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in all ten tents in this camp. Two of these tents is also a quicker perception and clearer underwill be for women, and the camp will contain standing of the mind. Diet is also, here, an one hundred patients. It has been decided, that important feature, four meals being served if it is at all practicable, the camp will be con daily. The women patients of the western divitinued the year round. This is not a wholly new sion of the hospital that are afflicted with tuber: thing. The experiment has been tried on one of culosis are also segregated ; but instead of being the neighboring islands, and it has been found placed in tents, they live in a house along the very practicable and very beneficial to continue a sides of which is built a wide two-story porch consumptives' camp the whole year round, even inclosed in glass. The sashes of the glass are in the much-abused climate of New York City. on hinges, so as to permit a free circulation of The experiment referred to is that which has air, and the more favorable cases sleep there at been conducted by the Manhattan State IIospital night as well as spend their time in the sun in for the Insane, on Ward's Island. Isolation the daytime. The results obtained, however, would seem absolutely necessary in the case of are not so good as in the tents of the men. insane consumptives. It has been found neces What has been written so far has pertained sary to have a guard follow consumptives who to the work of municipal and State authorities. were mentally normal in order to prevent pro The limitations of space placed on this article miscuous spitting ; how much more difficult it forbid the mention of the few institutions under must, then, be to prevent insane consumptives private auspices which are seeking to augment from infecting the buildings in which they are the city's work. One interesting institution de placed.

serves, however, more than a passing mention. On June 5, 1901, the tent life was begun, The Montefiore country sanitarium at Bedford under the immediate supervision of Dr. Floyd was the first successful attempt, in this country, C. Haviland. The plant consisted of two large to follow the example of the agricultural colotents with a capacity of twenty beds. A site nies for the consumptive poor in Europe. The was selected which was elevated, surrounded by treatment, from the first, has been mainly hygiabundant shade, and where the breezes from enic and dietetic, accompanied by rest and outthe East River had free play. The board floors door employment. During the spring, summer. were made in sections, and could be taken up and autumn, all who are strong enough to be of and exposed to direct sunlight ; one side of the use work in the gardens and orchards from one tent was kept constantly open in pleasant weath to five hours a day. The produce and supplies er, and large ventilators provided at other times raised last year were beyond the needs of the insufficient ventilation. Near by were erected stitution, and the cellars are filled with prize several smaller auxiliary tents, which included cabbages, pumpkins, and corn. two dining-tents and those for the residence of During the year ending in November, 1902. the attendants. This plan worked excellently 377 patients received open-air treatment at the through the summer, and it was decided to con sanitarium, with an average stay of four months tinue it through the winter, but on a smaller and twelve days. In more than 65 per cent. of scale. If the wishes of the patients had been cases, marked improvement resulted, and in nearconsidered, the whole establishment would have ly 18 per cent., apparent cures were reported. continued right on. The larger tent was re Some experiment with open-air sleeping has moved to a sheltered place; and when the cold been tried. Two patients, one in an early stage weather approached, two stoves, one at each and the other pretty far along in consumption, end of the tent, were put in. The result of this were put to live, night and day, in an open tent. unique and seemingly rigorous treatment has They slept under two heavy blankets, and did been, that of 81 cases, 55 have shown increase not suffer from the cold, although a normal perin weight. As the capacity of the camp is lim son would have been decidedly uncomfortable. ited to forty, only the worst cases are sent here, The improvement in their cases was so great that . which naturally militates against the best re the physician in charge has recommended the sults, and yet, twelve have returned to the erection, next winter, of several wooden sheds wards apparently without any symptoms of the with open fronts. The sheds will be, it is disease. Dr. Haviland states that not only are thought, better than tents, because less likely to the patients benefited physically, but that there admit rain and snow.

THE RENASCENCE OF NONCONFORMITY IN

ENGLAND.

CAMPBELL OF TIIE CITY TEMPLE. SILVESTER IIORNE OF THE

CENTRAL HALL.

"I know the Dissenters. They carried the Reform Bill; they carried the Abolition of Slavery ; they carried Free Trade ; and they'll carry the Abolition of Church Rates."-LORD JOHN RUSSELL.

“In the long run, English politics will follow the consciences of the Dissenters.”—LORD PALMERSTON.

[The revived interest of the English people in Wesleyan Methodism, and the other Nonconformist sects, is due to something very much more concrete than the recurrence of the two-hundreth anniversary of the birth of John Wesley. It is due to very sharp issues in English political and social life growing out of the status of the Established Church, and particularly out of the new education act, which increases the practical control of the Established Church over elementary schools supported by taxpayers of all religious affiliations. Mr. Stead, in the article presented herewith, gives us a graphic picture of the existing conditions, together with live sketches of two of the new leaders of Nonconformity. Some of the greatest of the old leaders, like Joseph Parker and Hugh Price Hughes, have lately passed away. Mr. Spurgeon, Dr. Dale of Birmingham, Dr. Newman Hall, and other of the Nonconformist leaders whose names were everywhere known, have within a few years been gathered unto the fathers. Dr. Clifford, the doughty head of the Baptists, still remains well at the front on the fighting line. It will not be uninteresting to American readers to know something of the younger leaders as they come forward, and Mr. Campbell, who now succeeds Joseph Parker as a leader of the Congregationalists, and Mr. Horne, who preaches in the old Whitefield Tabernacle in London, are probably the most aggressive and conspicuous of these younger men.—THE EDITOR.]

"THANK Good for your enemies," said

1.-OUR FRIENDS THE ENEMY. pable outrages upon the rights of the Noncon

formist citizen disappeared, Nonconformists, to God

quote their own phrase, began to be at ease in Ward for when you

Zion. The fire of former days burned low. The look back over your life you will find that they spectacle of a Nonconformist voting for a Tory have done you more good than all your friends." candidate became only too familiar. When Mr. It is a pregnant saying, and worthy of all ac Gladstone proposed to do justice to Ireland, a ceptation. Of its truth, the present position of recreant multitude of Nonconformists seized the English Nonconformists is the most recent and excuse to desert the Liberal ranks. Their herednot the least forcible illustration.

itary repugnance to Popery paved the way for The Education Act of last session, forced upon their apostasy. But it was not until the war in the country by a ministry supported by a major South Africa came as a searching test of the ity snatched in a moment of national delirium reality of their allegiance to the cause of Peace, by the aid of wholesale misrepresentation, has Liberty, and Justice that the world realized how done for the Nonconformists what nothing else far the dry rot had spread. After last general could have accomplished. Mr. Spurgeon told election, when hundreds of thousands of Nonme, nearly twenty years ago, that if he were a conformists swelled the majority recorded for Conservative he would disestablish and disen the authors of the war, Nonconformity, as a podow the Church of England. I asked him why. tent moral force in politics, seemed extinct. Ile replied : • Because with the disappearance Fortunately, however, for the nation, and of the Establishment the one

great barrier

most fortunately for English Nonconformity, which compels the Nonconformists to remain in retribution was at hand. The whip which they the Liberal camp would disappear." The truth had knotted for the backs of their fellow-Chrisof that pregnant observation has been painfully tians in South Africa was speedily applied to impressed upon us many times since then. As their own shoulders. The majority which they long as church rates, university tests, and the helped to elect, in order to fight to a finish a monopoly of the graveyard continued to remind war which should never have been begun, was Nonconformists that they were l'itlanders in the used to deal them a deadly blow ; and under the British ('ommonwealth, a Conservative Noncon salutary discipline of adversity, the Nonconformist was almost as rare as a white blackbird. formists, through much tribulation, are return. But when the last of these three patent and pal- ing to the principles of their forefathers. The

How great.

the Revolution. And so in like manner, while we cannot pretend to any great enthusiasm for those who supported the devastation of South Africa without scruple, and who now are raising the standard of rebellion over a twopenny. halfpenny church rate, it is unwise to look a gift horse in the mouth ; and we are too glad to see the Nonconformists in the firing line once more to scrutinize too keenly the motives which brought them back to the Old Flag.

That they are back again, and that at next general election the Nonconformist who votes for a ministerial candidate will be regarded as a traitor and a renegade, is now quite clear. And we owe this great and salutary change, this.veri. table renascence of Nonconformity, to Mr. Balfour and his ecclesiastical allies. how momentous, the change thus brought about may be imagined from the fact that London Nonconformists are now exulting in the leadership of three men each of whom is pledged to the hilt to take joyfully the spoiling of their goods and incarceration in jail rather than pay the new rate that is to be levied for the subsi. dizing of religious teaching of which they disapprove. As the sending of the Seven Bishops to the Tower rid England of the Stuarts, so the imprisonment of the three Nonconformists, John Clifford, Reginald Campbell, and Silvester Horne, may be the appointed means for ridding us of those twin curses, the House of Lords and the Establishment. It may never come to that. The significant thing is that there are hundreds of thousands of Nonconformists who are pas. sionately longing that it may come to that. The jailing of the three Nonconformist chiefs is at least within the range of practical politics. And even if it never comes off, the hope of it, the chance of it, is as breath to the nostrils of re. viving Nonconformity.

In thus facing imprisonment, rather than bow to the Gessler's Cap which the Jingo majority of 1900 set up in our midst, the Noncomformists are on their old ground. The Nonconformist, as his name implies, is a sworn rebel against the established order. Ever since the sixteenth cen.

tury, he may have been loyal to the crown, but new law which reimposed church rates and re he has been in revolt against the Established enacted religious tests awoke them to a sense of Church and the House of Lords. where their apostasy and apathy had led them. In reality, the English people, ever since the It is true that their tardy awakening may ex: days of the Puritans, have been not one nation, pose them to the sneer which Macaulay leveled but two—the Anglican and the Nonconformist. against the Seven Bishops, who turned against

The ideals of these two nations are as far as the James the moment he laid a finger upon their poles asunder. The Puritan of the seventeenth Church. But despite the sneer, England had century, the Dissenter of the eighteenth, and the good cause to rejoice that for any reason the Nonconformist of the nineteenth, have always Church which had so long truckled to the tyrant been far more closely united by sympathy and was at last compelled to throw in its lot with ideas with the Americans than with the Angli.

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THE BAPTIST LEADER, DR. CLIFFORD, IN HIS PULPIT.

In

cans. Anglicanism is essentially aristocratic and II.- CAMPBELL OF BRIGHTON. exclusive. To Nonconformity, democracy is as the breath of its nostrils.

Mr. R. J. Campbell has been Campbell of The sons of the men who sent Charles to the Brighton since 1895. Henceforth he will be block are the true spiritual kin of the sons of Campbell of the City Temple. He is but thirtythe men who went over in Mayflower. In six years old, "a gray-haired boy" with magpiping times of peace, when no great issues stir netic eyes and a soul of fire. Who can say how the heart of the people, the two nations, Anglican far he may go, how much he may do? Of and Nonconformist, exist side by side, and few Scotch descent, he was born the son of a United suspect the fissure between them. But when the Free Methodist minister in London, and brought storm wind rises, and great crises test the real up as a boy in the North of Ireland. Scotland, faiths of men, the fissure reappears.

England, and Ireland all had their share in If Nonconformists should begin to bethink shaping his youth. His manhood has been themselves that the talk of popular government colored, if not exactly molded, by the Greater and of a free democracy is mere cant so long as Britain beyond the seas. Among the influences the House of Lords exists, and that the battle of which have shaped his character,—whether for civil and religious liberty is only half won while weal or for woe, who can say ?—was the visit the Anglican sect is allowed to flaunt itself as which he paid to South Africa when the war was the church of a nation two-thirds of whose citi. raging. He became an enthusiastic Imperialist, zens never darken its doors, who could blame and he is at present the only Nonconformist them? It is supremely significant that at this minister who is a member of the committee of juncture two young ministers should have been Lord Rosebery's league. His religious trainsuddenly thrust to the forefront of the Noncon-' ing was strangely mixed. Born a Free Metho. formist ranks whose supreme distinction is their dist, he passed the most impressionable years of passionate determination to rebel rather than his life among the Presbyterians of the Black pay the new church rate. They call it passive North of Ireland, in the house of a Presbyterian resistance, but it is not the less rebellion. elder who claimed kinship with that celebrated their eyes, they are rebels for God's laws. They chief of the Orange clan, William Johnston, of are true to the great traditions of the Great Ballykilbeg. In his later teens he was confirmed Protector, the hero-saint of the Independents, as a member of the Church of England, and in to which body they both belong. "Our his. 1891 was entered at Christ Church, Oxford, tory," said Mr. Silvester Horne at a great meet with the intention of becoming a clergyman. ing in the Memorial Hall, last year, “shows that l'nder the influence of Dean Paget, now Bishop there are creeds we will never sign, liberties we of Oxford, he surrendered himself to the full will never forfeit, and taxes we will never pay. fascination of the High Church school. For. We are sick and tired,” he declared, “ of the tunately, however, for himself, the Nonconform. repeated attempts to purchase ecclesiastical as ist blood in his veins revolted against the bondage cendency at the price of our religious freedom. of the Establishment. To accept holy orders in The old question of the relations of the Church the Church meant the repudiation of the right and the State has again been raised, and, God of his ancestors to count themselves ministers of helping us, we will not let it sink.

If the spirit the Church of Christ. The story goes that in of disestablishment begins again to live, I for one sore spiritual straits the young student sought will thank God for the education bill. They claim counsel of Canon, now Bishop, Gore, and that for ascendency; we, as Congregationalists, challenge two days the men wrestled together at Westthat ascendency, and may God defend the right !” minster in deep, soul-searching controversy as to

And in like terms, not once, but many times, the justice of the arrogant and exclusive claims has Mr. Reginald J. Campbell, late of Brighton, of the Anglican Church. The issue of the strug. now of the City Temple, spoken in the hearing gle was not doubtful. Mr. Campbell could not, of his people. There is something of the old dared not, unchurch his own father, or disown fighting ring in these words of challenge and of the validity of the orders of ministers of Christ defiance. They proclaim the resurrection of the upon whose head no bishop's hand had ever Nonconformist conscience, the renascence of rested. As the High Church men are as unyieldNonconformity as a controlling force in the ing as the Pope of Rome in the assertion of their counsels of the empire. For, as Lord Palmer exclusive right to the misty honors of apostolston—who at least was neither bigot nor fanatic ical succession, Mr. Campbell regretfully aban—said, long ago : “In the long run, the politics doned the dream of becoming an Anglican of England will follow the consciences of the priest. Dissenters."

I asked Mr. Campbell whether it was true that

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orders. He replied : “In part, but not altogether. I had been studying very closely the history of the seventeenth century. And the more closely I studied the more imperiously was I driven to the conviction that my sympathies and my convictions were not with the party of Laud, but with the other side."

“ And this story about Bishop Gore ?"

“It was one day, not two. We had a long and earnest talk. But at the end of it there was no escaping from the conviction that to Canon Gore and his party there were only three divi. sions of the Church of Christ—the Angrican, the Roman, and the Greek. For all others without the pale there could only be tolerance more or less charitable, but no communion. And against this my whole soul revolted. So I gave up all idea of Anglican orders, and here I am."

He had married before he entered Oxford, and he began preaching up and down among the villages around the city. Four years after entering Christ Church as a prospective candidate for holy orders, he accepted a twice-repeated call to become pastor of a small and empty church in Union Street, Brighton.

During the first twelve years of his life, he was educated in his grandfather's home, near Belfast. He was thirteen years old when he was first sent to a private school in Bolton. There he proved so apt a scholar that he was appointed a teacher. When his father was transferred from Bolton to Nottingham, young Campbell followed him there, and rejoiced at the opportunity of combining the work of teaching with a course of study at Nottingham University College. His first and only important educational post was that of assistant master at the high school of Ashton, in Cheshire. After marrying a member of his father's congregation, he laid down the assistant mastership and went to Oxford. There he took honors in history and political science. He left the university when twenty-eight years of age to begin his career as a Congregational minister.

Mr. Campbell has been a student all his life. He acquired a passionate love of books when reading Scotch romance in his grandfather's parlor, in Belfast. The acquisition of other languages came to him easily, and he acquired suffi cient knowledge of Latin, Greek, French, German, Italian, and Spanish to be free of the literature of five languages besides his own. Among the books which have influenced him, he speaks most lovingly of Tennyson, Browning, Shelley, and Milton among the poets. The quiet

ism of the Theologica Germania appealed very this was the decisive consideration which led strongly to his mystical temperament. He went him to abandon his dream of taking Anglican a long way with the German neologians, but re.

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THE REV. R. J. CAMPBELL.

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