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of blood-revenge, unless the relatives of the first countries in Alaska, Canada has five hundred murderer speedily dispose of him themselves, thousand square miles more of land available and thus remove the cause of strife. Cases of than the United States ; besides, it has more suicide are hardly less numerous, because even than half the fresh water of the globe within its very young people are quite reckless of their borders and within its control-a fact of supreme own lives, and when thwarted in their purpose importance, as will be seen later on, when its will destroy themselves from anger or spite, geographical location and the grades of its rivers jealousy or unassuaged desire. Persons suffer. are realized. This five hundred thousand square ing from some incurable illness, and especially miles of land comprises Northwest Canada, ren. old men and women weakened with age, often

dered available within the last twenty years proclaim their wish to be killed by their nearest through the operations of the Canadian Pacific relatives. Then the sons or the nephews, who Railway, which has made all Canada accessible." otherwise are kind and dutiful to their elders,

GRAIN-GROWING, MINING, AND MANUFACTURING. feel themselves bound to comply, however unwillingly, with the request. No retraction is We have lately heard a great deal in the permissible, since such an announcement is con United States about the wheat-growing possibil. sidered as a promise of human sacrifice to the ities of Northwest Canada. The future of this evil spirits. If taken back, the revenge of the industry is still somewhat problematic, but Mr. spirits on the whole family will be incurred." Wiman shows that Canada has at least one dis.

tinct advantage, as a grain.grower, over her com.

petitors,—namely, a system of cheap and ready PROSPEROUS CANADA.

transportation to the seaboard. HE migration, within the past year or two, Another important element of wealth in Can.

of thousands of substantial American citi. ada is her paper pulp-wood. The area covered zens to the fertile lands beyond our northern by this timber extends from the interior of border adds a new element of interest to such a Labrador, Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia west survey of Canadian affairs as Mr. Erastus Wiman and northwest to Alaska, north of the St. Law. contributes to the North American Review for rence valley and the prairie sections, almost up April. Optimistic, Mr. Wiman certainly is, as to the Arctic Circle, and is estimated to comregards Canada's commercial and industrial prise 450,000,000 acres. The entire region is future. He shows from the reports of the probably better supplied with water power than Dominion Department of Trade and Commerce any equivalent area on the earth's surface. This that the aggregate foreign trade of the country latter fact has especial significance in connection was 91 per cent. greater in 1902 than in 1895, with the manufacture of paper, and the power and that the total trade showed a gain of over plants already established, described in a recent $70 per capita. In the meantime, certain Cana number of the Re OF Reviews, seem to in. dian articles, like cheese, have taken a high place dicate a rapid development of manufacturing in the foreign markets because of their excel enterprises. lence, and are likely to maintain their prestige As to Canada's mineral resources, Mr. Wiman permanently. Mr. Wiman favors a zollverein says : arrangement between the United States and

Rich ores of iron abound all the way from Canada.

the Pacific to the Atlantic. Among many local. ities, may be mentioned Texada Island, between Vancouver Island and the mainland ; several

places along the Crow's Nest line of the CanaMr. Wiman says that annexation to the United dian Pacific Railway system ; the Atikokan disStates is unpopular and disapproved in Canada, trict, about seventy miles west of Thunder Bay ; not because the Canadians love the Yankees less, the Iron Lake, Frances, and Helen hematite but because they love themselves more and pro mines near the northeastern angle of Lake Supose to develop their own country in their own perior, extensive deposits of rich ores in variway. Americans do not always fully realize ous parts of the country between Lake Ontario that Canada comprises more space on the earth's and the Ottawa River, and in the valley of this surface than all the States of the Union taken stream ; besides many others of different kinds together. “ It is not only the larger of the two of iron ore in the provinces of Quebec and Nova countries, but, because of its enormous volume Scotia, and on the east side of Hudson Bay and of minerals, and, specially, because of its food in the Labrador peninsula (which is one thouproducing lands, it is believed by Canadians sand miles across). be the richer. Omitting the possessions of both - Canada possesses coal enough to supply the

AREA COMPARED WITH THAT OF THE UNITED

STATES.

A RURAL PEOPLE.

world. Although the limits of her enormous estimated closely, is by no means compensated for coal fields in the Northwest Territories, and in by the low scale of wages to the child operative.” the mountainous country extending from the As a matter of fact, a recent report of the State of Washington to beyond the Arctic North Carolina Labor Commission shows that, Circle, have not yet been accurately defined, while in 1895 there were 6,046 children emthey probably exceed those of the United ployed in the factories of that State, in 1899 States, and consequently of any other country in there were only 3,308—a decrease of 50 per the world. It is a remarkable and important cent. in four years, although during this same fact that, while the United States possesses no period there was an increase of 50 per cent. in coal fields on the shores of either ocean, Canada the number of women and 100 per cent. in the has rich mines capable of great development at number of men similarly employed, to meet an tidewater in Nova Scotia on the Atlantic and increase of nearly 40 per cent. in the number of on Vancouver Island on the Pacific."

spindles. These facts tend to justify, in a measThe Dominion Geological Survey has reported ure, the optimistic conclusion reached by Mrs. as follows on the mineral wealth of the country : Ellis, that child labor in factories is a rapidly

“ Almost every mineral and metal known can vanishing evil. be found in Canada, and a number of the most From this conclusion, Mrs. Ellis passes on to valuable products exist here in quantities not ex. a study of the homes and the family life of the ceeded anywhere else in the world ; take, for in mill operatives throughout the new manufacturstance, the metals iron, copper, lead, nickel, gold, ing South. silver, zinc, manganese, and the non-metallic min. erals, coal, petroleum, natural gas, salt, corundum, asbestos, gypsum, cements, phosphates, mica, Among the points of difference between the slate, etc."

factory operatives of the South and those of other sections, Mrs. Ellis notes, first, the absence

of “urban instincts" in the Southern communiSOUTHERN COTTON MILL COMMUNITIES.

ties. The good and the bad in these mill workers, 'HE defeat of the child-labor bill in the THE

she says, are still such qualities as belong to a Georgia Legislature has caused an impres. strictly rural people ; but with the passing of sion to prevail in the North that the situation, the present generation this characteristic must so far as Southern factory conditions are con be largely lost. cerned, is well - nigh hopeless. An article by “ It may be asked : What are the indications Mrs. Leonora Beck Ellis in the American Jour of this quality which, for lack of a better word, nal of Sociology for March should go far to re is named "rusticity'? The signs are many and move such an impression, since it brings clearly easy to read. No observant person can miss the into view certain distinctly favorable aspects of plain evidence even in his first day with the mill Southern factory life which have received scant people. He walks past the cottages row on row, attention from most writers on the subject. and sees prince's feather and bachelor's button

growing in the tiny yards, patchwork quilts sunECONOMIC OBJECTIONS TO CHILD LABOR.

ning from the windows, and strings of red pepper It is evident, in the first place, that practical festooned on the back porch. The boys are quite .considerations are operating very effectively often chewing tobacco, but they are not smoking against the system of child labor in cotton mills, cigarettes. Often, alas ! the girls dip snuff, but in the South as well as elsewhere.

they do not lace in their waists nor attempt hand- Manufacturers in this part of the country, kerchief flirtations. The women are given to as in Massachusetts or Illinois, are learning the quiet, and a profound reserve usually marks their lesson that it is a false economy, with expensive social intercourse. The festive gatherings in the practical as well as ethical results, which prompts 'amusement halls' on Saturday nights are either the employment of the low-priced labor of chil. stiff parties or genuine country dances. The dren. Delicate machinery operated at high speed • barbecue' is common on a general holiday, and demands more intelligent and steadfast atten the all-day singing' of a Sunday still remains tion, to secure the best results, than untaught the acme of enjoyment, affording the perfect and usually careless childhood can give it. The

The blending of sociality and devotion. direct loss thus involved counts heavily in the course of a year, and comes to be weighed comparatively as the adult labor of a section grows "A second quality differentiating our people more skillful and satisfactory ; nor are clear from the Northern factory communities of to-day headed mill men slow to discover that such luss, is what may well be called their unmodified

NATIVE AMERICANS.

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THE LACK OF THRIFT.

Americanism. Up to the present time, there is Farm and garden supplies are bought for what an entire absence of the foreign element of pop seems to the Northern mind an absurdly low ulation among them, and the effect of such price, and dairy products are never high.' Beabsence is very marked. Not only do better sides, in all the rural mill communities, which manners prevail in this people sprung from our are now counted by the score to every one in a own soil, but better morals, greater social city, a garden patch always, and often pasturage purity, less turbulence and lawlessness. Observ. for one cow, can be counted on with every cotance of law is easier, more natural, even to tage. illiterate Americans, than to other nations, be · House rent is not a considerable item. The cause law has typified to them from childhood mill cottages rent by the month on the basis of the majesty of right, not the tyranny of might. 60 cents to $1 per room, and they range in size

“ The finer respect for women which marks from three to eight rooms, four, however, being American manhood extends also to these toil the rule. With few exceptions, these cottages

Except among their very lowest, mother are fairly comfortable and built with a view to hood inspires the regard it meets in other social good sanitation. Outside of cities, each one has classes."

its ground space where the inmates may grow flowers and vegetables, thus fostering a form of

local attachment that is by no means weak.” Most of the Southern mill operatives come from the class known in the South as tenant

OHIO AND MISSISSIPPI FLOODS. farmers,-a moneyless people, and Mrs. Ellis accounts for the apparent extravagance and thrift: THEhigh water of the present spring in the derivation. The money that they now receive sioned no little discussion of the causes of these every Saturday night is far more than many of river floods, and some interesting comparisons them formerly saw from year's end to year's end. have been made with the flood conditions of for"Cases such as the following are multiplied

mer years.

In Arboriculture (Chicago) for March many times over : The father, mother, and six some of the striking features of these annual or eight boys and girls (for large families are freshets are pictured and explained for the benethe rule in this class), ranging from twelve to fit of the reader who is unfamiliar with the pecul. twenty.odd years of age, are at work in one mill. iarities of our great Western waterways. The adults, if fair weavers, easily average $22 The first recorded flood in the Ohio River was each per month ; the younger members of the in February, 1832. It resulted from a sudden family are probably spinners, and average about rise of temperature, with heavy rains, following $14 each per month. This family, then, that in an unusually heavy snowfall throughout the the old life of the farm thought themselves for. Ohio valley. The river rose to the height—then tunate, indeed, to handle $100 in cash through- unprecedented—of 64 feet 3 inches. Similar out a year, now bring home something like $17) conditions produced another high-water record

Is it strange that extravagance 63 feet 7 inches—in December, 1847. In Februseizes upon this metamorphosed household ?" ary, 1884, the river attained a still greater depth

at Cincinnati—71 feet and three-fourths of an

inch. That was the highest water ever known “How can they save money ? clamor those at Cincinnati. who have been studying the comparative wage. scale of Northern and Southern factories without acquaintance with the actual conditions of To realize the fact that the volume of water the latter. By reasonable economy, is the an flowing away within a given period is far greater swer here as elsewhere. From $20 to $30 per now than in former times, when the forest areas month is paid good weavers throughout this were greater, it is only necessary to remember section, while the average spinner draws from that the width of the Ohio River bed has been $10 to $16 ; and these are regarded as good liv increased with every overflow by the caving in ing wages in a country where the prices of neces of farms along its course, so that to-day the saries range much lower than in the East or width between the banks is estimated as onethe West. Houses are to be heated only about fourth greater than it was in 1832. four months of the year, and fuel is cheap,—in

The writer of the article in Arboriculture was many places less than $1.50 per cord for wood acquainted in boyhood with the river roads on and $2 to $1 per ton for coal. Clothing costs which the traffic between towns and farms along far less in this warm climate than in a cold one. the Ohio passed. He says:

every month.

LOW COST OF LIVING.

WIDENING THE RIVER-BED.

[graphic]

FLOOD SCENE AT LAWRENCEBURG, IND., ON THE OHIO RIVER, JUST BELOW THE MOUTHS OF THE MIAMI AND WHITE WATER.

" These roads were washed into the river and depth, all steamboats and crafts of every kind conveyed down the stream year after year with being idle for months at a time. each recurrence of high water, the fences carried “Many cities are dependent for water supply away, adjoining farms were swept into the whirl on the various streams, and during the lowing water, acres at a time were thus lost by the water stages the contamination is far more serilandowners along the banks. One house with ous, the impurities being concentrated to such which the writer was familiar was moved back extent as to cause much sickness. Of course, from the river-bank four successive times, each with all sewerage of cities polluting the streams, time being taken several hundred feet to a sup this becomes a serious matter when the water posedly safe location. It was finally removed for a long time remains so low." half a mile back and the roadway changed to a similar distance.

MILLIONS FOR LEVEES AND DAMS. “ Meantime, there was not, as is sometimes the This writer describes the great floods of 1883 case, any deposit upon the opposite side of the and 1884, when much damage was done and river, but the breadth of the waterway was in. untold suffering caused throughout the Ohio creased each year, and is now twelve hundred and lower Mississippi valleys. In the present feet broader than it was seventy-one years ago, year, however, the water at Memphis has at time of the highest water of early days. reached a higher stage than in previous flood

years—40 feet—while at New Orleans also it LOW WATER A MODERN CONDITION.

has exceeded all records. Speaking of the lower “But it is by no means the highest water only Mississippi valley, from the junction with the which is to be regretted on account of removal Ohio to the delta, the writer says : of the forest. During the long period of drought " In 1897, there were 15,800 square miles of which follows, the springs having been dried up, this alluvial plain beneath the sea of waters ; the streams run low and the period of extreme 380,000 people were residents of the flooded low water in which navigation is suspended or area ; 39,500 farms were submerged, with made very difficult is greatly prolonged.

3,800,000 acres of farm land. " Prior to 1862, there was no time within the " Millions of dollars have been expended by knowledge of steamboat men of the forties and the Government and the several States of the fifties when the rivers of the West did not have South in constructing levees, as in high water a good boating stage, usually twelve or fifteen the Mississippi is far higher than the surroundfeet depth, while in more recent years, the water ing lands. has been so low that teams were crossing the Other millions have been used in damming Ohio by fording, the water being but two feet up the outlets to this great river, in order to

maintain a navigable stage through the bar at discovery seemed to make more utterly unthinkthe principal estuary.

able the old theory which had its expression in “ Here are two opposing conditions for which the Book of Genesis. But now an article which money has been lavishly expended-levees to Alfred Russel Wallace contributes to the March hold the waters in a confined channel, and ob number of the Fortnightly gives us hope that our structions at the river's outlets which must ne good conceit of ourselves is about to be revived, cessarily prevent a rapid disposition of the flood

and that we are going to come back to the old waters.

faith by the very latest and most approved When to these overflowing streams of the scientific road. For if Dr. Wallace is correct, eastern watershed there come from the Rocky there is a strong presumption that we are after Mountains the melting snows and from Texas all the center of the whole universe. and Colorado the cloudbursts, which frequently He maintains that there is no reason to beoccurs, through the Arkansas, Red, and Cana lieve that the stars are infinite in number. He dian rivers, and from the more northerly Platte, says that the increased size and power of the Yellowstone, and Missouri, the antagonistic telescope, and that powerful engine of research, works of man must give way before the terrible the photographic plate, alike lead to the same influences of nature.

conclusion,-namely, that we are piercing to the “But why all this waste of rain when every outer elements of the starry system. The total drop that falls as rain or snow is needed by the number of visible stars from the first to the growing population of the States of the West ? ninth magnitude is about two hundred thou

sand. If they increased in number on to the THE USES OF FORESTS.

seventeenth magnitude at the same rate that “ By a systematic reafforestation of the moun. they increased from the first to the ninth, there tain regions and the planting of trees on the ought to be 1,400,000,000 stars visible through plains at headwaters of these Western rivers, the best telescope, instead of which there are and the construction of extensive storage reser not more than 100,000,000. As our instruments voirs to supply water for irrigation, this country reach farther and farther into space they find must be vastly improved in agriculture, manu a continuous diminution in the number of stars, factures benefited by water power, and naviga thus indicating the approach of the outer eletion improved by a regularity of flow in various ments of the stellar universe. If the universe streams; a recurrence of such disastrous floods is not infinite, but has limits, where is its center? in the South would be impossible, as, relieved of He says that the new astronomy has led us to the surplus water of the Western streams, which the conclusion that our sun is one of the central back up and retard the flow of the great Missis. orbs of a globular star cluster, and that this sippi, the Ohio would be fully competent to carry star cluster occupies a nearly central position of away the waters of its drainage area. And with the exact plane of the Milky Way. Combining a proper systematic reafforestation of the Alle

these two conclusions, Dr. Wallace states defighany and eastern mountains, and the broken nitely that our sun is thus shown to occupy a lands along the various streams, the forces of position very near to, if not actually at the center nature could be easily overcome and the nation of, the whole visible universe, and therefore in be forever benefited."

all probability is the center of the whole material universe. This conclusion, he maintains, has

been arrived at gradually and legitimately by IS MAN THE CENTER OF THE UNIVERSE ?

means of a vast mass of precise measurements AR

RE we going to come back to the old familiar and observation by wholly unprejudiced workers.

theory of the universe, according to which Not only are we the hub of the universe, but Man was the center of all creation, the sun, the Dr. Wallace thinks that there is grave reason to moon, and the stars being the convenient street doubt whether life could have originated and lamps created for his convenience? The dis have been developed upon any other planet. It covery of the immensity of this sidereal universe was necessary that for hundreds of millions of led to the belittling of the importance of man. years the surface temperature should never for We seemed to become as insignificant as cheese any considerable time fall below freezing-point mites seated upon one of the minor planets in a or rise above boiling point. None of the other universe which contained one hundred million planets appear to possess this and other funda. worlds. 6 What is man that thou art mindful mental features which have made life possible of him?" was the inquiry which gained in force on the earth.

Among these features, he mainwith every improvement of the telescope. As tains that the importance of volcanoes and system after system was revealed, each fresh deserts has never been properly appreciated.

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