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THE OLD TESTAMENT AND ITS DEFECTS.

ing the captivity in Egypt, Moses welded to “ (b) In order to set God forth, we men re. gether the separate fragments for the second quire a form, especially for our children. time, and they always persisted in their endeavor "(c) This form has hitherto been the Old Testo preserve their «monotheism. It is the direct tament as at present handed down to us. This intervention of God which makes it possible for form will certainly undergo considerable alterathis people to emerge once more. And so the tions under the influence of research and of in. process continues through the centuries until scriptions. That does not matter, and another the Messiah, foretold and announced by prophets thing which does not matter is that much of the and psalmists, at last appears.

This was the nimbus of the chosen people will disappear. The greatest revelation of God in the world. For kernel and the contents will always remain the he appeared in the Son himself ; Christ is God ; same,—God and his dealings. God in human form. He delivered us; he in · Religion was never a product of science ; it spires us ; he attracts us to follow him ; we feel is an effluence of the heart and being of man his fire burn in us, his compassion strengthen arising from his relations with God. us, his displeasure destroy us ; though, at the With cordial thanks and kindest regards, same time, we feel that his intercession rescues always your faithful friend, WILLIAM I. R."

Assured of victory, relying on his word alone, we endure labor, scorn, wretchedness,

Professor Harnack's Criticism. distress, and death ; for we have in him the re As might have been expected, this remarkable vealed word of God, and God never lies.

declaration of faith met with considerable criti. cism in Germany, and Dr. Harnack felt called

upon to deliver himself of an article in the March "That is my view upon this question. For number of the Preussischer Jahrbücher, from which us Evangelicals in particular, the word has the following are the salient passages : through Luther become our all, and as a good Dr. Harnack remarks that “the Babylonian theologian Delitzsch ought not to forget that origin of many of the myths and legends of the our great Luther has taught us to sing and to Old Testament' has long been recognized, and believe, the word they must allow to stand !' that in the general opinion of scholars 'this fact It is to me self-evident that the Old Testament has been recognized as fatal to the popular concontains a number of passages which are of the ception of the inspiration of the Old Testanature of purely human history and are not God's revealed word.' There are purely his It is, however, going much too far to say that torical descriptions of events of every kind which on this account the Old Testament has now beare accomplished in the political, religious, moral, come worthless. The traditional forms in which and spiritual life of the people of Israel. For ex. the Old Testament has been authoritatively ample, the act of the giving of the law on Mount handed down to us are urgently in need of Sinai can only symbolically be regarded as in alteration. spired by God, inasmuch as Moses was obliged

THE UNITY OF REVELATION. to resort to the revival of laws which perhaps had long been known (possibly they origi Professor Harnack expresses his agreement nated in the codex of Hammurabi) in order to with the Emperor when he asserts that the revedraw and bind together the structure of his lations of God to mankind are persons, and, people, which in its composition was loose and above all, great men, whose individuality and hardly capable of offering any resistance to out power constitute their secret, but he cumbers his side pressure. The historian may be able, by aid theory of the revelations. of the sense or the words of the text, to estab “ There can be no question of two (separate) lish at this point a connection with the laws of revelations, for surely religion, moral power, and Hammurabi, the friend of Abraham, and the intellectual knowledge are most closely conlink would perhaps be logically correct ; but this nected. There is, on the contrary, only one would never invalidate the fact that God prompted revelation, the instruments of which doubtless Moses and to this extent revealed himself to the differed from each other and continue to differ people of Israel.

altogether in respect of their character and their THE KAISER'S CREDO.

greatness, their calling and their mission. If

Jesus Christ loses nothing of his peculiar char6. The conclusion which I draw from the whole acter and his unique position when he is placed matter is as follows:

in the line of Moses, Isaiah, and the Psalmists, (a) I believe in one God, who is one in sub he likewise suffers no loss when we regard him stance. (Ich glaube an einen, einigen Gott.) in the line of Socrates, of Plato, and of those

ment.'"

He says :

others who are mentioned in the Emperor's letter. disciples if ye love one another ; ' it is more im. The religious contemplation of history can only, portant to meditate on these words and to live in fine, attain unity when it delivers and raises in accordance with them than to put into forto the position of children of God mankind, mulæ what is incomprehensible and venerable. whom God leads forth out of the state of nature And moreover, the time will come and is already and emancipates from error and from sin. This approaching when Evangelical Christians will is without prejudice to the view that the history join hands in all sincerity in confessing Jesus of God in Israel represents the specific line in Christ as their Lord, and in the determination ancient times.

to follow his words ; and our Catholic brethren

will then have to do likewise. The burden of a THE DISTINCTION OR THE DIVINITY OF CHRIST ?

long history, full of misunderstandings and re« The Christian community must reject every plete with formulæ which are as rigid as swords, estimate of Christ which obliterates the distinc. the burden of tears and of blood, weighs upon tion between him and the other masters. He us ; yet in that burden there is vouchsafed us a himself, his disciples, and the history of the sacred inheritance. The burden and the inherit. world have spoken in such clear terms on this ance seem to be inextricably linked together, but point that there ought to be no room for doubt; they are gradually being severed, although the and in his word he still speaks to us as clearly final • let there be' (sic) has not yet been uttered as in the days of old he spoke to his disciples. over this chaos. Straightforwardness and courYet the question may and must be raised whether age, sincerity toward one's self, freedom and the rigid formula, the divinity of Christ, is the love,—these are the levers which will remove right one. He himself did not employ it ; he the burden. In the service of this exalted misselected other designations; and whether it was sion the Emperor's letter is also enlisted." ever adopted by any of his disciples is, to say the least, very doubtful. Nay, the early Church itself did not speak of the divinity of Christ

AN ENGLISH VIEW OF THE GERMAN

EMPEROR. without qualification ; it always spoke of his divinity and humanity.' Godmanhood' is,

OF

F the anti-German literature constantly aptherefore, the only correct formula, even in the pearing in the English reviews, no small sense of the ancient dogma. This formula im part is aimed at the Kaiser himself. The spirit plies the almost complete restoration of the of many of these articles is well represented in • mystery' which, in accordance with the will of

a paper contributed by "Scrutator" to the March Christ himself, was meant to be preserved in this number of the National Review, entitled “ The question. Of the truth that he is the Lord and Kaisers" (note the plural form). the Saviour, he made no secret ; and that he is “Scrutator" regards the Kaiser as a psycho. so was to be experienced and realized by his logical study, and sees the explanation of his disciples in his word and his works. But how vagaries in his “multiplex personality,” the his relationship to his Father arose, this he kept symptom of which is that the individual affected to himself and has hidden it from us.

pursues contrasted courses at one and the same time. There is something protean and extraor

dinary in the Kaiser's temperament, and just as " According to my reading of history and my he is — in external dress — private individual, own feeling, even the formula «man and God' hussar, British admiral, the wearer of a dozen (Godmanhood) is not absolutely unexceptionable, uniforms all on the same day, so he is mentally for even this formula trespasses upon a mystery the friend and enemy of everything at the same into which we are not allowed to look. Never time. theless, this formula may well remain, since it really does not profess to explain anything, but only protects what is extraordinary from prof. The Kaiser, “Scrutator” points out, has al. anation. The Pauline. phrase, “God was in ways been pro-British and anti-British. The Christ,' appears to me to be the last word which anti-British Kaiser sent the Krüger telegram, we can utter on this subject after having slowly and when the war broke out, hinted at Hamburg and painfully emancipated ourselves from the that if the German fleet had been ready there delusion of ancient philosophers that we could would have been intervention. The pro-British penetrate the mysteries of God and nature, of Kaiser abandoned the Boers, and sent money to humanity and history.

the Indian Famine Fund, with the remark that «« If ye love Me, keep My commandments ;' « blood was thicker than water." The anti• thereby shall every one know that ye are My American Kaiser dreads the nightmare strength

A VISION OF REUNITED CHRISTENDOM.

THE

PRO-ANTI-BRITISH KAISER.

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of the United States ; he risks a rupture at the soldier Kaiser, who turns out garrisons, reManila ; the pro-American Kaiser sends his hearses maneuvers, and commands the most forbrother, Prince Henry, to flatter and coax the midable

army the world has ever seen ; the sailor American people. In his relations with France Kaiser, who knows every detail of his fleet and and Holland, there has been a pro- and an anti who is persistently pressing for its increase, who Kaiser

dismisses admirals, captains, and lieutenants “But the pro-British, the anti-British, the pro where they fall below the standard which he American, the anti-American, the pro-Russian, sets, and who orders Venezuelan bombardments the anti-Russian, the pro-French, and the anti pour embêter les États Unis. French Kaisers do not exhaust the catalogue. “ But the real puzzle has yet to be solved. There is the Christian Kaiser who declared that Which of all these twenty-odd Kaisers is the • the foundations of the empire are laid in the real one? That, perhaps, the history of the next fear of God ;' that whosoever does not base his few years may reveal." life upon faith is lost ;' that only good Christians can be good soldiers ; ' who preaches sermons on board the imperial yacht; who has con

THE MACEDONIAN ATROCITIES. ferred upon the Almighty the distinction of being

L we . the special ally of Germany, in words which cer Mr. Charles Johnston's article on Macedotainly astonished the reverent world, and who nia. In the Contemporary Review for March, Dr. has graciously beatified the old Kaiser Wilhelm E. J. Dillon writes of the Macedonian atrocities and Frederick the Great. Side by side with this and the futility of Turkish reforms. He describes Kaiser stands the ruler who directed his troops, scenes which, as he truly says, come to us “like when embarking for China, to give no quarter- deadly visions from out the plague-polluted mist to kill all they met. And the people who of hell.” obeyed this behest, whose army's line of march He ridicules the idea that the Sultan will exewas marked by a trail of burned villages, out cute any of the reforms recommended in the raged women, and murdered children, found Austro-Russian note. fault with British humanity in South Africa ! “ All these reforms—with the exception of the

administration of the provinces by the Ottoman MANY OTHER VARIETIES OF KAISER.

Bank—have over and over again been decided “ Time and space fail us to exhibit side by upon and announced by the Sultan, but they side the Socialist Kaiser and the Kaiser who have always remained on paper.” punishes strikes with penal servitude, instruct The Turk, while promising to carry out the ing his soldiers that they must be ready to fire reforms, is preparing to fight. on their own kinsmen at his behest ; the poet “ The best Turkish generals have been apKaiser, author of the quaint ode to Aegir; the pointed to the chief strategic positions in the dramatist Kaiser, the terrible volubility of whose country ; Ali Riza Pasha—who served for sevletters and telegrams drove his collaborator, eral years in the Prussian army and will probably Signor Leoncavallo, into the mountains of Italy, be commander-in-chief in the future war—is at where he might at least have rest from these the head of the province of Monastir, and Mehmessages; the theater-critic Kaiser ; the artist med Hafiz in Uskub." Kaiser, who draws everything, from pictures of

WHAT IS GOING ON IN MACEDONIA TO-DAY. the armed Michael to diagrams of battleships ; who produces a perfect shower of memorial Dr. Dillon quotes from the reports of Mme. cards, postcards, paintings ; who dictates the Bakhmetieff, the American wife of the Russian rules of their profession to German artists ; who consul at Sofia, and from the official report of is, in a word, omniscient and omnipotent, but M. Westman, Russian vice-consul at Philippopo. whose works must not be criticised under penal- lis, details of atrocities enough to make the blood ty of lèse majesté ; the crusader Kaiser, who made run cold. He says that one-third of the male a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and, while speaking population of one of the best-behaved districts in that thrice holy spot of his devotion to the in Macedonia have been compelled to flee the service of the Redeemer's cause, at the same country. time complimented the Sultan, though that po “ The Russian vice-consul at Philippopolis, M. tentate's hands were then red with the blood of Westman, crossed over into Macedonia in order the Armenians, and avowed friendship with him ; to verify the incredible statements of many of the absolutist Kaiser, who has written Sic volo, the fugitives, and the startling results of his insic jubeo, regis suprema voluntas, and who has said, vestigations were sent to the foreign office in St. • There is one law only, and that is my will ; Petersburg. Among other interesting facts, he

there informs his government that a belt of ter

THE EVIDENCE OF AN AMERICAN LADY. ritory thirty versts broad, running parallel to the frontier, typifies the abomination of desola

“ We have the authority of Mme. Bakhmetieff tion; the churches having been defiled and the

-who traveled about in the deep snow with the villages partly burned to the ground, while the

thermometer at 22 Celsius below freezing point, inhabitants have fled no one knows whither. to bring succor to the fugitives—for saying that 6 M. Westman declares that he saw women

two priests of the villages of Oranoff and Padesh who had run away to save their honor and their were tortured in a manner which suggests the lives and were huddled together in mountain

story of St. Lawrence's death. They were not fastnesses where the snow lay several feet deep, exactly laid on gridirons, but they were hung and the wretched creatures were in an almost

over a fire and burned with red-hot irons.

In naked state. Some of them, he adds, had trudged

the village of Batshoff, thirty-two peasants were along on foot, floundering in the snow for twenty

beaten almost to death in the presence of the consecutive days with no shred of clothing but

district chief (Kaimakam) of Mehomia." their chernises. Forty of the women who reached Dubnicza and were cared for by Mme. Bakh

The Revolutionary Movement. metieff, were about to become mothers. Most of these misery-stricken women and men were

In the Nineteenth Century, Mr. G. F. Abbott almost naked, wasted to skeletons, with dull,

writes on Macedonia and the revolutionary com. sunken eyes and pinched cheeks. Several were

mittees. His article is chiefly valuable because mutilated or disfigured, and the livid welts, the

it contains a translation of the rules and regulaopen wounds, the horrible marks of the red-hot

tions which govern these revolutionary bands. pincers with which they had been tortured, were

Mr. Abbott makes the most, or the worst, of the witnessed by all.

case against the Macedonians. He says:

“ Macedonians as a distinct and homogeneous HOW THE TURKS TORTURE WOMEN AND CHILDREN. ethnic group do not exist. What actually exist

are a Greek population in the south of the prov“One of the women in Dubnicza, who seemed

ince, a Slavonic population in the north, a mixed more dead than alive, was asked by the kindhearted lady why she looked so utterly crushed

and debatable congeries of nationalities and in spirit, now that the danger had passed and

dialects in the middle, a few Wallachs here and

there, and Mohammedans sprinkled everywhere. life, at any rate, was safe. Amid tears and sighs and convulsive quiverings of the body, the poor

The whole thing strikes the traveler as an ethcreature told the sickening story of how her nological experiment conceived by demons and brother had had his head cut off before her eyes,

carried out by maniacs—not devoid of a mad

sort of humor. Add that the Slavs themselves after which she had to stand by while the ruffians chopped up his body into fragments. Sev

do not always know whether they are Servians eral witnessed the agony of their tender daugh

or Bulgarians, and, if the latter, whether they

are Schismatic or Orthodox, or, if Schismatic, ters—children of from ten to thirteen-and

whether they wish to see the country independ. heard their piercing cries as the men who wore the Sultan's coat subjected them to nameless

ent or part of the Bulgarian Principality, and violence. Numbers of children succumbed to

you have a fairly accurate picture of a state of these diabolical assaults, their last looks being things presented by no other part of the globe turned on their helpless parents or their smok

of equal dimensions." ing homes. In one place, two children—one aged eighteen months, the other four years— had their skulls split open by the soldiers. Other It is, perhaps, not to be wondered at that the little girls and boys were deliberately and me revolutionary organization should be subject to thodically tortured to death, while a place was splits and schisms. assigned to their fathers and mothers where they “At the annual congress, held last August, were forced to listen to the agonizing screams the adherents of Sarafoff refused to recognize and watch the contractions of the tender bodies MM. Michailovski and Zontcheff as heads of the each time that the once pretty faces were slowly committee, and on being excluded from the sitlowered into the fire, into which Turkish pepper tings, proceeded to form a committee of their had been plentifully scattered. This is in truth own. a form of torture which only a devil could have But although they differ on the question of invented, for long before death releases the tiny annexation versus independence, they agree as to mite, the eyes are said to start from their sockets their modus operandi. and burst.

“ Zontcheff and Sarafoff and their respective

A PLAN TO PROVOKE A MASSACRE.

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adherents, however, believe that they can induce THE FIRST CRADLE OF GREEK CIVILIZATION. Europe to intervene by provoking a massacre, T is a striking sidelight on the near Eastern and it is not at all impossible that their calcula

IT

question, now at the acute phase once more, tions may prove correct. The Porte is incapable that the liberation of Crete from Ottoman misof sustained and vigorous action."

rule led directly to the discovery of an early and The committees raised their funds by black hitherto undreamed of civilization. This fact mail enforced by murder, and he asserts that it

appears in a paper by Mr. D. G. Hogarth in was they who kidnapped the American mission.

Cornhill on the Cretan Exhibition at Burlington ary, Miss Stone.

House, London. Minoan Knossos was the cen“ The Central Committee not long since issued ter of the most significant of the Hellenic myths postage stamps with the figure of Macedonia as

and traditions of power, and Schliemann had a woman in chains and the legend "Supreme endeavored to institute explorations there; but Macedonia Adrianopolis Committee.' These

the Ottoman governors and the Moslem owners stamps were purchased by patriots and used in

of the site interposed difficulties. After Prince addition to the ordinary stamps, the proceeds of George and freedom came, Mr. Arthur Evans, the sale going to feed the insurrectionary move keeper of the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, ment."

had no difficulty in buying out the Moslem

owners, and in March, 1900, he put in the first What Is Needed.

spade. The result of three seasons' work has The National Review for March contains a well shown this hillock “to contain by far the most written article, signed “Diabantos," on the sub varied and extraordinary evidence of a dead ject of Macedonian reform. The writer main civilization that perhaps has ever been brought tains that the following are the fundamental to light at one spot in any part of the world.” requirements of the situation :

“ Not only could the Knossian builders pile “Protection of the Christian against the Mos story upon story of massive stonework, conlem, without giving the Christian majority of nected by broad and easy internal stairways, two to one the means of thereby obtaining the rising flight over flight, for the first time in the ascendency ; protection of the peasantry of all history of architecture, but they could drain and races and religions against the officials, without sanitate their constructions better than our own thereby unduly weakening the executive or re medieval builders. ducing the revenues ; protection of the provin " There are many indications here of a peacecial administration against the central govern ful prosperity and a sumptuousness of civilizament, without injuring the prestige or power of tion for which one was little prepared in wild the empire.”

Crete in the middle of the second millennium “ Diabantos" quotes Sir H. D. Wolff to the before the Christian era. It is most significant effect that the only hope of Turkey lies in de that this great Palace building, with all its centralization ; and he points out that the Padi. wealth in kind suggested by the presence of shah was never so powerful as when he was the hundreds of oil and wine jars as high as a man, head of a feudal state. The railroad and tele and with all its wealth in precious materialgraph, which put an end to the relative inde. gold, silver,

gold, silver, ivory, crystal—whose existence pendence of the provinces, put an end also to actual remains, paintings, and the many sunken their comparative prosperity. The writer urges treasure-chests abundantly prove, should have that the present administrative division of Mace been wholly unfortified. Its great portals, north donia into three vilayets, or provinces, should be and south, open straight on to the surrounding retained, as it breaks up the Bulgar majority of country; and the town, clustering round, seems the population and balances the sections against to have had no wall." the three rival races—Serbs in Kossovo, Greeks The Cretan king, it is inferred, had command, in Monastir, and Turks in Salonika.

not only of his own island, but of the South that the governors of these vilayets should be Ægean. Hence the luxurious peace enjoyed at subordinated to a governor-general whose ap Knossos, which neither Memphis, Thebes, nor pointment would be for a fixed term and should Babylon could ever enjoy. be approved by a majority of the powers.

" Thanks to natural advantages of isolated “To sum up in a few words : Reform must be position and fertility, Crete seems to have taken reduced to its lowest expression, to the least the lead of all its neighboring lands in the third common multiple of the three factors—protec millennium B.C., and to have kept it till the catation of the Christians, the peasantry, and the clysm which everywhere overwhelmed Ægean provinces—and this desideratum is to be found civilization about the beginning of the first. in the Lebanon règlement of 1864."

- The acme of Knossian culture seems to fall

He says

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