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Without volcanoes and without deserts, we universe is as finite as Dr. Wallace argues, should not have had that' uninterrupted supply we should have traversed it from boundary to of atmospheric dust without which the earth boundary in that time. Professor Turner, howwould have been uninhabitable by men. Our ever, does not admit that the apparent thinning position, therefore, without the solar system is out of the stars at what Dr. Wallace considers as central and unique as that of our sun in the the borders of the universe proves that the whole starry universe. He sums up his conclu universe is finite. There are everywhere dark sions as follows:

stars and dark nebulæ which obstruct light, “ The three startling facts—that we are in the and therefore the fact that no stars can be percenter of a cluster of suns, and that that cluster ceived beyond certain limits proves nothing. is situated not only precisely in the plane of the Finally, we are not even temporarily at the cenGalaxy, but also centrally in that plane, can ter of the universe. The universe, as known, is hardly now be looked upon as chance coin like a saucepan—we may be at the center of the cidences without any significance in relation to bowl, but not at the center of the bowl and the culminating fact that the planet so situated handle taken together. has developed humanity.

“Of course, the relation here pointed out may be a true relation of cause and effect, and yet

THE COMING TELESCOPE. have arisen as the result of one in a thousand

IN

N the May Harper's, there is an account by million chances occurring during almost infinite Prof. G. W. Ritchey of Photographing time. But, on the other hand, those thinkers the Nebulae with Reflecting Telescopes" which may be right who, holding that the universe is a gives a most surprising idea of the feats of the manifestation of mind, and that the orderly astronomical photographer, when it is considered development of living souls supplies an adequate that the camera has been seriously used in asreason why such a universe should have been tronomy for only about twenty years, although called into existence, believe that we ourselves the first work of photographing the moon was are its sole and sufficient result, and that no done forty years ago by Draper. This writer where else than near the central position in the gives some very interesting information as to the universe which we occupy could that result have possibilities of building much larger telescopes been attained."

than now exist. The largest ever constructed If Dr. Wallace be right, it is obvious what an was Lord Rosse's, of six feet in diameter. This important bearing his conclusion will have upon was sixty years ago, and nowadays modern rethe whole field of theological thought.

flecting telescopes one foot in diameter will give

photographs more distinct and brilliant than An Opposing View.

Lord Rosse could obtain. It is said that Dr. Wallace is at present en

GREAT MIRRORS NOW POSSIBLE. gaged in writing a book in which he will elaborate the thesis advanced in his Fortnightly arti When this is said, Professor Ritchey's further cle. Meantime, Prof. H. H. Turner, of Oxford, statements become all the more interesting. He offers a reply in the April number; and it says no great telescope now exists, and that it is must be admitted that he puts a very different entirely possible now to construct a great relight upon Dr. Wallace's arguments. As regards flector with even more than the refinement of the existence of life on other planets, Mr. Turner the instrument in the Yerkes Observatory. - In sums up Dr. Wallace's argument as follows : the optical shop of the Yerkes Observatory is the

“Life is impossible at the uttermost bound nearly finished mirror for a reflecting telescope aries of the universe. Therefore, it is only pos of five feet aperture. Two years' work has al sible at the exact center."

ready been done upon this glass by the writer. But even if we are at the center of the The rough disk for this mirror was cast at the universe, which Mr. Turner does not admit, he glass-works of St. Gobain, near Paris. It is maintains that we are there only temporarily five feet in diameter, is eight inches thick, and and accidentally. The solar system is moving weighs a ton. No serious difficulties have been through space at a rate which would take us to encountered in making this mirror, and there Sirius in one hundred thousand years, if we can be not the slightest doubt that an eight-foot happened to be moving that way. In the fifty mirror could now be made which would be as million or one hundred million years during perfect in all respects as the mirror of the twowhich this earth has been inhabited, we must foot reflector which we are now using in photoghave passed thousands of stars, and other stars raphy. The French makers of the rough disks must have held the position before. If the of glass have recently expressed their readiness

to undertake for us a ten-foot disk, one foot construction of a large modern reflector and its thick, which they think would be as homogene. use in astronomical photography. We are acous, as well annealed, and as perfect in all re customed to think of the construction of such a spects as the five-foot disk.

great telescope as an enormous undertaking : “I do not advocate mere bigness. In order and yet the cost of an eight-foot reflector would that the improvement in the photographs ob be about one-twentieth that of a great modern tained with a great reflecting telescope shall be office building or a modern battleship. How proportional to the increase of size, all parts of insignificant does even such a telescope appear the instrument must be made with the utmost when we think of the inconceivable depths of care and skill ; with all of the perfection made space which we are trying to penetrate ; of the possible by modern engineering and mechanical great works of the Creator which we are trying methods, and by the latest improvements in to study ; of the problem of the development, glass-making and in optical work.

the evolution, of suns and worlds which we are endeavoring to solve."

REFLECTING AND REFRACTING INSTRUMENTS.

“Some idea of the compactness, the rigidity,

WHAT SCIENCE HAS FOUND OUT ABOUT and the economy of construction possible in the

THE BRAIN. mounting of a great reflector can be gained when I state that the tube of a reflector of eight “THE Mechanism of the Brain" is the title

in long.--twenty-three feet shorter than the tube Carl Snyder, who reports the latest discoveries of the forty-inch Yerkes refractor · and that and hypotheses of our scientists in regard to the the diameter of the dome required for such a composition and function of that organ. For great reflector would be eighty feet, ten feet half a century, the scientific world has recog. less than that of the dome of the forty-inch re nized that the vital part of the brain and the fractor. The cost of an eight-foot reflector, nerves seems to be highly phosphorized fat, constructed with the greatest economy and sim and that without the phosphorus, this fat does plicity, and yet with the utmost refinement, for not seem to think. Mr. Snyder pithily says: use in photography, together with the cost of " Whether it be the brain-cell of a glowworm, the dome, would be little, if any, greater than or one trembling with the harmonies of Tristan that of the Yerkes refractor with its dome. und Isolde,' the stuff it is made of is much the

same; it is a difference of structure, apparentWHAT WE COULD SEE WITH AN EIGHT-FOOT

ly, rather than of material. And the chemical REFLECTOR.

difference between a brain or nerve cell and “ Judging from the results obtained with the that of the muscles or the skin seems reducible two-foot instrument, an eight-foot reflector, if mainly to a difference in the proportion of two used in a climate where atmospheric conditions substances, water and phosphorus. Lean beef, are fine, would photograph stars which are fifty for example, is from 70 to 80 per cent. water; times fainter than the faintest stars which can be the brain is from 90 to 95 per cent. water. And seen with the largest modern refractors. This a brain or nerve cell may contain from five to means that such a reflector would enable us to ten times as much phosphorus as, let us say, the penetrate seven times farther into space than can cells of the liver or the heart. The actual quan: now be done with the greatest visual telescopes, tity is, of course, extremely small,- by weight, and therefore that such an instrument would but a fraction of 1 per cent." reveal to us a universe seven times seven times seven--more than three hundred_times greater than the universe which is revealeđ by the most The brain of the average man weighs about powerful modern refractors.

three pounds. There is more of the phosphor"Such a great reflector would give us photo ized fat down the spinal column, and little ples graphs of the nebulæ of about five times the uses all over the body, wherever a group of scale of the photographs obtained with the two muscles are to be moved ; and others still, the foot reflector ; the delicate structure and minute sensory or feeling nerves, which are everywhere. details of these wonderful objects would be This nervous substance is made up of distinctly shown proportionately better, provided that the separated units, most of them extremely minute, instrument were used in a suitable climate. 1. though some attain a length of two or three feet. know of no opportunity which has ever been “ The cells which run from the small of the back presented in the entire history of astronomy down into your toes are the longest. Those o: greater than that which now awaits us in the the brain are mostly so small as to tax the powers

THE SIZE OF THE HUMAN BRAIN.

Gauss

of the microscope.” One scientist estimates the as that which makes a live frog's muscles connumber of brain-cells at 1,600,000,000.

tract when it jumps. Whence came this stimu“Of course, the number varies enormously, lus? for the size and weight of the normal brain vary “ The only solutions which give this effect are greatly. The size of the brains of compara those capable of generating a current of electively few distinguished men is known, and tricity. A succession of electrical impulses, from most published figures are worthless. The list a dynamo, for example, will make the frog's given below is authoritative, and speaks for it. leg's twitch rhythmically, just as do these elecself. The sizes are given in cubic centimeters : trical solutions."

Average human brain, 1,400 ccm. (49 oz. av.). Dr. Dollinger. .1,207 Agassiz

.1,512

ENGLAND'S NEED OF UNIVERSITIES. Harless... .1,238 Thackeray.

1,644 Gambetta. .1,294 Schiller

1,781

OW Liebig. ..1,352 Cuvier...

.1,829 Birchoff.

Not .1,452 Turgenieff.

.2,012

for more and cheaper universities. Broca... .1,485 Byron ....

.2,238 more Oxfords and Cambridges, but institutions ..1,492

which make adequate provision for complete in. “It will be seen that Byron, who was com tellectual training and professional instruction, monly supposed to have a small head, is highest cheap and easily accessible for every boy or in the list; and whatever may be thought of his girl destined for a brain-working occupation. In poetry, certainly he was a man of rather medi. the Cornhill Magazine for April, Mr. Sidney Webb ocre intellectual attainments, as poets generally argues convincingly on this line. are ; while Baron Liebig, who possessed one of

A HUMILIATING COMPARISON. the best-equipped brains of the first half-century, was below the average.”

“ The proportion of university students is go

ing up in Holland and the United States at the HOW THE NERVE WAVES TRAVEL.

rate of 5 per cent. per annum ; in Germany and “Quick as thought" is not very quick. While Belgium, by 6 per cent. ; in Switzerland, by more a light wave would travel seven times around than 7 per cent. ; while in France, Italy, Austria, the equator in a second, a nerve wave makes and Russia the annual increase cannot fall beonly about a hundred feet a second. Just what hind these figures. On the other hand, in the this nerve wave is puzzles the scientific men. United Kingdom the proportion of the populaAs there is no nerve action without the evident tion for whom we provide the highest training presence of electricity, it seems probable that is at best stationary, and in some years actually nerve action, thought, and consciousness, and declines. We may still believe that man for man what in our present ignorance we call electricity, an Englishman is superior to the citizen of any are one and the same.

other country, but not even the most sanguine PROFESSOR MATHEWS' EXPERIMENTS.

patriot can ignore the advantages of educa

tion. . . . We have come, at the opening of the “ This view gained heavy reënforcements a twentieth century, to an era of professional exyear ago from some brilliant experiments of pertness, in which the merely cultivated amateur Prof. Albert P. Mathews, who had been work. is hopelessly beaten out of the field.” ing on nerve-stimulation with Prof. Jacques Mr. Webb points out that the new universiLoeb in the University of Chicago. Professor ties are not, and should never be, intended to Loeb, and others, had shown that in certain salt become the rivals of Oxford and Cambridge. solutions an excised heart could be kept beat. They have different aims and different methods, ing for hours ; further, that a piece of ordinary—they also appeal to different classes. He then frog's muscle, for example, dipped in the same describes the functions of the new universities, solutions, would beat rhythmically, like a heart. which is briefly to turn out the graduate fully

“ Professor Mathews took a step further. In equipped, not only as a cultivated citizen,—as is stead of cutting away the nerves from the mus. now the case,—but also as far as may be possi. cles, he left them joined at one end, merely sep ble as a trained professional. arating the nerve enough to let the end of it The conditions and limitations of the new hang in a cup of salt solution, while the frog's universities imply,—-first, that they will rapidly legs were suspended on a frame. The rhythmi. become large and numerously frequented instical beat began in a short time, just as if the “tutions, and, secondly, that the standard of their muscles themselves were in the salt bath. Plain teaching will be extremely high. They will be ly, the nerve carried the stimulus, and, so far as practical above everything else ; students will any mortal could see, the stimulus was the same go there in order to master the subjects which

1)

man.

will enable them to gain a livelihood. This will point yet reached, 83° 33' 49" north latitude. compel an intensive study of each department of This was done by Captain Cagni, Abruzzi's learning unknown to the average “pass

lieutenant. Three men in his expedition were Imagine the economic professor at Oxford hav lost and never again seen. Andrée's project ing to lecture on banking and currency daily be was condemned by all the highest authorities as fore a class of bank clerks and branch managers quite impossible, and the writer considers that in such a way as to retain their respect and con. after such a clear sign from heaven as was given vey instruction !

by the continuous contrary winds during a whole LONDON'S NEED.

year, Andrée should have desisted. His two

companions did do so; but he had so many Mr. Webb pleads for a great technical high offers to fill their places that he could pick and school, of the Charlottenburg type, to be erected choose as he liked. It was said that an American on the four or five acres of vacant land at South

newspaper offered him $20,000 to take one of Kensington. The University of London is lam its editors ! Rumors of the discovery of the entably inadequate for the needs of the great skeletons of the bold explorers were many, but metropolis ! It needs money, and the stimulat

none proved authentic. Sverdrup, however, ing impulse of a great ideal. It would take seems to have achieved the greatest measure of $250,000 a year, at least, to put the science facul.

success of all. He was captain of the Fram in ty properly on its feet. The engineering faculty Nansen's expedition. On that occasion, staying is in such an infantile condition that the ad.

quietly on his ship, he penetrated almost as far vanced mechanical student is advised to go to north as did Nansen with fearful labor and the McGill University at Montreal or the Poly- privation. A second time he essayed to conquer technikum at Zurich. To set the whole univer

the problem of the Pole in the Fram. He solved sity on its feet and equip it with the necessary many important problems. He upset the theory endowment requires at least five millions ster that there was no land between America and ling. Each of the nine other new local univer: Asia by the discovery of three islands. Sir sities proposed would require about $2,500,000. Clements Markham, president of the Royal Within the next decade, says Mr. Webb, it will Geographical Society, spoke enthusiastically of be necessary to provide for England alone, for Sverdrup, but strongly deprecated the costly what we may call tertiary education and the ad expeditions which the various nations sent out vancement of learning, the equivalent of $50, in rivalry without any system of coöperation. 000,000.

He considers future North Pole expeditions as The proposed universities are as follows : worthless ; useless for geographical purposes ;

“ In London and its thirty miles radius ; at useless from the naturalist's point of view. Manchester, Liverpool, Birmingham, and Dur. ham (with Newcastle-on-Tyne); for Yorkshire, for the East Midlands (with Nottingham), for Sverdrup ought, perhaps, not to be considered East Anglia, for the southwestern counties (with a martyr of the North Pole, as he had a wellBristol, Exeter, and, it may be hoped, Plym- built ship under him all the time. Peary has outh), and for the south (with Reading and proved by far the most energetic and persistent Southampton)."

of Arctic explorers. He took his wife with him

on his first expedition, during which a daughter MARTYRS OF THE POLE.

was born to them. In all, he made seven expeDURING the nineteenth century, two hun

ditions, and discovered that Greenland was an dred ships have perished in Arctic ex island. The latest pioneers do not deserve the ploration, over thirty million dollars has been name of martyrs. They go in well-appointed spent, and numberless lives have been lost—but ships, with tenders to keep them supplied with the mystery of the Pole remains unsolved. food and every luxury—and do nothing. The

Russians made a bold attempt to reach the Pole THE RECORD OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.

by means of the ice-breaker, the Zermak, but it The Deutsche Revue contains a most interesting was a miserable failure. Two Danish expediarticle by the Marquis de Nadaillac upon the tions did very good scientific work from the east martyrs of the North Pole. The nineteenth side. They discovered a village full of skelecentury closed with the expeditions of Greely, tons. The men lying in the huts, the dogs at De Long, Jackson, Peary, Nansen, Andrée, and . their feet, while the bones of bear and walrus the Duke of Abruzzi ; and the prize of the round the huts showed that the grewsome sight greatest effort was a few more miles of ice-field was not caused by starvation, but by some sudconquered, and the attainment to the highest den catastrophe.

THE LATEST ATTEMPTS.

are

THE HEALTH-FOOD IDEA.

THE GREAT BREAKFAST-FOOD INDUSTRY. of foods will be an immense industry, and the SOME OME astonishing facts of “The Industry present remarkable output of nearly fifty million

That Cooks the World's Breakfast” dollars' worth a year will be increased many given by Mr. Frank Fayant in the May Success. times." Battle Creek, Mich., is the great home of this

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE PACKAGE. work, though there are other centers, such as the Buffalo manufactory of shredded-wheat prod

“The rise of the breakfast-food industry ucts, which puts out a million biscuits a day and has made popular the package idea for kitchens. spends seven hundred thousand dollars a year

American housewives take kindly to pasteboard in advertising. The Battle Creek gospel of pre packages, or cartons. The sudden growth of the pared cereal foods is presented by Mr. Fayant industry would have been impossible without as follows:

the cartons. Small pasteboard boxes and large wooden cases, each holding two or three dozen

cartons, are very large items in the cost of pro"A cereal-food factory is a huge digestive duction, but labor-saving machinery cuts these machine, relieving the human stomach th items down to a minimum. In the food factories, more difficult part of the work of converting the cartons are cut, printed, and folded almost vegetable material into body tissue. The idea automatically ; and after they have been autoat Battle Creek, the birthplace of the health matically filled with cereal food, they are closed food' industry, is that, as we gradually give up with paste by machinery. Only by the use of the vocations of brawn for the vocations of brain, all this automatic machinery is it possible to keep we must change the character of our food. A the price of the cartons under a cent apiece. A farmer who toils from sunrise to sunset in the fraction of a cent is not much money, but one field, working his body and not his brain, is fit Chicago factory spends more than five thousand physically to eat foods that would send an office dollars a day on cartons. It recently gave an worker in a town to his doctor. When a swift order for ninety thousand dollars' worth of paper torpedo-boat destroyer is sent out to secure a for labels and fifty tons of ink to print them. speed record, the engineers feed only picked coal The cost of wooden packing-cases about equals to the fires ; a present-day American, giving his that of the cartons. In putting a carton of a whole thought to rapid achievement, is equally certain well-known breakfast food on the market, in need of picked fuel. It is a strange condition the cost of the cereal product is about two and of affairs that, in this age of scientific research one-third cents, and the cost of the packing one and of marvelous investigations into the secrets and one-third cents, making the cost of manuof life, we give so little scientific thought to the facture three and one-third cents.

The selling food we eat. At Battle Creek, dietetists have price to the grocer is eleven and one-third cents, been working out a reform in food for thirty and to the public, fifteen cents. One factory uses years. Their progress was slow up to the time piece of paraffine paper to wrap the product in. when a few shrewd men saw the commercial side the carton. This paper costs more than one possibilities of health-food manufacture. Now hundred thousand dollars a year, but the manu. diet reform is rapidly becoming a question of na facturers think that American housewives want tional interest. With ten million dollars a year to have it, and the sale of this particular product being spent to advertise · breakfast foods, the would seem to indicate that they are right.” public is forced to take an interest in the food question. One cannot pick up a magazine, or ride in a street car, or walk down a street, with ( With the cost of a carton of breakfast food out having the merits of some new cereal food only between three and four cents, and the rebrought before his eye. The idea of a scientific tail selling price fifteen cents, the industry is one diet that Battle Creek is spreading out over the that attracts prospectors like a new gold field. world may not revolutionize the diet of the But not all get rich who erect food factories. human race, but it will work a change in mil The profit in the sale of cereal foods is large, lions of kitchens."

but a market is not to be had for simply the asking. It needs just as much business sagacity

to make money out of a food factory as it does " The varieties of food and drink that can be out of a rolling mill or a railway. A market can made from fruits, nuts, and cereals are almost be created and kept in existence only by perinfinite in number. Already there are more sistent publicity, and by publicity that costs. It than a hundred on the market. Within a few costs from four hundred to eight hundred dolyears, it would seem, this scientific preparation lars in advertising to sell one thousand dollars'

THE MARGIN OF PROFIT IN HEALTH FOODS.

MORE THAN A HUNDRED VARIETIES.

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