its will be eagerly awaited by the rest of the world." weight of radium chloride indicated a temperature 1.5° C. (2.7° F.) higher than a sample of pure barium chloride ; the temperature was de.
THE FRENCH CHILD CRIMINAL. termined by comparing the heat emitted with URING late years, juvenile depravity and that excited in a wire of known resistance by criminality has increased terribly all over an electric current of known intensity. In the France, and more especially in Paris ; indeed, second experiment, they employed a Bunsen the outskirts of the French capital have been calorimeter. The experimenters found that one terrorized by bands of boys who, assuming the gram of active barium chloride emits about four picturesque nickname of "Iron Hearts," have teen small calories per hour. The specimen shown themselves expert burglars, garroters, contained only about one-sixth its weight of and occasionally murderers. In the Nouvelle radium chloride, but on testing 0.08 gram of Revue, M. Garien writes a thoughtful article conpurer material they obtained identical results, cerning the very serious problem of the French from which it can be calculated that one gram of juvenile criminal. radium would emit 100 small calories per hour, Some forty years ago, a society was founded on one atom-gram (225 grams) would emit, each which undertook the defense of young criminals, hour, 22,500 calories, an amount comparable and in connection with the society were organwith the heat disengaged by the combustion in ized several admirable institutions which underoxygen of one atom-gram of hydrogen.
took the care of those lads who, if not fit for
prison, were yet more unfit to be once more let HEAT WITHOUT COMBUSTION.
loose on society. One important law, passed « The continuous emission of such a large many years ago, caused every criminal under the quantity of heat cannot be explained by any age of eighteen to be considered still a child, and chemical action, and must be due to some modi. as such unfit for prison. When this excellent fication of the atom itself; if so, such a change law passed into effect, it was found that many must be very slow. As a matter of fact, De. of those who most benefited by it bitterly remarçay observed no change in the spectrum of gretted the change, so much did the juvenile radium examined at intervals of five months. criminal prefer prison life to that of an indus
"An English writer, commenting on the fig trial school or a reformatory. ures given by M. Curie, says that a radium salt
PUBLIC AND PRIVATE REFORMATORIES. in a pure state would melt more than its own weight of ice every hour; and half a pound of The houses of correction " to which the radium salt would evolve in one hour an amount French juvenile criminal is now sent are twelve of heat equal to that produced by burning one in number ; six are to all intents and purposes third of a cubic foot of hydrogen gas. And the agricultural colleges ; in the six others are extraordinary part of this is that the evolution taught town trades. The state has also ree of heat goes on without combustion, without houses of correction for girls, and in addition chemical change of any kind, without alteration to these public reformatories there are in France of its molecular structure, and continuously, leav twenty private reformatory schools, where each ing the salt, at the end of months of activity, pupil is paid for by some charitable soul, and just as potent as in the beginning. Yet this where occasionally an incorrigibly naughty boy state of things must have a cause, for it must or girl is sent by its parents ! not be imagined that perpetual motion has been Very curious and intelligent is the manage. at last attained.”
ment of these institutions. During the first Dr. Bolton closes his interesting paper with three weeks of a child's stay, he is isolated from these questions :
the others, and carefully watched, in order that “Do the other rare bodies, polonium, actinium, something may be learned of his character, his and thorium, that behave in many respects like temperament, and his aptitudes. Sometimes the radium, also share its most recently discovered poor creature is little more than a baby ; when
this is the case, he is most kindly treated, and out after killing the animal, but, instead, all superuntil the age of ten he has very little to do but fluous fluid was removed, and the heart, without to grow strong and healthy; then follow three the lungs, was left in communication with the years of schooling, and from thirteen to sixteen rest of the body by means of the great blood comes learning of a trade. In the agricultural vessels and the nerves. houses of correction, each boy is taught garden It was found that the stimuli which normally ing in all its branches, and many boys, after leav cause more rapid beating of the heart continue ing, become prosperous market gardeners in the to produce stronger and more rapid beating of neighborhood of Paris.
the ventricle when the auricle has been cut One important point, and one characteristic away as far as the wall separating it from the ally French, is that every effort is made to keep ventricle. When the auricle is removed in this the children in touch with their homes.
way, a small remnant of the musculature of its month, they spend one Sunday with their par walls necessarily adheres to the ventricle, and ents, supposing, of course, that the latter are the question arises whether the effects are respectable people ; once a year, also, each child brought about directly by the action of stimuli spends four weeks at home. The task of the upon the ventricle or indirectly through the achouse of correction does not cease when the boy tion of the small part of the auricle which reor girl passes out into the world ; he and she mains. are encouraged to remain on friendly terms with The writer believes that the changes in rate the devoted men and women to whom they owe and intensity of the contractions are effected so much, and everything is done to make them through the remnant of the auricle. As far as feel that there has been nothing shameful or de the observations extended, no results were prograding in the way in which their childhood duced by stimulating the vagus nerve, branches and youth have been spent.
of which extend to the heart.
If the auricle is cut away from a beating
heart, the ventricle is still for a time, and after POST-MORTEM ACTION OF THE HEART.
this pause begins to beat again, but more slowly ROF. H. E. HERING makes an interesting than before. It appears to be immaterial whether
contribution to our knowledge of the me the last stroke of the knife cuts the wall of the chanism of the action of the heart in the last auricle or the partition between the auricle and number of the Centralblatt für Physiologie. the ventricle, and the inaction of the ventricle,
Death is not instantaneous, for many of the apparently, is not the result of the shock, but is different tissues of an animal continue their due to a sudden lack of stimulation. activities long after the organism as a whole may The action of electrical stimuli, as well as of be said to be dead. This is especially notice various poisons, such as atropine, muscarin, and able in some of the lower animals. Ciliated cells others, was also tried. It appeared that every may be taken from the gills of a clam, or the action of the heart, both spontaneous and induced, trachea of a dead frog, and their action observed can be observed when it is exposed in this way under the microscope for a long time. If iso and supplied with physiological salt solution, lated cells are supplied with a nutrient solution, whether the heart is left intact or the auricle is they may be kept alive much longer, cells from the brain of a frog having been kept alive in
MOTION ONCE STOPPED CAN BE RESUMED. this way for over a week, as shown by their changes of shape in response to stimuli.
If a solution of potassium chloride is injected The heart of many animals will continue to into the blood vessels, the heart stops beating, beat long after its removal from the body. The but after some time all parts begin to beat rhythheart of the frog will beat for hours, and that mically together again. Potassium injected in of the turtle or snake for several days, or per this way acts directly upon the heart musculahaps a week, after the animal has been killed. ture, which, according to the amount injected,
becomes less and less responsive to stimulus, ISOLATION OF THE MAMMALIAN HEART.
finally not responding at all, and later regains its From previous experiments made on the rab activity because the potassium has been washed ibit, cat, dog, and monkey, Professor Hering away. The fact that the motion of the heart can found that the mammalian heart can be uncov. be stopped and the different parts again be (ered and all its workings observed, as well as brought into coördinate activity is of interest, as the effects of the stimulation of its nerves, if it it has not before been possible to regain coördiiis kept supplied with physiological salt solution. nate motion in the mammalian heart after it has
In these investigations, the heart was not cut once been lost.