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THE SYSTEM OF BRANCHES.

for the grasses are luxuriant and highly nutri AMERICANS IN THE CANADIAN NORTHWEST. tious, and there is usually an abundance of good T is estimated that there are 75,000,000 acres

IT water.

of arable land in the Canadian Northwest, and allowing one-eighth for pasture and other

purposes, there are left about 65,000,000 acres “ The most important branches of railway soon for growing crops. Taking the average yield to be opened are those running across the east per acre for all grains of last season as a basis, ern part of the island connecting Santiago de about twenty-nine bushels,—it is apparent that Cuba with the Bay of Nipe at the extreme end, this district may grow some 2,000,000,000 bushanother further up from Jugaro to San Fer els of grain of all sorts yearly, to say nothing of nando, and two smaller lines forming a connec various other products. Mr. William R. Stewart tion with Sancti Spiritus and Holguin, respec writes in the April Cosmopolitan on “ The Amertively. When these works are finished, as they icanization of the Canadian Northwest,” and soon will be, the whole island will be opened out shows the conditions and reasons of the great and provided with excellent railway facilities migration that has been and is going on from for both commercial transportation and passen the United States into Manitoba, Alberta, Assinger traffic.

A direct trunk rail connection will iboia, and Saskatchewan. then be established between Havana and San. Mr. Stewart says that this American invasion tiago de Cuba, and the most important seaboard of the Canadian Northwest really had its begin. cities will be connected by branch lines, and the

ning in the advertising done some five years ago whole system will develop a vast extent of new by the Canadian government with the purpose and attractive country for settlement and culti of peopling this great western territory. Free vation, all of which will add largely to the at lectures were given both in the East and the tractions Cuba offers to tourists, for it will make West, bureaus established in several cities from many interesting places and districts easily ac which large quantities of literature were discessible which have heretofore been difficult to tributed, Canadian maps were placed by permisreach and rarely visited."

sion in American schools and colleges, attractive advertisements were inserted in newspapers and

periodicals, and exhibitions of western agricul. AN ENORMOUS CANAL.

tural products made at the State and county WRITER in the Magazine of Commerce tells fairs. This was done with the object of dis.

of the proposed great canal traversing abusing the American mind of the belief that Russia and connecting the Baltic with the Black western Canada was a land of frost and snow. Sea. This canal would start from Riga and end The farmers of Iowa and Indiana found that at Cherson, near the Crimea—a length of 1,607 these statements were really true ; and as they kilometers. The average depth would be 26 could sell their farms at what was a fancy price feet. • By keeping to this line, some of the as compared with the cost of land in the Northmost important towns of central Russia, such as west Territories, they sold them and moved Riga, Dunaburg, Kiev, Yekaterinoslav, and to Canada. Cherson, would be served directly, while those One of the noteworthy industrial results of on the tributaries of the Dnieper and Duna this American invasion is the introduction of would come within easy reach by the deepening flax-growing on a great scale in the provinces. of these tributaries."

Canadians thought it unwise to cultivate flax, as The canal would enable Russian men-of-war they believed it hard on the land and a great and large steamers to pass through the heart of weed-protector. But the Americans have shown Russia, thus strengthening enormously the naval that with land selling at twelve dollars an acre position in the Black Sea. As to the cost of and yielding an average of fifteen bushels to the this great undertaking, the writer says that “an acre of flax, the newly bought farms have paid American syndicate has declared itself ready to for themselves during the very first year.

Flax undertake the work and finish it in five years, can be sown and harvested in ninety days, and and at a cost of £32,500,000 ($162,500,000). with the rich soil and long daylight of the CanaThe construction of such a network of canals dian Northwest, it constitutes an ideal would constitute Russia the country best served

that country. with inland waterways in Europe. They would Manitoba was the earliest settled of the North bring its most distant districts near to the sea,' west Territories. People began to move there in and the enterprise obviously means an important a desultory way as long ago as thirty years. development of the world traffic,' as well as of When the Canadian Pacific Railway was comthe land itself."

pleted, in 1883, a great impetus was added to its

A

crop for

growth. In that year, 260,000 acres were planted coal breakers, and discusses the regulations which in wheat in Manitoba, yielding 5,600,000 bushels. will most quickly do away with the worst abuses. In 1902, the acreage in wheat had increased to He considers the New York law for the govern2,720,000, and the yield was estimated at 65, ment of establishments employing children one 790,000 bushels. Besides this, there were 1,350, of the best that has yet been formulated. “The 000 acres sown to oats and barley, producing a issuing of permits requires not only discretion, crop of more than 52,000,000 bushels.

but also involves considerable work on the part While wheat is the staple product of the north of the inspector. First, an affidavit stating the west, the growth of other grains is conducted on date and place of birth of the child must be an immense scale, and cattle-raising and dairying made ; then the permits are issued in triplicate, are also important industries, and are steadily -one being given to the child, to be kept on increasing. Manitoba alone produced more than file in the establishment where it is employed , a million dollars' worth of butter and cheese last one sent to the chief factory inspector at Albany, year, and large creameries are being established and the third kept in the local office. A ledger at central points.

is also kept where the names of the children to The best ranching section is in Alberta, in the whom permits have been issued are alphabeticso-called Chinook belt. The tempering Chinook ally arranged. These permits give a complete winds melt the snow in an incredibly short time, description of the child, in order to prevent and the hillsides afford excellent grazing for fraud in their use ; but occasionally fraud is cattle. The Peace River country also possesses practised. The fact that the inspector is assomany thousand acres of as fine grazing land as ciated with the health office gives him ready there is in the world. Mr. Stewart adds: “ It access to the registry of births." is not only the northwest of Canada which is

THE KIND OF LEGISLATION DEMANDED. being invaded by American settlers and Ameri. can capital, but the entire Dominion is becoming Mr. Waudby reviews the laws in various States, Americanized, though the inflow is naturally which differ in great degree. He says that, acmore marked in particular localities. The agree. cording to reliable information, there are over ment recently made between a Chicago syndicate one thousand children between the ages of six and the Canadian government, looking to the and fourteen employed in five cotton mills in colonization by the former of two million acres South Carolina which stand within a mile of the of land in what is known as the New Ontario,' State Capitol. There are all sorts of laws in the is only one of many evidences of the fact. Under

Western States, and no legislation as to the hours this agreement, the Canadian government re of child labor prevails in Georgia, Mississippi, ceives fifty cents an acre, which is the regular North Carolina, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, price for settlement land, the patent being issued Oregon, Texas, or the District of Columbia. direct to the settlers. It is the expectation of “ I do not believe that laws should be passed the syndicate that fifty thousand people will be regulating any of the social or industrial affairs brought into the new country during the next which can be settled by our own common sense few years."

and mutual agreements, but in this question of child labor there appears to be no other way of

checking the desires of the employer, on the AMERICAN CHILDREN OF LABOR.

one hand, for cheap labor and the necessities of ILLIAM S. WAUDBY, special agent of the parents (or their greed, in many well-sub

the United States Department of Labor, stantiated cases) to force their children into the says, in an article in the April Frank Leslie's, shops, the factories, and the mines. The com: that the last census will show 1,750,000 children pulsory registration of the date of birth, and the in the United States from ten to fifteen years of presentation of this certificate, would do away age reported as engaged in gainful occupations. with the misstatements as to the child's age ; The most important part played by child labor furthermore, a certification of the school attendis in the cotton and woolen mills. This writer ance, together with an examination as to educasays that the mill managers often refuse to em tional fitness, should be made, and the legal age ploy a single man, while if the next applicant be of employment raised in all the States to that of a man with a wife and five children, they are sixteen years at least. all employed at once, being valuable to the mill " The labor organizations generally favor the from the fact that the entire family are workers limitation to sixteen years, with the educational as well as consumers.

restrictions. Tinkering with this problem canMr. Waudby shows a very dark picture of the not be carried on forever ; the social conditions conditions of child labor in the mills and the require a thorough overhauling."

WILLIAR

MR.

THE COMING AUTOMOBILE.

present transport cost and much quicker, by the R. HENRY NORMAN, editor of the Eng. coöperative use of automobiles. A company

lish World's Work, contributes an article now is formed for manufacturing an agricultuto the April number of the American publica. ral gasolene motor which has proved itself praction of the same name on “The Coming Auto

ticable. mobile,” in which he traces the influence on

WILL THE RAILWAY DISAPPEAR ? the railway, on society, and on the individual of practicable and cheap auto-cars.

Mr. Norman is not only convinced that there

will not be a horse left in New York or London A GREAT RADIUS OF ACTION.

within ten years, except a few kept for pleasure Mr. Norman calculates that the owner of a and police purposes ; he is also inclined to hazpair of horses in the country may have a prac ard the opinion that the motor will kill the rail. tical, every-day radius of movement of about ten way. “Why should the community pay a huge or twelve miles, and even to drive twelve miles sum per mile for a special roadway for electric away and back to make a visit is a tiring pro. cars and a huge generating station, when selfceeding for man and beast. He calculates that propelled motor omnibuses of equal speed, coma carriage and pair means $2,000 a year in town fort, capacity, and economy can use the common and $1,500 in the country. Mr. Norman thinks road, and, by their ability to be steered round obthat a big automobile should not cost less than stacles, not interfere with the rest of the traffic? I a carriage and pair, and a small one not less am convinced that municipalities would consult than a horse and carriage ; but he thinks that their own interests by carefully considering the the cost of maintaining automobiles has been introduction of motor omnibuses before emexaggerated, and gives statistics of one automo. barking upon the heavy initial cost of an electric bile owner who drove his large car nearly five railway system which may quite likely be obso. thousand miles last year at a total cost of $575, lete before their depreciation fund has been and of another man who went 1,648 miles on a charged a dozen times.”' small car with an entire expenditure of only

THE EXTENT OF THE INDUSTRY. $22.50. He regards it as certain that an automobile costs less to keep than a carriage and “In 1902, Great Britain imported moto:3 and horse, and the radius is far greater. With a parts to the value of $5,512,310, and exported ten-horse-power car the radius of the whole

only $657,405. The value of the American outfamily is easily thirty miles, with a possible fifty put of motor vehicles for 1902 is officially reckmiles. Thus, he figures out that our horse-and oned at $25,000,000. In the same year, France carriage man can move over an area of 452 exported motor cars to the value of $5,310,200. square miles, while the automobile man has a Two firms manufacturing pneumatic tires in sphere of activity of at least 2,827 square miles. France turned out, in 1902, $4,100,000 worth,

and each of them has $400,000 worth of goods

in the charge of agents. Seventy French firms • Every friend within three thousand square manufacture motor cars, and their combined miles can be visited, any place of worship or output last year was 12,000 cars. The industry lecture or concert attended, and business ap- employed 180,000 workmen, earning, on pointment kept, the train met at any railway average, $360 a year each.” station, every post and telegraph and telephone office within reach, every physician accessible,

MR. RHODES AND OXFORD. any place reached for golf or tennis, or fishing or shooting, and with it all fresh air inhaled un

A

WRITER signing himself “ Academicus" der exhilarating conditions. It is a revolution contributes an interesting and suggestive in daily life. With an automobile, one lives paper to Blackwood's Magazine on the needs of three times as much in the same span of years, Oxford. It is a welcome illustration of the good and one's life, therefore, becomes to that extent which Mr. Rhodes has done by his will, even wider and more interesting.”

before the first Rhodes scholar has reached the university. Whatever else he did, or did not

do, Mr. Rhodes has certainly waked up Oxford. Mr. Norman believes that business automo.

THE RHODESIAN WHITE ELEPHANTbiles will soon be universal. Commercial trav. elers will take their samples through the country « Academicus" complains that the gift is a in suitable motor cars, and the farmers will send white elephant. their produce to market at a fraction of their “Mr. Rhodes, in promoting' his imperial pro.

WHAT THIS MEANS.

an

FOR BUSINESS PURPOSES.

WHICH HAS WAKED UP OXFORD.

gramme, forgot to provide working capital, inas- college finance so framed and worked as to much as he required a poverty-stricken univer secure efficiency-financial and intellectual ? Is sity to house and teach three hundred new it so framed as to combine the new needs of the scholars without providing a penny to equip university and the empire with those of the old ? them with teachers, house-room, or apparatus. 5. Is Oxford welcoming as they deserve the new It is as if a philanthropic millionaire were to studies which have arisen since 1880, without bequeath to a friend whose small income was forgetting the extended borders of the old ? 6. mortgaged to its last sixpence a dozen splendid Is her machinery so devised as to supply the pubcarriages and a stableful of hungry horses, and lic services - the professions - as they have expect him, out of the atmosphere of an historic altered, with the men trained as they ought to tradition, to build stables, feed the noble crea be trained in the number that is required ? 7. tures, and create and pay the requisite staff of What is being done to assist the army in protrained stablemen. Accordingly, in May last, viding it with educated officers ? 8. Are the the university found itself the richer by three colleges tapping the social strata which will suphundred future scholars, together with the brac ply the recruits that Oxford requires for all that ing knowledge that its own funds were nil, the she hopes to do? staff of the colleges already doing full time, “In a word, is the university to her utmost the colleges manned to overflowing, and the possibility educating capable men (and women ?), world crying out, “What good fortune ! What creating and employing the best kind of teachwealth !'"

ers, fostering the best knowledge ? The present writer, at any rate, who is not of those who be

lieve that Oxford has stood still, or is sunk in Nevertheless, he says that Oxford is bravely sloth, far from it, certainly could not answer preparing to make room for the three hundred these and similar questions with an unhesitating Rhodes scholars.

affirmative, and he is convinced that scarcely one " That Oxford will somehow absorb the Rho competent person who knows the facts would do desians and not the Rhodesians Oxford is as true so either.'' as that the sun will rise to-morrow, and, after

POST-GRADUATE SCHOOLS AND NO CHURCH TESTS. all, that is the only important matter ; and so the don, after a shrug of his shoulders at the He then goes on to explain what he thinks curious ways of the curious, passes on to a gen

Oxford should do under each of these heads. erous confession that if Mr. Rhodes had done We have not space to follow him throughout the nothing else he had done yeoman service in fo whole of his recommendations, but will quote cusing the public mind on the unlimited possi one or two. bilities latent in the oldest of our universities. "Post-graduate schools do not exist. Oxford, An imperial Oxford ! that is a conception which then, must create them—schools in economics, may well fire the mind and elevate the senti sociology, archeology, art, and all the branches of ment of every British citizen, from Gibraltar to science that science demands ; they may have Vancouver ; and an imperial university we may courses of one, or two, or three years, they may slowly build up if we are not in too great a provide degrees and classes, honors or pass, they hurry."

may be few or many, but come they must if lib. eral education is to be saved and the just claims

of knowledge and research are to be met. For He then proceeds to discuss what is necessary they are, and must be part of the machinery to be done to convert Oxford into an imperial which she provides as a seat of learning. Furuniversity that the empire needs.

thermore, Oxford must frankly sacrifice the last “ And here let us pin the discussion down for dike of the Anglican tradition which still closes a moment by framing a brief catechism, sug the B.D. and the D.D. to all but the Anglican." gested by the considerations advanced.

DEMOCRATIZE THE UNIVERSITIES. ask-1. Are the university and the colleges doing all that their resources permit for the encourage Considering that Blackwood has ever been a ment of learning and the promotion of research? most unyielding champion of all Toryism, this 2. Are the colleges using and choosing their last admission is significant indeed. The paper tutors in the most effective way? 3. Are they concludes with an earnest and eloquent appeal likely to get and to retain in the future, with to Oxford to cease to draw her students from the same ease as in the past, the staff and the the aristocratic classes, but to attract to her services that the university and the colleges

halls students from all classes of the community. really need ? 4. Is the system of university and · The future of our race, if we would but act

He says:

A CRUCIAL CATECHISM.

Let us

PIERR

upon our beliefs, rests beyond all controversy tation and prayer they have acquired delicacies on a national determination at all costs to see and subtleties of conception which are unknown that not a single brain in the nation is starved to us ; and yet they say in all modesty, “ We do or lost. It is no use blinking facts : to-day, not know anything, we understand with difficul. hundreds of brains are starved, stunted, or lost ty, we only seek to learn." -Oxford does not command the respect and

MRS. BESANT AND MME. BLAVATSKY. confidence of more than a section of the nation. But with 1903 Oxford can begin at least to plan Then M. Loti gives us a picture of Mrs. Annie and dig the foundations of a university, national Besant, with her still charming countenance as the term has not been understood save in under her white headdress, living detached from Scotland.”

the world, with bare feet, frugal as the wife of a

Brahmin, and austere as an ascetic. On her M. WITH THE THEOSOPHISTS.

Loti counted to open for him a little the gates

of knowledge, for he felt that there were fewer IERRE LOTI continues in both the Febru barriers between her and him, inasmuch as she

ary numbers of the Revue des Deux Mondes had been formerly in his world and his native his striking travel articles on India. He takes tongue was familiar to her. He spoke to her us this time on the road to Benares to visit the of Mme. Blavatsky, the sad memory of whom Theosophists of Madras, and he clothes the sub sufficed to render him skeptical ; but Mrs. Besant ject in his well-known exquisite style. In the

In the pleaded that the intention was so excellent as to house of the Theosophists he found a warm wel. excuse Mme. Blavatsky for having attempted to come, especially from two men,—the one a Euro work miracles in order to convince the outside pean who, wearied with agitations and uncer world. Mrs. Besant went on to say that Theosotainties, had taken refuge in the detachments phists had no dogmas, and that M. Loti would preached of old by Buddha ; the other a Hindu find among them Buddhists, Brahmins, Moslems, who, after winning high honors in the universi. Protestants, Catholics, and Orthodox,-in fact, ties of Europe, had returned to India with a people of every faith, or none. What is neces. certain contempt for our Western philosophies. sary in order to be one of you ?" asked M. Loti, M. Loti asked them to give him proofs of their and the answer was—to take an oath to consider statement that something of man's individuality all men as your brothers without distinction of resists for a time the shock of death. They re caste or color, and to treat with the same regard plied that they could not offer visible proof, for the most humble workmen or princes ; to take the perception of those who were improperly an oath also to seek truth by all possible means called the dead required special senses and spe.

in the anti-materialistic sense. " It is in an cial temperaments, but in their library there esoteric Brahminism under its most ancient were books which gave well-accredited details form,” Mrs. Besant continued, “that we find of apparitions. M. Loti was disappointed. He

peace and light. It seems to us to contain the asked about the fakirs, and received the unex highest expression of truth which it is given to pected reply that there were none. The Hindu man to know." There is much more of the same went on to explain that there were plenty of kind, but we cannot leave the subject without mendicant fakirs, but the old class of “ seeing” noting the unforgettable description which M. fakirs, possessed of real power, had died out, Loti gives of the animals and birds which dethough the records of them remained in the pend on these sages for their sustenance, and library.

which are exquisitely free from the terror and

shyness inculcated in them by sad experience in THE THEOSOPHIST PHILOSOPHY.

other lands. After further talk, M. Loti was sent on to the Theosophists of Benares. Then, follows an in

THE FOSSIL MAN OF KANSAS. imitable description of the Temple of Jugger. naut and the Taj. At length he comes to the

At length he comes to the At the recent Congress of Americanists in House of the Wise Men, where he was warmly New York, and also at the meetings of received, and where they say to him with a calm the American Association for the Advancement certainty, “Our philosophy begins where yours of Science in Washington, the subject of the ends.” M. Loti describes in exquisite language human skeleton discovered about one year ago these sages working at the arcana of Brahmin near Lansing, Kan., was fully discussed. Geolism, which includes conceptions too lofty for ogists are divided in their conclusions as to the our degenerate comprehension. Their flesh is antiquity of the bones, evidence of which must nourished by no other flesh, and by long medi be sought in the nature of the surrounding de.

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