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contemporaneously with the Eighteenth Phara with us and appropriated some of our colonies, onic Dynasty,--that is, in the sixteenth century, they are already occupied and exploited by a just before that epoch to which the Mycenæan patriotic and hardworking population. Can the treasure seems chiefly to belong.
profit be compared for a moment with that to be " To the art of this Minoan age proper, stimu. reaped from a successful attack on the Monroe lated by political greatness, and encouraged by Doctrine, which would in no way upset the profound peace, belongs the great bulk of the European balance of power, and would not exwall paintings, the ceiling designs, the friezes, pose German commerce to the same risks as the sculpture in stone and ivory, the gem designs, would arise from war with a great maritime and the ceramic handiwork illustrated in the ex.
power at her own doors? This theory fits in hibition room."
entirely with the Kaiser's reiterated statements, An enormous number of clay tablets have been and it has the merit of possessing, not only solid found at Knossos, inscribed in yet undeciphered business reasons, but also very plausible grounds characters. The glory of this Ægean chapter in in theoretical justice.” the history of the civilization extended from 2000 Germany wants real and profitable colonies. to 1000 B.C., when it was stamped out by the in Mr. Duffield points out that the subsidy given to vader.
every German colony, save one, exceeds the an“ A movement of semi-barbarous peoples from nual revenue. East Europe and West Asia, which has left its mark on Greek tradition as the · Dorian Invasion,'
GERMAN COLONIAL ESTIMATES FOR 1902. evidently swept over the civilized lands, invigor.
Total ating the stock, but eclipsing a while the culture.
Revenue. Subsidy. Expenditure. But the old artistic race lived on, amalgamating itself with the new-comers and modifying its con
£159,315 £320,760 £480,075 querors; and after general peace was established Cameroons...
101,575 110,255 211,830 Southwest Africa....
472,945 once more, idealism revived in the joint issue of Togoland.....
31,750 50,750 the older and newer peoples. The sudden ap
41,100 Carolines, etc......
16,906 pearance of high art in Hellas in the seventh Samoa...
18,000 608,400 626,400 century was, therefore, a Renascence rather than a miracle of spontaneous generation ; and something of the spirit and tradition of Knossian cul And Venezuela is just such a promising but ture inspired the Ionian art of the sixth century unoccupied country as the Kaiser wants. and the Attic of the fifth, and contributed to make " To show the extraordinary fertility of many that Hellenism to which we of western Europe Venezuelan territories, our consul points out that are the actual heirs."
a plot in the vicinity of his own house has produced six crops of maize in one year! Fruit
farming would prove enormously productive, VENEZUELA: UNDER WHICH EAGLE?
and coffee and cocoa, especially the latter, are N England, the opinion is beginning to pre- largely grown; in fact, the latter is now the
vail that Germany's ultimate policy in principal product of the country, which could South America is to challenge the Monroe Doc grow anything. Cotton, indigo, rice, barley, trine. That is the view set forth in the Monthly and india-rubber have been produced with sucReview for March by Mr. W. B. Duffield. He
The water - supply is ample, the climate says that American statesmen are perfectly well is not unhealthy, and in most parts fit for aware of this ; hence the folly of British coöpera Europeans. The mineral wealth is almost un. tion. Germany has infinitely more to gain by touched, — iron, gold, coal, petroleum, silver, copannihilating the Monroe Doctrine than by at per, lead, are found in every direction.' Eyetempting to seize any of England's possessions. witnesses have related to the writer the shipping
"As has been well pointed out by Captain of huge ingots of gold on the Orinoco steamers Mahan, Germany's geographical position forces in the best days of the great mine of El Callao ; her to conquer us or be friends with us. The but now, mining, like every other industry in latter is clearly the less expensive course. Her this unhappy land, is almost impossible, owing international manners, like those of the United to insecurity of tenure. Under a rapid succesStates before the era of Mr. Hay, are, it is true, sion of governments, the leader in to-day's deplorable. She has attempted to frighten us, fortunate revolution refuses to recognize the just as the United States did with Canada in title given by his predecessor, or constant pillage 1891, and with the same result. Even if she and oppression forbid Europeans to embark capiovercame all the difficulties involved in a war tal at such risks. We are told by our consuls
that there is nothing that can strictly be called an• industry in Venezuela, yet she could .grow her own grain, make her own flour, grow her own tobacco and cotton, make her own cloth and her own wine, burn her own kerosene, make her own leather, and have, besides all this, a surplus for export.
with the great Japanese line—the Nippon Yusen Kaisha–a line in ocean tonnage ranking among the foremost in the world, and began to divert a part of the tea and silk trade from the Canadian Pacific and the “ Empress Line” to his own railroad.
A GREAT COMBINE.
Non seturing the trade of the Far East is
At first he had to regard the other transTHE AMERICAN CAPTURE OF THE TRADE
continental lines as rivals, but " with dramatic OF THE ORIENT.
unexpectedness the Northern Securities ComOW that the success of the United States pany was formed, identifying these three roads
(the Northern Pacific, the Great Northern, and generally acknowledged, there is some discus. the Burlington) with the deliberate intention of sion, both at home and abroad, as to how this diverting the cotton exports of the United result has been accomplished. Mr. Harrington States to Asia by way of Atlantic and European Emerson contribu an article to the March ports to the ports of Puget Sound.
The tempoEngineering Magazine in which he says:
rary and apparent rivalry between the combina• A few years ago, steamers no longer fit for tion of the Northern and of the Southern roads the Atlantic or Indian service were sent to the was but an episode. It is not a question as to Pacific, as being quite good enough for all re whether Puget Sound ports shall not be favored quirements. With the exception of the Em in transcontinental rates compared to San Franpresses, built for the Canadian Pacific Railroad, cisco, or whether the Great Northern shall carry there was not, until the Spanish-American War, fruit from southern California to Chicago, but a first-class steamer on the American Pacific. whether the unlimited trade of eastern Asia Now, the largest steamers ever constructed in shall pass to Europe by Pacific American steamAmerican waters, and, with one exception, the ers and American railroads or continue to go Cedric,—the largest steamers ever built, have by way of the Suez Canal." been ordered for the Pacific Ocean trade."
THE NEW STEAMERS.
NEW YORK TO SAN FRANCISCO VIA SUEZ.
Mr. Hill then proceeded to build the largest What has brought about this change ? asks ships in the world.
Mr. Emerson says: Mr. Emerson, and answers his question as fol “By building the largest ships in the world, lows :
even though they run under the more expensive Exports to the Orient must come from the American register, by filling the west-bound Eastern and Southern States, - railroad iron cars at a rate little more than the cost of han. and other equipment, mining machinery, tobac. dling, Mr. Hill knows that he can turn the export co, and cotton,—and for these goods the usual trade with western Asia from its three-hundred. railroad rate across the continent is prohibitive, year-old way past India to the direct Pacific sea as it costs almost twice as much to send boxed route past Alaska. Before these new ships were goods from New York to San Francisco as from ordered, experts were sent to Scotland, Ireland, New York to London, and thence by steamer and Germany to absorb all that could be learned direct to Puget Sound via the Suez Canal, the of modern mammoth shipbuilding ; and to escape Straits, Hongkong, and Yokohama. . . . Before from all hampering traditions of the past, an there could be any hope of a large increase in entirely new company, the Eastern Shipbuilding Pacific coast exports and imports, the whole Company, was formed to construct them, and railroad situation had to be changed, and this is took the contract before even the site was purwhat has happened."
chased on which the new yards were to be esThe first railroads pushed to the Pacific were tablished.” built to enrich the promoters rather than to These steamers are 630 feet long, 73 feet make money out of the operation. It was not wide, with a displacement of 37,000 tons. Each until Mr. James J. Hill made and developed the steamer can carry 1,200 troops, and the cargo Great Northern Railroad that different methods capacity exceeds 20,000 tons. Some of the were introduced. He built, not for the sake of hatches are large enough to admit a complete bonds or subsidies, but for the immediate and locomotive. Horse-power of 11,000 will mainprospective traffic. He made his terminus at tain a speed of 14 knots. To accommodate these Seattle, on Puget Sound, by far the best harbor vessels, enormous docks and warehouses have on the Pacific coast. He formed an alliance been built at Seattle and Tacoma.
TO CAPTURE THE AUSTRALASIAN TRADE.
“ The heavy capitalization and the merger of There is little doubt that the whole of the
the Northern roads will in the end prove advan. trade between the Eastern States and the Orient tageous, not only to them, but in far greater will now go by these new lines of steamers run
degree to all the people of the United States, as ning in connection with the great transconti
1t will necessitate the development of every local nental railways, instead of going, as now, via
resource, and also bring about a diversion of the Europe and Suez. Nor is this all.
world's Oriental trade from the Atlantic to the “ The Northern railroads have quoted a rate
Pacific, from European to American control, and of $8 a ton for the transport of government sup
thus quicken into being a thousand industries plies from Chicago to the Philippine Islands. not yet conceived." Return rates have been quoted on wool from Australia and New Zealand which make it probable that the imports from British Australasia to
THE MAN WHO WON THE NORTHERN PACIFIC Boston, New York, and Philadelphia will come
FIGHT. by the Pacific overland route instead of through
HE man who could best wear the mantle of Suez.”
Mr. J. P. Morgan, if that financier should CANADA VERSUS UNITED STATES.
leave Wall Street, is Mr. Jacob H. Schiff, acThe Canadian railroads, however, will offer
cording to Robert N. Burnett, who contributes serious rivalry.
a sketch of the banker to the April Cosmopolitan, “ From an American point of view, there is
in its "Captains of Industry " series. one shadow in this bright light of future American supremacy on the Pacific, and that is the rivalry of the Canadian roads to the north. One of these, already in full operation—the Canadian Pacific-runs from ocean to ocean. The other, the Grand Trunk, is now building to Port Simp. son, the most northern seaport in British Columbia. Both these roads command rich wheat belts; both of them tap exceedingly rich and very good coal fields ; both of them as they approach the Pacific coast pass through timber lands of the same general character as the heavy forests of Washington and Oregon. The Grand Trunk will have six advantages over all its American competitors. It will stretch from Atlantic to Pacific under one management, and can make its own through rates, while none of the American roads extend further than Chicago, and it will further control ocean-steamer connections at both ends ; it will be the latest. built road, with the latest and most consistent equipment; its Pacific terminus, Port Simpson, a magnificent harbor on the Alaskan border, is nearer by five hundred miles to Asia than is Puget Sound or Vancouver, yet the road itself is as short as any other transcontinental line ; it escapes entirely the climb and heavy grades Mr. Schiff it was, so Mr. Burnett tells us, that over the Rocky Mountains, which do not extend really won from J. Pierpont Morgan and James J. as far north as its line ; its wheat belt extends Hill the famous fight for the control of the from Manitoba unbrokenly to a region that is Northern Pacific. While Mr. Harriman apwest of Vancouver, a gain in local agricultural peared more prominently on this occasion, “Mr. lands of nearly one thousand miles over the Schiff was the power behind the throne.” Fur American lines ; and it will, by the location of thermore, Mr. Schiff can not only fight and win, its terminus, monopolize the whole of the enor. but can compromise. He voluntarily suggested mous and rapidly growing Alaskan traffic." that Mr. Morgan be empowered to name the
Mr. Emerson concludes his valuable article as new board of directors of the Northern Pacific, follows:
which should represent both sides and agree to
unite on a plan for the joint control of the road. through the secretaries, a very small part of Then he further showed his generosity by allow that addressed personally to the president; then ing the unfortunates who had been “short of he has handed him a collection of cardboard Northern Pacific to cover their contracts at the sheets with clippings from the morning newsnominal price of one hundred and fifty dollars papers pasted upon them, to give him a bird'sper share, when he might have compelled pay. eye view of the commercial, financial, industrial, ment of two or three times that amount.
and railroad news of the preceding day. With Mr. Schiff's ability as a financier was first these news items are also the editorial comments brought before the public several years ago by of the principal newspapers. the reorganization of the Union Pacific Railway “Now the real work of the day begins. This and the settlement of the debt to the Govern includes the consideration of an endless array ment. Later on, he took a hand in the purchase of legal, engineering, financial, traffic, and transof the Chicago & Alton, and also in the acqui portation questions. The adoption of plans for sition of the Southern Pacific. The firm of some extensive improvements in terminal facili. which he is the head, Kuhn, Loeb & Co., is fre ties follows closely the determination of a quesquently employed by such great concerns as the tion of general policy. The development of Pennsylvania and Baltimore & Ohio railroads traffic by the extension of the main line and to conduct their largest financial operations. branches, questions affecting the relations with
One of the most recent feats of financiering connecting lines, and matters relating to every which placed Mr. Schiff among the mighty men phase of the vast field of traffic and transportaof Wall Street was the purchase of a majority tion come up for settlement. The consideration of the stock of the Reading Railroad in the in of these diverse matters touches at some point terests of the Baltimore & Ohio and Lake Shore almost every branch of human activity which railroads. When such transactions as this are yields something to the demand of a great systo be carried out, there is room to save or lose tem of transportation. The chief enlists in his millions of dollars, and by his wonderful di aid in the decisions of these multiplied issues plomacy, Mr. Schiff saved these millions.
the thought and skill of his staff, who, having He is a very wealthy man, with a fortune es worked out the details, bring before him the retimated at from $75,000,000 to $100,000,000, sults for final approval." most of it made within twenty years—perhaps But the president of a great corporation is in a dozen.
certain to have a similar position in a number of He is perhaps the leading Hebrew of New smaller companies, and aside from his duties on York, and there are many monuments to his the great railroad, he has to preside over meetgreat generosity, such as the Montefiore Home, ings of directors of many concerns, so that even the Jewish Theological Seminary, the Semitic at luncheon he is not always free from business. Museum at Harvard University, and the Nurses' Nowadays, the executive offices are arranged in Settlement on the New York East Side. He is suites, and include apartments where luncheon a trustee of the Baron de Hirsch Fund, and has can be served. Thus, the president may eat the been treasurer of Barnard College. Mr. Schiff midday meal in the next room to his desk, with was born in Germany, and spent the larger part officers of his own corporation, visiting officials, or of his business career in Frankfort, until he business friends as his company. came to this country, over thirty years ago. Mr. Barksdale says it is a popular delusion
that the inevitable private car of the president
is a pleasure vehicle for himself and his friends. THE DAY'S WORK OF A RAILROAD
“But it is as much a workshop as his office, and PRESIDENT.
it frequently affords that privacy and exclusive. HE daily grind of a railroad president's job, ness for the transaction of business which are
and the dangers from cranks and pass not obtainable even in the private office. An seekers that constantly beset him, make the sub appointment is to be kept in a distant place. ject of Mr. F. N. Barksdale's article in the April The president's car is attached to a regular train, World's Work. The railroad president is apt to or run “special,' as the case may be. The private get to his office at 9 o'clock in the morning and secretary is directed to report on the car with to leave at 4 in the afternoon. But if it is such mail and papers as demand immediate atnecessary for him to stay until 12 o'clock at
tention, and the president gets down to work night in some conference of great importance, just as if he were sitting at his desk. The disthere are no union rules to prohibit it, and he patch of business is uninterrupted. On the car, does so. The first hour is taken in clearing the consultations are held and conferences occur be. desk of the morning's mail that has sifted tween the chief and his subordinates or invited
(м Ex 1 со
guests. Meals may intervene, and social inter point of time, as New York and San Francisco, course may break for a moment the monotony are now connected by rail, and important branch of work, but the spirit of business is ever pres. lines will soon be opened. The master spirit in ent. The paraphernalia of the workshop, such this work from the beginning has been Sir Wil. as maps, reports, and official papers, are oftener liam Van Horne, the builder of the Canadian in evidence on the private car than any of the Pacific. An account of the progress of the enusual concomitants of a pleasure jaunt."
terprise, and of some of the difficulties encountered, is contributed to Gunton's Magazine for
March by Mr. J. W. Davies, whose description THE NEW CUBAN RAILROAD.
of the trunk line and its branches follows: AT T the close of the Spanish-American War,
THROUGH TRAINS FROM HAVANA TO SANTIAGO. it became clear to all intelligent observers that one of the pressing necessities for Cuba was “ The new railway is of standard gauge, and a trunk line of raiiroad from one end of the its bridges are of steel and masonry ; its equivaisland to the other, with branches to important lent is similar to that of the best American rail. ports on the northern and southern coasts.
ways, and it is intended at an early date to run importance of such a railroad system was pointed through express sleeping-cars between Havana out by Mr. Robert P. Porter, who had been and Santiago de Cuba. specially commissioned by President McKinley “ The trunk line begins at Santa Clara, where to report on the industrial, commercial, and the hitherto existing western system ends, thus financial condition of the island. Mr. Porter, affording a continuous communication on to however, thought it extremely doubtful whether Sancti Spiritus, Puerto Principe, and Santiago de such an enterprise could be made to pay,—at Cuba. Along the main line are to be found least for many years to come ; but within a year great areas of land of the richest description, after the close of the war a route had been sur well watered and to a great extent well wooded, veyed from Santiago westward to Santa Clara, and suitable for sugar cane, tobacco, Indian corn, the eastern terminus of the old road from Ha cotton, coffee, cocoa, and all the fruits of tropvana, a distance of about four hundred miles, ical and sub-tropical regions. The mineral wealth and during the ensuing three years the entire of this large tract is said to be very valuable. line has been completed, so that Havana and and the rural districts are peculiarly adapted Santiago, which were formerly as far apart, in for cattle ; indeed, cattle do well everywhere,
O C E AN
& SANO VANDE
CUFGO DE AW
A .R ,
B B E AN
MAP OF THE CUBAN RAILROAD SYSTEM.
(From the Scientific American.)