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for girdling the continent with a new line of said to be the finest on the Pacific coast north of railway is that for which the Dominion govern. San Francisco. It has the additional advantage ment has granted a charter to the Trans-Canada of being much nearer to Yokohama than either Railway Company. The national character of Vancouver or San Francisco. Nottaway, on this proposition from the Canadian standpoint, James Bay, which is to be reached by a branch its military importance from the imperial point of the main line, is the only deep-water harbor of view, the value, from a commercial aspect, of on the bay, and with some dredging might be the remarkably short and direct route mapped used by vessels drawing thirty feet of water. out for it, and the popular interest attaching to The coast line of James and Hudson bays, it by reason of the high latitudes which it is tributary to this railway, will be about four likely to traverse, are attracting to it a large thousand miles. Chicoutimi, on the Saguenay, share of public attention.
can be reached by vessels of any draught, and DIRECTNESS OF THE ROUTE.
Quebec has magnificent docks, which have cost
the government millions of dollars, with deepThe proposed line of the Trans-Canada Rail water berth and elevator facilities for steamers way is one of the most direct which can span of any draught. The new bridge now building the continent. Starting from deep-water termini over the St. Lawrence at Quebec will enable the at Chicoutimi,—the head of navigation on the Trans-Canada road to make use of St. John and Saguenay River,—at Quebec, and at Montreal, Halifax for winter ports if ever those of Quebec it is destined to traverse and develop the best and Chicoutimi should be blocked by ice. part of the newly discovered wheat and timber lands of northern Quebec in the James Bay district, to tap the whole of the James Bay and Hud From both Quebec and Chicoutimi to Rober: son Bay trade, to open up the valuable mineral val, on the western shore of Lake St. John, the country of northern Ontario, to cross the center railway is already built. For sixty miles northof the rich wheat lands of the Peace River valley, west of Roberval, the line has been laid out, and and, finally, to reach one of the finest ports on construction was commenced before the fall of the Pacific coast by a pass in the mountains the present winter's snow. For this first section only 2,000 feet high, as compared with 4,425 at of sixty miles from Roberval, the government of Crow's Nest, and with 5,400 at Kicking Horse. the Dominion submitted to Parliament a subsidy
The most cursory glance at the line laid down bill, which was duly ratified, granting a subon the map for the new road reveals the direct sidy of $3,200 per mile, to be increased to $6,400 ness of the route and its far-northern location. per mile should the cost be in excess of $15,000
From Quebec to Port Simpson via the Trans per mile. The same grant is expected from the Canada Railway will be only 2,830 miles, all of Canadian government for the whole length of the route south of the northern limit of wheat, the line, besides generous land grants from the while the distance between the same points via governments of the different provinces through the Grand Trunk Railway will be about 3,400 which the railway is to pass. Both the provinces miles, and that from Quebec to Vancouver by of Ontario and Quebec have been asked to give the Canadian Pacific Railway is 3,078 miles. a grant of 20,000 acres of land per mile for those The expected saving in both distance and gradi portions of the Trans-Canada Railway which are ents by the proposed road over existing routes to run through their territory. from Manitoba to the Canadian seaports on the Many of the far-northern lands through which St. Lawrence is so great that the promoters it is proposed to construct the new railway, and have already undertaken to carry wheat from which are capable of great development, are all points on its line in the Province of Mani almost valueless at the present time for want of toba to the ocean steamer at Chicoutimi, Mon the means of communication. In illustration of treal, or Quebec at rates which will save the this, it may be mentioned that an American synfarmers of Manitoba and the Northwest about dicate has already offered to the prime minister seven cents per bushel on present cost of trans of Quebec the sum of $37,500,000, or $1.50 per portation to the seaboard. It is claimed that this acre, for 25,000,000 acres of forest and mineral saving alone will much more than pay the total lands in the far north of that province which interest upon the cost of the road's construction. are to be traversed by the railway. This offer
was promptly declined by the premier, though it OCEAN PORTS. would have furnished him with
more than It is admitted on every hand that the termi enough ready cash to pay off the entire public nal seaports of the Trans-Canada leave nothing debt of the province; and in acquainting the to be desired. The harbor of Port Simpson is legislature with the fact, Mr. Parent declared
that he considered these particular lands to be pool to Yokohama via the Trans-Canada is only worth from five to ten dollars per acre when 9,830 miles, against 12,089 miles via New York opened up by railway communication. The in and San Francisco. cident shows, however, how well the federal and
CLIMATIC CONSIDERATIONS. provincial governments of Canada can afford to lend their assistance to the construction of such It is difficult, at first sight, to understand what roads as the Trans-Canada.
local traffic can be expected from a road located
so far north as the projected line of the TransAS A MILITARY LINE OF COMMUNICATION.
Canada. To arrive at a proper appreciation of The importance attaching to the project from the facts of the case, it is necessary to take into the British imperial standpoint arises from its consideration the peculiar course and direction far-northern route as well as froin its directness. of the isothermal lines of northern Canada. It Colonel Kitson, one of the foremost military au will surprise many people to learn that excellent thorities of the day, who was some years ago a grain and vegetables are raised at Moose Facprofessor at the Royal Military College of Kings tory, on James Bay, where the mean summer ton, Ontario, told the people of England, the other temperature is almost as favorable as that of day, at a banquet, that though trouble between Montreal. Still more remarkable does it, at first
Britain and the United States never seemed further off than now, yet if it should come, the American regular army, stationed on the frontier, would raid the Canadian lines of communication, which are all quite close to the boundary line, and render Canada helpless. The TransCanada, on the other hand, would be comparatively safe from molestation, being, along all its course from Chicoutimi, between three hundred and six hundred miles from the American boundary line. This feature of the route of the Trans-Canada has been enlarged upon by writers in several of the English papers, and it is also pointed out that the eastern termini of the road at Chicoutimi and Quebec, its western at Port Simpson, and the point at which it touches James Bay, could easily be defended against all comers by British fleets ; while in view of the possibility of an Anglo-Japanese alliance, it is interesting to note that the distance from Liver.
sight, appear that where the projected railway is to traverse the Peace River valley, more than five hundred miles north of the international dividing line, it will still be but half-way from the boundary to the northern limit of wheat. In other words, the wheat belt of northwest Canada extends as far north from the interna. tional boundary as the distance from Quebec to Chicago. This is the country into which the great trek of American farmers is now taking place. The warm winds known as the Chinooks come across the mountains from the Japan current and alter the climate of this great area north to the Arctic, so that the climate of western Canada does not correspond with the latitude ; the isotherms, or lines of equal mean temperature for any period of the year, instead of running east and west, as they were formerly supposed to do, have a tendency to run northwest and southeast, and the spring in the Peace River
country opens up as early, or earlier, than it does in Winnipeg, thirteen hundred miles to the southeast.
Perhaps the strongest claim which the promoters of the Trans-Canada are urging upon the government of Canada is that their line is des.
tined to serve Canadian ports exclusively, at all seasons of the year, whereas the rival projects which are also asking government recogni. tion and aid are using Portland, Boston, New York, and other American ports for their winter termini.
SOUTH AUSTRALIA'S LAND-GRANT RAILWAY.
BY THE HON. J. H. GORDON, K.C., M.L.C.
(Attorney-General of South Australia.)
WHAT THE RAILWAY WILL DO.
OUTH AUSTRALIA'S scheme for the con. of Australia through our territory is much the
struction of a railway across Australia is best ; but it is not the only route possible. Our one of the biggest ventures ever undertaken by rich sister states of New South Wales and any state, and is certainly one of the most im. Queensland have rival schemes, and they are portant ever offered to private enterprise in any not by any means blind to the immense advan. part of the world. Put shortly, the offer is, tage of having such a line within their borders. “ Build within our territory a thousand and sixty. The necessities of Australia call for the railway. three miles of railway, which shall remain your South Australia has upon all grounds the best own property, and we will give you, as a bonus, right to supply the want, and she does not in. a grant in fee simple of seventy-nine million seven tend to sleep upon that right. hundred and twenty-five acres of land !”
Whoever earns this bonus will be the greatest private landowner of whom history has any rec It will be of immense advantage to the Ausord. He will possess in fee simple a territory tralian Commonwealth from a military point of larger than the whole of the United Kingdom. view. Port Darwin, as Major-General Jervois
said many years ago, is the key to the East. A WHY SOUTH AUSTRALIA MAKES THE OFFER.
railway connecting a point of such strategical Thirty years ago, South Australia earned the importance with the southern part of Australia praise and gratitude of the world by building will be invaluable for purposes of defense ; inthe transcontinental telegraph line, and not many deed, it cannot be said that we are sufficiently years afterward, she began to bridge the conti- protected against our powerful Eastern neighnent with a railway also. Toward this great bors without it. work, railways were built, running north from It will be of even greater commercial advanAdelaide to Oodnadatta, 688 miles, and south tage. It is said that when the Russian Siberian from Port Darwin to Pine Creek, 146 miles. Be Railway reaches Port Arthur, mails and passentween these there remains a gap of 1,063 miles. gers can be landed at Port Darwin in fourteen It is this gap which it is proposed to fill with a days from London. Given our proposed rail. railway built on the land-grant system.
way, they should reach Adelaide from Port DarThough circumstances have caused delay, the win (about nineteen hundred miles) in three project of establishing railway communication days. Result : Seventeen days from London to between Adelaide and Port Darwin has never Adelaide. Time is money. The railway means been abandoned by South Australia. If we can
money to all Australia. not get the railway built upon the terms now For a time, the trade of the East must be offered, we shall, I am convinced, do the work gripped by the paw of the Great Bear. But ourselves. Possibly, in the long run, South some day, perhaps in our time—who knows ?Australia would gain by making it a state under Singapore will be the terminus of a line running taking pure and simple. But the long run from Europe through India and Burma. Singais too distant an outlook.
pore is three days nearer Port Darwin than Port While we are waiting until we have money Arthur. When this is accomplished, -again, of enough to build the railway ourselves, some course, given our railway,—
,—we shall not only be other state will certainly “jump our claim.” The within fourteen days of our imperial center, but route from Port Darwin to the southern coast we shall have ousted our Russian rival in favor
of a route which will run largely through British seventy-five thousand acres of land per mile of territory.
railway. These are all advantages which every state in Bids must be sent in on or before May 2, 1904. the Commonwealth will share. South Australia, The successful bidder must: 1. Construct the with the gateway to a continent within her ter railway to the satisfaction of the engineer-inritory, as well as the only land approach thereto, chief, on the 3 feet 6 inches gauge; the rails to will, of course, reap a special reward. In addi be of steel, and of not less weight than 60 pounds tion, South Australia will benefit by the opening to the yard. 2. Complete the work in eight up of an immense area of country much of years, the minimum length of line to be conwhich is eminently suited to carry a European structed in any one year being one hundred
Suara 120 120
TE RRUTO RY
A U S.TRAL
LONGITUDE 130 EAST FROM GREENWICH 140
62.66 63.20 47.79 46.01
40.36 27.59 18.65 15.32 12.28
ment on the line running from Port Augusta to inches ; but within this belt, low as the rainfall is, Oodnadatta.
some of the finest cattle and horses in Australia The successful bidder is given a right of pur are bred, and most of it is at present profitably chase of the railway from Port Darwin to Pine occupied by stock-raisers. The country is also Creek, at a price to be fixed by arbitration, and artesian, and good lucern [alfalfa) is grown at also running rights over all South Australian Oodnadatta when sufficient trouble has been railways, on terms to be fixed by the railways taken to use the artesian supply. commissioner.
Above Charlotte Waters, the rainfall increases As each forty miles of railway is completed, until it reaches an almost tropical fall at Port the contractor may select the land to which he Darwin, as the following table shows. The is entitled, in blocks, which must be chosen record is for twenty-eight years : alternately on either side of the railway, and
Average Annual abutting upon it. No two blocks may face each
Port Darwin other, and each must be as nearly as possible in
Southport the shape of a parallelogram, running true east Yam Creek and west, having a width of twenty miles. The
45.29 land will be granted with all gold, metals, and
Katherine River minerals thereon, and without any reservation Daly Waters except that public roads may be taken there. Powell Creek.
Tennant Creek from by the governor without compensation.
Barrow Creek The land is to be free from any land tax im
10.73 posed by South Australia for ten years from the Charlotte Waters date of the grant. Gold fields actually pro
Oodnadatta.. claimed at the time of the passing of the act, The products of the Northern Territory anand all lands in use for public purposes, are ex swer to the rainfall. In the north, all the useful cluded from selection.
tropical plants,—such as cotton, rice, and sugar. It is estimated that the railway, with equip cane,—flourish. From Powell Creek southward, ment, will cost about five millions sterling ($25, the greater part of the country is admirably 000,000). The government reserves the right to suited for the breeding of sheep, horned cattle, purchase the railway at any time, at a valuation and horses. It would be unwise, perhaps, to to be fixed by arbitration in case of disagreement. speak too confidently of the mineral wealth of
this vast stretch of country, throughout the
whole of which gold, silver, copper, and other The route presents no engineering difficulties. minerals have been found in varying quantiA nurse-maid could wheel a baby in a peram bu ties. The reports of our government geologist, lator from end to end of it. Ballast can be ob. Mr. Brown, F.G.S. ; of the late Professor Tate, tained almost everywhere, and good water has F.G.S., and of many other competent authori. been proved to exist all along the telegraph line. ties, more than hint at immense possibilities of The climate is eminently suited for white labor. mineral wealth in the Northern Territory. It Malaria is unknown between Pine Creek and is well known that large and payable gold-bearOodnadatta. Mr. Simpson Newland, a most re ing reefs exist in many places, only waiting the liable authority, says that
railway to make them available for working. The climate is more temperate than that of a large
Nearly every mail brings to Adelaide news of portion of inhabited Australia, as well as more fertile
fresh mineral discoveries. The man who builds and better grassed. It is indeed excellent country, and this railway will earn no barren estate. exceedingly healthy; warm, with occasional excessively
WHAT SOUTH AUSTRALIA WILL GAIN. hot days, but cool nights. The climate of the MacDonnell Ranges in particular is reported by the resi
Objections have mostly come from outside dents of years as most enjoyable, as with such an eleva
South Australia. South Australia itself is for tion it must be. Prof. Baldwin Spencer writes : “There is no finer climate in the world than that of the
the scheme almost to a man. Some people say MacDonnell Ranges ; indeed, the winter in the interior that the bonus of 75,000 acres of land for each was of a most perfect kind-bright, clear days and cool mile of railway is too great. It is certainly nights. Admirable conditions for a consumptive sana magnificent; but we have in the Northern Tertorium."
ritory alone 523,000 square miles of land ; that The only dry stretch of country along the is, 335,116,800 acres. By far the greater part route is that between Oodnadatta and Charlotte this is not only idle, but an annual burden Waters, one hundred and thirty miles. Over upon the state.
After giving 79,000,000 acres this, the average annual rainfall is about five for the railway, we shall have, in round figures,
THE ROUTE AND THE COUNTRY.