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ROOSEVELT TO THE SENATE: "Boys, this hurts me more than it does you."-From the Inquirer (Philadelphia.)


T is certainly President Roosevelt's month. He goes

upon his Western tour with all the freedom of mind and elasticity of spirit that belong to vacation days after a hard term's work in school. The cartoon on this page represents the President as a schoolmaster who has been obliged to keep some of his pupils after hours, and who is really more eager to get out than they are themselves. It refers, of course, to the extra session of the Senate, made neces ry by its failure in the regular session to ratify the Panama Canal treaty and the Cuban

reciprocity treaty. Fortunately, its work was done quickly in the extra session, and the President's plans of travel were not disturbed. The international cartoons of the past month or two have given great prominence to President Roosevelt's vindication of the Monroe Doctrine, to his advocacy of a powerful navy, to his successful programme for the better regulation of trusts and corporations, and to his utterances and activities in various directions. His is to-day the most observed personality in the world.


PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT: “Is it safe to shoot ?"
THE BEAR: “Does he mean business ?"-From the Westminster Budget (London).

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PATER FAMILIAS: “Well, anyway, I've the satisfaction of being a good and true citizen.”

From the News-Tribune (Detroit).

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(School Visitor for the General Education Board.)

[One hears much about backward conditions and new progressive tendencies in Southern education. Most readers can best understand a subject of that kind when it is presented, with due analysis and description, in a concrete study of some locality. Readers of all sections-North, East, South, and West-who really care to know about the Southern school movement will find this article by Mr. Cloyd well worth careful reading. Topics like those suggested in this article will, for the most part, make up the programme of the great “Conference on Southern Education” to be held at Richmond, Va., toward the end of the present month. Mr. Cloyd's careful study of two Georgia counties further illustrates the methods of inquiry pursued by the General Education Board and its ally, the Southern Education Board. We predict that the time will come when rural education in New England, New York, Pennsylvania, and some parts of the West will have to go to North Carolina and Georgia to find out the best way to make the district schools promote the welfare of country neighborhoods.—THE EDITOR.)

the rural school question is the great problem. other, Bibb County, represents the better conBetween eight-ninths and eight-tenths of our people

ditions of the public schools, which are the result live in the country, and yet not one-third of our agri

of a long term of organization and administracultural lands are being tilled, and that one-third not tilled one-third as well as it should be. ... What bless

tion under the power of local taxation and efings can be carried to these people of the rural sections

ficient supervision. when first-class schools are furnished to all of them ! The school system of Bibb County was organ

Hon. HOKE SMITH, Atlanta, Ga. ized by special legislative enactment in 1872, We are, I think, in the beginning of one of the great

five years before the adoption of the present est educational movements that this country has ever State constitution. This system is under the seen. I doubt if there has been anything equal to it sirce administration of a county board and a superinthe day, fifty years ago, when Horace Mann began his tendent. The board is self-perpetuating, with crusade in Massachusetts. But we teachers know well

twelve regular members, and the mayor of the what the meaning of this is,-we know that the enthusiasm engendered here will not last. ... That model

city of Macon, the Superior Court judge, and the school over in Danielsville (Georgia) is a beacon light. ordinary as three ex-officio members. The memWhen the reaction comes, that school, and others like it bers of this board are from among the best citi. which will some day be established, are the schools to zens of the county, and, being free from political which we shall look and say : “Here you will find rep control, they direct the schools in the interest resented that for which we stand ; you must judge of

of all the people. Their long term of office enour work by that which is done as it ought to be done.” Dean JAMES E. RUSSELL, Teachers' College.

ables them to inaugurate and carry out whatever

policy they may think best. This board of eduTHE HE first of these two quotations defines the cation is far more influential than any other

problem of the South, and the second one board in the county. The board chooses a susounds a note of warning and at the same time perintendent of schools. This official is the points out the necessity of developing model executive officer of the board and the professchools which embody the elements that are sional head of the schools. The present superbest and most lasting in our present ideals. intendent is Jere M. Pound, a graduate of the

The purpose of this article is to show, by a State University of Georgia, an experienced concrete illustration, what the facts and condi teacher, a man of rare administrative ability, tions regarding elementary education in the and a gentleman of culture. South are, how the improvement of the schools Hancock County has a dual system of adininiswaits upon the power of local taxation and ef tration. There is a county board and a local board ficient supervision, and what the goal is toward for each school. The local board is intended to which the renaissance tends. Two counties in be merely advisory. The county board is, in Georgia are taken as types. One, Hancock reality, vested with full power to control the County, represents two things : first, the back schools. Its members are five in number, and ward conditions of the public schools, which are are appointed for a term of four years. This due largely to the lack of sufficient funds and board appoints a superintendent of schools for to inadequate supervision ; second, the great a term of four years. As in Bibb County, he is awakening in education, and the direction in the executive officer of the board and the prowhich improvements are being made. The fessional head of the schools. The present board

gives the superintendent full authority, but, as growing out of the two very different school owing to the method of appointment and the systems. Bibb County has had the power of short term of office, the efficiency of some mem local taxation for thirty years,' and has also had bers of the board is occasionally impaired by efficient supervision, while Hancock County has personal and political influence from outside. never had local taxation, and has had efficient The superintendent is M. L. Duggan, a gradu supervision only during the six years' service of ate of Mercer University. Mr. Duggan is a the present superintendent. The constitution good scholar, an experienced teacher, and an of the State of Georgia, while in terms permisefficient administrative school officer. What is sive, virtually prohibits local tax for school purmore, he has that spirit of earnest devotion poses, and consequently, out of one hundred and and self-sacrifice without which but little could thirty-seven counties, only four have such a tax, be done under the conditions existing in his and these secured the right by special legislative county

enactment. These two counties are in the same agricul A careful analysis of the following table of tural belt, and are but fifty miles apart. Thirty statistics, furnished by Mr. Duggan and Mr. years ago, they were under practically the same Pound, will make quite clear their special sigconditions, with whatever difference there might nificance as touching the problem in hand. It have been decidedly in favor of Hancock County. was impossible to get data from earlier records Since that time, great differences have arisen, than the ones given here that could be at all which this article tries to account for, in part,

relied upon.

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57 % 57 %

Square miles in county.
Total population, 1880..
Total population, 1900.
Assessed valuation, 1880.
Assessed valuation, 1902.
School census, 1898..
School enrollment, 1902.
Percentage of enrollment, 1902.
Percentage of attendance, 1902..
Share State school fund, 1902
Rate of county tax, 1872-1902.
Rate special district tax..
Rate nine months would require.
Number of school buildings..
Number owned by board..
Average cost rural buildings
Number of teachers, 1902.
Minimum salaries, 1902.
Maximum salaries, 1902.
Percentage of male teachers, 1902
Number of normal graduates.
Number of normal undergraduates,
Number of college graduates..
Number of first-grade certificates.
Number of third-grade certificates.
Length of school term, 1902
Percentage of illiteracy, ten to eighteen years, 1893.
Percentage of illiteracy, ten to eighteen years, 1898.
Number of libraries, 1902..
Number of students above eighth grade..



$18,580,572 $750,000


3,091 68%


$32, 428.52
2 to 243 mills

249 mills

17 All



3.5 %


27 None None


13,628 $2,303,279 $56,792 $1,815,425 $167,956 1,302

4,21 1,036

2,432 79% 68%

$15, 248.33

At Sparta, 5 mills

3 mills

15 18

3 $500

$150 43

$14 100 17 %

5 10 14 26


15 5.5 months 5.5 months


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23 %

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In Bibb County, the enrollment in the white schools is 68 per cent. of the census, and in the negro schools it is 38 per cent., while in Hancock County the corresponding percentages are 79 and 57. The small percentage of enrollment in Bibb County is due primarily to two causes. First, there are six private schools and colleges in Bibb County that do preparatory work practically free, and they draw a majority of their

patronage from this county. Especially is this true regarding the negroes, who not only attend private schools at home, but even go away to the colleges at Atlanta. Taking into consideration the enrollment in these six schools, the percentage of enrollment in Bibb County will reach something like 75 for the whites and 50 for the negroes. Second, there are five large cotton mills in Bibb County that employ many children of school age who would otherwise. many of them, be in school. And, though there

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