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worth of breakfast foods. The man who makes feeding of the worm becomes of any importance. wheat-coffee spent, last year, eight hundred and On this account, the larva of this species is eighty-four thousand dollars in advertising in always found burrowing in the upper, tender eight hundred newspapers and thirty magazines, part of the twig, with the result that the young and this year he is spending a million dollars. needles growing in this part of the tree become The maker of shredded wheat spends seven sickly and fall off, followed by the withering of hundred thousand dollars a year in publicity. the whole branch. The maker of another well-known food was re A second form (Retinia trionana) attains the cently spending more than one hundred thou winged stage of development in May or June, sand dollars a month for advertising. He paid when the young branches as well as the needles five thousand dollars for the privilege of paint of the pine have grown out and the terminal ing the name of his product on a big chimney buds are present. The adult butterfly deposits in lower New York that can be seen from all an egg in this bud, which contains the rudi. the North River ferryboats. He has for months ments of next year's branches, and the larva, kept before the public eye a comic figure and hatching in the autumn, eats out the bud, comsome swinging rhymes about his food. He has pletely destroying it.

The next year,

lateral made all America and England laugh, but the buds, which under normal conditions do not laugh has cost the manufacturer hundreds of grow out, develop an excessive number of small thousands of dollars."

branches which are short-lived and form the socalled witches' broom.

Another species (Retinia buoliana) becomes INSECT ENEMIES OF PINE FORESTS.

mature in July. The larva leaves the egg at the 'HE commercial interests of the owners of end of August, and eats very little, or nothing,

pine forests are seriously affected through before winter, but begins the following spring, injuries to the trees by insects (Retiniæ) which when the leaf-bud has developed into a twig, eat into the young leaf-buds and burrow in the which it eats out from underneath, cominonly branches, destroying the new growth to such an causing the twig to wither and die, when the extent that in some places whole forests have be larva attacks a second branch with similar effect. come worthless.

Sometimes, if the twig is very vigorous, it conThe last number of the Centralblatt für Bakteri tinues to grow after being burrowed into by the ologie departs from its custom of publishing sub larva, but the injury first received weakens it ject-matter relating only to the science of bacteri and produces a bent branch called a wood horn. ology, and presents a paper by Dr. J. R. Bos, of The three species have similar habits, and the Amsterdam, concerning injuries by insects in the difference in the harm done is due chiefly to the pine forests of Holland.

difference in the time of egg-deposition and the Most insects are totally different in appear consequent effect of the larva on the buds. ance and habits during different phases of their Other variations may occur as the result of sealife history. The eggs from which they hatch sonal variations of the climate, condition of the do not contain enough food material to enable soil, etc., which may cause an earlier developthe developing organism to attain its perfect ment of the twigs, making them stronger and form before hatching, as birds, etc., do; conse better able to resist the attacks of the larvæ, quently, the insect hatches as an immature, which would not be affected by such changes worm-like creature that proceeds to forage for and would hatch at the usual time. itself until it is ready for its final metamorphosis The French entomologists have seemed to find into the mature form.

these insect pests especially troublesome, and It is during the immature, larval stages, when have reported that in parks and forests infested eating is its chief occupation, that the insect ac by them not a pine tree escaped being killed or quires an economic importance through its inju dwarfed. They consider these insects the worst ries to the trees. One kind of retinia requires enemy of pine-tree culture. two years to develop to the adult form ; the The signs of the presence of the insect larvæ others, injurious to forest trees, require only one are the development of an excessive number of year.

sheath-like branches at certain places, the developOne form (Retinia duplana) which attacks the ment of broad, thick needles, and also of needles leaf-buds of the pine reaches the mature, butter. growing in threes instead of twos. When young fly stage in April, and lays its eggs in the buds trees are attacked, they do not develop a main just before they are ready to grow out into trunk, but instead have several branches and prebranches. The larva hatches in May, and the sent the appearance of a bouquet of pine branches. new branches are already grown out before the Growing forests may be entirely ruined in this


An infected tree becomes a center of in dienne, the great Italian statesman assured her fection for the following year if left to itself. that her marvelous histrionic powers had evoked As a preventive, the tree should be destroyed or from him a tribute which not even the wrench the infested branches broken off and burned. of parting from his beloved country called forth, There are also a number of insects which are that of tears. Adelaide Ristori was always parasitic on the various species of retiniæ, and an untiring champion in the cause of Italian will exterminate them if introduced into the in liberty and unification, and eloquently pleaded fested localities. These insects determine in her country's cause in many lands with unfailsome way where the retinia eggs are deposited ing success. and deposit their own eggs in the same place. "Among other memorable achievements of The larva of the parasite hatches and devours Ristori was the rendering (after years of study) the helpless and wood-eating larva.

of Macbeth' in English, at Drury Lane, in 1882. Another notable success was registered

once in theater-loving Manchester (always ready ADELAIDE RISTORI.

to appreciate real dramatic talent), when in their THE ‘HE octogenarian Italian actress, Ristori, genuine admiration of the actress' perfection the

now living in retirement in Rome, is the public, forgetting insular reserve, shouted like subject of a warmly appreciative sketch by Marie one man · Viva l'Italia !' The Old World and Donegan Walsh in the Philharmonic, of Chicago, the New united in claiming Ristori ; North and for March

South America as well as Australia paid tribute Following in the footsteps of her parents, both to her gracious charm, and she was enthusiasticof whom belonged to the dramatic profession, Ris. ally received on every visit paid to all the great tori began her stage life at the age of twelve. cities of the United States. “Her first important part (suggestive of the “ Her repertoire of plays is one of the most branch of art where she was to score her great varied, perhaps, ever undertaken by an actress est triumphs) fell to the young actress' share in classic authors of divers nationalities being in her fifteenth year, when she appeared in the terpreted by the tragedienne with equal ability tragedy of · Francesca da Rimini.' Her actual to those of her own nationality. Adelaide Risdramatic career began in 1837, when she joined tori (unlike many tragic actresses) could • stoop the Royal Sardinian Company. The young girl's to conquer' by bright vivacity in comedy. Her real ability and talent were speedily realized in masterpieces (given with unfailing success in her native country, so keenly critical in matters almost every capital of the civilized world) were : of art that nothing short of genuine merit is ac Medea' by Ernest Legouvé (the celebrated cepted. After much study and hard work, Ris French playwright, still living and in his ninety. tori played in various cities ; and in every Italian seventh year). Schiller's Mary Stuart,' Maccity she visited, her success was assured. From beth,' Marie Antoinette,' Judith,' Mirra' by this time, her series of triumphs began — tri Alfieri, Phedee,' and Lucretia Borgia. Be. umphs which only ended with the tragedienne's sides these, Ristori has appeared in many other retirement from the stage. Her fame became title rôles by celebrated authors, both foreign and world-wide, every European capital opening its Italian. She has created many a striking figure arms to the talented young artiste, the greatest in the annals of histrionic art; and none could living exponent of classic drama, whose exquisite outrival her in depicting types of the strongest charm and naturalness vied with her genius in and noblest, as well as the weakest, of womancaptivating all hearts.

hood. Side by side with the nobly sorrowful “ The English people always proved fervent figures of a Mary Stuart and a Marie Antoinette admirers of the great tragic actress, and some there will go down to posterity an impassioned of the records of her great successes were in Lady Macbeth, a fateful Medea, a Deborah and England. One of Ristori's performances was Judith truly scriptural in their grandeur, or the attended by Mazzini (at that time an exile in bewitching sweetness of the light-hearted LocanEngland), and in an interview with the trage diera by Goldoni."



NDER the title “The Hampered Executive,” Mr.

Henry Loomis Nelson, in the May Century, shows how Congress has come to limit the power of the Chief Executive which the laws seem to confer upon him. In crises, the President has enormous power. As Mr. Lincoln said, “ As commander-in-chief of the army and navy in time of war, I suppose I have a right to take any measure which may best subdue the enemy." Until the war opens, however, the President has no discretion to speak of. He cannot even authorize experts to drill their troops in the methods which they deem the best unless Congress agrees, and Congress seldom agrees with expert advice. The President's second supposed power of granting pardons has also become limited, practically speaking, and the power of negotiating treaties, of nominating officers to the Senate, and other officers he has been authorized to appoint are notoriously dependent on the good-will of Congress. Mr. Nelson protests against the tendency to load responsibility on the President without the power which ought to accompany responsibility.

THE GREAT TIMBER OF OUR NORTHWEST. A very readable article on the great forest districts of the Northwest is given by Mr. Ray Stannard Baker, under the title “The Conquest of the Forest.” He gives some extraordinary facts concerning the waste of magnificent fir areas of the Northwest by fire and careless lumbering. It is estimated, for instance, that while about 20 per cent. of the available timber of Washington has been cut by lumbermen, over 22% per cent. has been destroyed by fire. He says that timber in the Pacific Northwest seems all but inexhaustible. One authority estimates that there are standing in Washington 200,000,000,000 feet of timber, -red fir, hemlock, and cedar ; in Oregon, 225,000,000,000 feet, -red fir and yellow pine ; in California, 200,000,000,000 feet of the same species. At the present rate of cutting, 120 years would be necessary to exhaust the forests, but it is probable that the rate of cutting will increase enormously, owing to the exhaustion of the Eastern wood-supply. In two decades, the Oregon product has increased from $2,000,000 to $10,000,000 a year ; Washington, from $1,700,000 to over $30,000,000; and California, from $8,000,000 to over $13,000,000

THE SULTAN OF MOROCCO. The recent disturbances in Morocco give an unusual interest to Mr. Arthur Schneider's “With the Sultan of Morocco." Mr. Schneider was a member of the Sultan's household for some sixteen months, to March, 1902, and acted as his majesty's preceptor in art. This writer paints the Sultan as a rather naive, well-intentioned young man, who has inherited from his mother a taste for the civilization of Europe.

There is a very pleasant chapter of reminiscences of “Modern Musical Celebrities,” by Hermann Klein, dealing, this month, with Adelina Patti, who is to pay a visit to the United States next winter, singing in concert only. A chapter in the series of sketches of notable women deals with Mme. Blanc; Mr. Sylvester Baxter describes Sargent's mural painting, “The Redemption," in the Boston Public Library, and there is a sketch of " Thomas Arnold the Younger," by William T. Arnold.

N one of Mr. H. C. Merwin's delightful and dis-

Recent Impressions of the English,” he remarks that in respect to mental activity, England bears the same relation to Scotland that it does to the United States.

“Both in Scotland and the United States, the average of intelligence is far higher than it is in England ; but I think we must admit that in the nobler departments of intellectual achievements, we also are as yet inferior to the English. It is the same in respect to oratory. The average of the speaking in the House of Commons is lower than it is in the American House of Representatives, but the best English speakers surpass the best American speakers.” Mr. Merwin refers merely to the abstract and higher branches. When it comes to applied science and practical art, he finds the American superior. In surgery, we are probably on a par with the English. In civil or mechanical engineering, we excel, and we are infinitely superior in trade, in me chanics and in manufactures.

WHERE SHAKESPEARE GOT "KING JOHN." Mr. Edwin A. Abbey's Shakespearean illustrations appear, this month, in “King John," with a critical comment by Mr. Joseph Knight. Mr. Knight says there is no doubt that a previous play on the same subject was in existence when Shakespeare's “King John” was written, that it had been acted with success, and was afterward erroneously or fraudulently ascribed to Shakespeare. The title was “The Troublesome Raigne of John, King of England.” Shakespeare exploited this play in the “King John" we know, and adhered closely to its story, though his obligation as regards language was scarcely perceptible.

Mrs. John Van Vorst writes on “The Woman of the People," there is an impressionistic study of Constantinople by Mr. Arthur Symons, and a critical estimate by Hamilton Wright Mabie of Emerson's influence to day, one hundred years after his birth. We have reviewed the following articles from the May Harper's among the “Leading Articles of the Month": “The Mechanism of the Brain,” by Carl Snyder; “A Strange People of the North,” by Waldemar Bogoras; and “Photographing the Nebulæ with Reflecting Telescopes," by Prof. G. W. Ritchey.


APT. A. T. MAHAN, the famous naval authority,

writes in the May Scribner's on “The Organization of the Navy Department in the United States." The whole extent of ocean in which the United States habitually maintains a naval force is divided into districts called stations, each one usually under an admiral, and each one independent and responsible solely and directly to the Secretary of the Navy. For providing and managing the tools of the naval seamenships, guns, and engines and performing other acts of naval administration, there are eight bureaus in the department, each representing in its way the Secretary: Yards and Docks, Construction and Repair, Steam Engineering, Ordnance, Equipment, Supplies and Accounts, Navigation, Medicine and Surgery. Captain

Mahan thinks that the Navy Department lacks some sequence of interest and action, owing to the fact that there is a new Secretary chosen every four years, and there is no other body to perpetuate a traditional and positive policy. The navy needs in its administrative constitution “something which shall answer to the continuous interest of the people in civil details; something which, while wholly subordinate to every Secretary, shall embody a conservative and progressive service idea, and in so doing shall touch both the public, from whose sense of national needs impulse comes, and the administration, ashore and afloat, upon whose response to impulse efficiency depends. That a Secretary can do this has been abundantly shown ; the dangerous possibility, also amply demonstrated, is that several in sequence may lack either will, or power, or professional understanding."

GENERAL GORDON'S REMINISCENCES. The opening feature of Scribner's is a chapter of reminiscences by Gen. John B. Gordon, of the Confederate army, “My First Command, and the Outbreak of the War.” General Gordon is one of the very last of the great figures of the war on the Southern side, and his account of the company he organized in the mountain districts of Georgia, Alabama, and Tennessee,--the “Raccoon Roughs,"-is of unusual interest. General Gordon takes occasion to set off General Lee's view of the right and wrong of the great struggle against General Grant's, and to protest against any partisan utterances to-day. His own view is that at present the one thing “wholly and eternally wrong" is the effort of “so called statesmen to inject one-sided and jaundiced sentiments into the youth of the country in either section.” He thinks there is no book in existence in which the ordinary reader can find an analysis of the issues between the two sections which fairly represents both the North and the South.

PRESTIDIGITATEURS AND MEDIUMS. Mr. Brander Matthews, in “The Strangest Feat of Modern Magic,” recounts an extraordinary exploit of the famous “magician,” Robert-Houdin, before Louis Philippe in the Palace of Saint-Cloud in 1846. The “magician” himself does not explain the manner in which he accomplished the extraordinary trick, but Mr. Matthews undertakes to suggest ways in which it might have been achieved, and suggests, further, the caution it should compel in all honest investigators toward every one who professes to be able to suspend the operation of the custom of nature. “No one of the feats attributed to Home, the celebrated medium who plied his trade in Paris during the Second Empire, was more abnormal than this trick of Robert-Houdin's, and no one of them is so well authenticated."

gives 20 per cent. better speed in delivering articles than the private carriers, and the rates now charged in England are-for parcels up to a pound, threepence; up to two pounds, fourpence; and so on up to eleven pounds, with a charge of one shilling. Mr. Heaton says the United Kingdom has made notoriously bad bargains with the railroads. In order to offset this now to some extent, the post-office is beginning to send parcels by its own vehicles, horse or motor, now run on most of the main roads from London, and by this means 11,500,000 parcels a year are saved from the extortionate railway rates. When “franking” was allowed to members oí Parliament and others, the privilege was sometimes sublet for as much as three hundred pounds a year. On one occasion, a member of Parliament sent a grand piano through the post-office, and a nurse and two cows were franked to the British ambassador in Holland.

SCIENTIFIC CORN-GROWING. In “The Marvels of Corn Culture,” Mr. A. D. Shamel, of the Illinois Experiment Station, tells of the extraordinary results of scientific breeding of corn to produce the most perfect ear and grain. He tells of individual instances of Illinois farmers who have improved the yield per acre as much as twenty-five bushels by using improved seed corn, and a single farmer is now planting seven thousand acres with this scientifically tested seed. Mr. Shamel complains that unscrupulous seed dealers have retarded this movement by advertising, under fancy names, really poor seed corn, shelled from good ears, poor ears, and nubbins without selection. After being persuaded by expensive and beautiful catalogues to try these seeds, the farmers would become disgusted and would denounce corn improvement as a fraud. Mr. Shamel says that nothing can be told from shelled corn. All seed corn should be bought in the ear, so that if the buyer is not satisfied with the type it need not be planted. There is no escape from the fact that ears will be produced like those of the seed.

THE GOULD-ROCKEFELLER ALLIANCE. In the “Captains of Industry” articles this month, Mr. Samuel E. Moffett writes of the late Gustavus F. Swift, Mr. Dexter Marshall of Clement Acton Griscom, and Robert N. Burnett of George Jay Gould. Mr. Burnett says that Mr. Jay Gould's heir and successor had a serious altercation with Mr. J. P. Morgan over the proposed purchase of the New York & Northern Railroad by the Manhattan Elevated Railroad, and that this incident turned him to the Rockefellers for aid in his project of extending the Gould system of railroads in the West. It is said that Mr. Gould has won the friendship and confidence of Mr. John D. Rockefeller to a marked degree, and that from year to year the Rockefeller millions have been poured into the various Gould schemes.


MR.Cosmopolitan with an account of the working


of the “Governmental Parcel Post in Great Britain." The writer advances the prophecy that every civilized nation will sooner or later possess a parcel post. “It is certain that a community which is content to leave the conveyance of its parcels in the hands of private contractors must either be miserably poor or immensely rich-and, it may be added, long-suffering.” In England, the parcel post was established in 1886 by the late Henry Fawcett. The result shows that the post-office

HE End of the World” is the title of the first

article in the May McClure's, a title which suggests something startling over the name of Prof. Simon Newcomb, the eminent astronomer. Professor Newcomb writes from the vantage-point of 5000 or 6000 A.D. in telling how our planet came to grief through the collision of a dark star with the sun. When the astronomers on the summits of the Himalayas found this star, and made the more astonishing discovery that it

order in the wild crowd of gold-seekers pouring to the frozen north.

In an article on "The Deep Sea Sailor," by Mr. Broughton Brandenburg, who has gathered his information from his own seafaring experience, the writer says the stewards of the steamships are paid more poorly than any other class which goes to sea, yet he has known stewards to make two hundred dollars on a six weeks' voyage from their tips. There is a delightful nature article by William Davenport Hulbert, “What the Trout Stream Saw," and further chapters of “The Autobiography of a Shopgirl.”


had no orbit,-in other words, that it was falling straight toward the sun, the chief professor of physics in the world at once came to the conclusion that this meant trouble for the earth, a fact which was gradually communicated to the rest of the world. Professor Newcomb pictures the course of events in the two hundred and ten days which the astronomers figured out as the time necessary for this star to reach the sun, and the phenomena which ensued after the impact. The collision increased the light and heat of the sun very suddenly thousands of times, the whole surface of the earth was exposed to radiation as intense as that in the focus of a burning-glass, which will melt iron and crumble stone. The works of man and every living being on the earth were destroyed, and the worst of it all was, as will occur to many, that this end of the world did not come suddenly, but was protracted, with its horror, over several days, even after the actual collision. Professor Newcomb's essay will be more worth while than most such efforts, furnishing, as it undoubtedly does, a graphic presentation of one of the methods by vhich astronomers consider that the world may actually lose its population.

THE NEW YORK NEWSBOYS. Mr. Ernest Poole, writing of “Waifs of the Street," gives us a glimpse into the world of the newsboy and the other waifs that recruit the juvenile asylums. He makes the uncomfortable discovery that of the worst classes of the street workers, 80 per cent. have terrible diseases by fifteen, and a horrible proportion of them become messengers and servants for the dives in China town. In the narrow streets near Newspaper Row, one will find a hundred of these ragged little chaps sleeping on the streets between 12 and 2 o'clock at night; that is, after the last edition of the evening papers are sold, and before the morning papers have come out. “They lie in tangled heaps of twos and threes over gratings, down steps, and under benches. Their faces are white, cold, and unconscious,-like the faces of dead children.”

EVERYBODY'S MAGAZINE. "HE present troubles in Macedonia lend timeliness

to the sketch, in the May Everybody's Magazine, of Boris Sarafoff, who became, three years ago, the president of the Macedonian Revolutionary Committee, which he has organized into a powerful and menacing union. The Macedonian patriot is a young man of thirty who inherited from generations of Bulgarian ancestors his hatred of Turkish tyranny. When he was five years old, he saw his father and grandfather dragged from home in chains by the Bashi-Bazouks, lashed, and imprisoned on the charge of treason. The Christian missionaries in Macedonia believe that Miss Stone's capture was the work of the Sarafoff committee, and it well illustrates the length its elusive guerrilla chief will go to in order to obtain money to prosecute his work Sarafoff has now joined hands with the conservative element, and it looks as if his committee might precipitate a conflagration involving, perhaps, Turkey, Russia, and Austria.

In Mr. A. R. Dugmore's account of his experience with a family of chickadees, there is marvelous evidence of the quick friendship and confidence that can be established between man and birds. Mr. Dugmore's wonderful camera shows this family of young birds being fed by the mother on the writer's knee, and the old birds perched on the bulb of his camera apparatus while it was held in his hand.

Eleanor Hoyt, in “Romances of New Americans," tells of the comedies and tragedies that can be seen at Ellis Island in the midst of the disembarking immigrants; David Graham Phillips tells of “ The Men Who Made the Steel Trust,” and especially of the early years of Carnegie and Phipps, when during and just after the war the two were running a modest forge in Pittsburg; Frederick T. Hill discusses “ A Lawyer's Duty with a Bad Case," and there are some highly amusing “Remarks” from the witty after-dinner speaker, Simeon Ford, whose humorous addresses are to be published in book form.

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HERE is a graphic account of “The First Ascent

of Mount Bryce,” by James Outram, in the May Frank Leslie's. This great mountain lies in the elbow of the Columbia River, some sixty miles from human habitation. It is 11,800 feet high at the summit, and the complete ascent was finished last August by the writer, accompanied by a Swiss guide. The mountain was named, in 1898, after Mr. James Bryce, who then held office as president of the Alpine Club. It projects westward from the Continental Watershed, rises in splendid isolation from a massive base to a long and extremely narrow ridge, crowned by overhanging cornices of snow, and culminating in three sharp peaks. The summit looms almost vertically above the timber slopes and foaming torrents of the Bush River, more than eight thousand feet below.

There are some exciting “Tales of the Northwest Mounted Police,” by Agnes C. Laut, whose duties cover a region a thousand miles wide, five hundred miles from north to south. For a score of these brave horsemen to arrest an Indian horsethief in a reserve of several thousand Indians was a common feat. Of late, the duties of the mounted police have been much more peaceful than formerly. Still, on the patrol, they annually travel more than a million miles, and have enough to do in punishing “rustlers” and maintaining

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