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New York City is preparing for some Municipal sort of modest celebration, on May 26, Progress.

of the two-hundred-and-fiftieth anniversary of the municipal organization of the city. The celebration will occur in a season of marvel. ous local expansion and prosperity. Never before were so many great projects on foot. The underground transit system, as now approach. ing completion, proves to be merely the beginning of an immense ramification which has been outlined by Mr. Parsons, the engineer of the lines. As its second year advances, the good work of the Low administration begins to be manifest in all departments. Police reforms proceed apace under General Greene's vigilant eye and unrelenting hand ; the transformation of the health department under Dr. Lederle has been set forth in a remarkable pamphlet issued by the City Club; and in almost all the departments, good work is producing recognized results. It is now confidently expected that Mr. Low's renomination will be demanded by the Republicans, the Citizens' Union, and the anti-Tammany Democratic organizations that united to elect him in the fall of 1901,—New York's next municipal election occurring in the first week of November of the present year.



in Ohio.

St. Louis.

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In tarious other large cities of the City Contests country, municipal elections occur in

the springtime. The most important cratic figure, the Hon. Tom L. Johnson, has city campaign now pending is that of Chicago. been renominated for the mayoralty of CleveFor an account of the issues and the candidates, land, Ohio's largest city. The Republicans have we refer our readers to an article contributed to nominated against him Hon. Harvey D. Goulder, this number by Dean Judson, of the University a well-known lawyer. of Chicago, himself a model type of the scholar in politics. In Cincinnati, there is a citizens'

In St. Louis, a mayor is not to be municipal ticket in the field whose candidate for Affairs in

elected this spring, but a number of mayor is the widely known president of the

vacancies in the City Council and Big Four" Railroad, Mr. M. E. Ingalls, who the House of Delegates are to be filled, and it has long been a vigorous exponent of sound is reported that the Republicans have nominated money ideas and a citizen of public spirit. The for these an exceptionally strong and clean ticket. Democrats are supporting this Ingalls ticket. Our advices are not quite so complimentary reThe Republicans declare that the real signifi. garding the Democratic nominees, although the cance of Mr. Ingalls' candidacy lies in a scheme subject is not a matter about which we have to advance him from mayor to governor of Ohio, made special inquiry.

At the end of the presin order to make him a Presidential candidate ent month, St. Louis is to celebrate the cennext year.

The Republicans have renominated tenary of the Louisiana Purchase with an elabMayor Fleischmann, who is opposed by an alli. orate programme, and the President of the ance of the churches on the ground of his being United States has so arranged his itinerary as at the head of a great distillery business and to arrive in St. Louis on the afternoon of April naturally an exponent of the liquor interests. In 29, leaving in the early morning of May 1. Cincinnati, the local and municipal questions in These exercises will be under the auspices of volved are the predominant ones ; but elsewhere the exposition management, and will in a sense the contest is interesting chiefly because Mr. be preliminary to the holding of the great Ingalls' victory would almost inevitably lead to exposition next year. Ex-Gov. David R. Franhis being a candidate, next fall, for the govern cis, president of the exposition, came back, last orship. Meanwhile, another interesting Demo. month, from a highly successful European tour,

them to borrow at a low rate of interest. It is expected that the canal's tolls will fully support the undertaking. If this canal were built, much of the wheat, four, and various other export products of our Northwest would probably go to Europe by way of Montreal and the St. Law. rence. It seems probable that the project will be indorsed by the Dominion Parliament now in session. Apropos of the energy of our Canadian neighbors in the development of canals, we publish elsewhere in this number an article from the pen of Mr. E. T. D. Chambers describing the interesting project of a new transcontinental railroad which is to run considerably north of the Canadian Pacific. The whole subject of grain-transportation and trade routes is likely to be brought under consideration by a special government commission.



The Canadian Parliament now in ses-

sion is also to readjust representaInterests.

tion according to the findings of the recent census, a railway commission is to be created, and a considerable legislative programme has been laid out for the session. The Canadians

have not been pleased with the selection by (President of the St. Louis Exposition.)

President Roosevelt of Messrs. Lodge, Root, and

Turner as the American members of the triwhere he basked in the favor of royalty, met bunal to decide the Alaska boundary question. the most important commercial bodies, and Of the three British members, Canada will suphelped to secure promises and appropriations ply two, these being Sir Louis Jette, Lieutenantthat will result in more extensive and attractive Governor of Quebec, and Justice Armour, of the exhibits from public and private sources abroad Supreme Court of Canada. Sir Louis was for a than were expected a few months ago.

long time a member of the Quebec bench. The

other British member will be no less eminent a Canal and While the New York Legislature at personage than Lord Alverstone, Chief Justice Projects in Albany has been discussing the plan of England. The Canadian case is to be in Canada.

of expending $100,000,000 on the charge of the Hon. Clifford Sifton, minister of enlargement of the Erie Canal, the Canadian the interior, with whom there will be associated Parliament at Ottawa has been interesting itself some eminent British and Canadian lawyers, in what is really a rival project of the most for among whom are named Mr. Christopher Rob. midable kind, —the proposed canal from the inson, of Toronto, and the Hon. Edward Blake, Georgian Bay to the St. Lawrence at Montreal. now one of the Irish Nationalist members of the When first proposed, this canal was to have had British Parliament, but formerly, for a long time, a depth of ten feet. The plans were changed a distinguished statesman in Canada. The Alaska five years ago to provide for a depth of four tribunal will meet in London, probably in Septeen feet, and now another change has been tember. There is talk of an early resumption adɔpted which calls for a depth of twenty of the sessions of the dormant Joint High Comfeet. This would give a direct outlet to the mission, of which Senator Fairbanks is the rankocean for large freight steamers. A glance at ing American member. If this commission could the map shows that the Georgian Bay route fol get together and devise a broad and liberal measlows an almost direct line from the Lake Supe ure of commercial reciprocity between Canada rior ports to Montreal. Its advocates say that and the United States, it would accomplish a most it can be completed in much less time than the beneficent work, and one for which conditions on Erie Canal enlargement, and for much less both sides of the international boundary line are money. Moreover. its projectors do not ask now ripe. In Cleveland, Detroit, Chicago, Minthe Canadian government to pay the cost, but nesota and the far Northwest an enthusiastic only to guarantee their bonds, in order to enable Reciprocity League is at work.

alone, and that Canada, Australia, and South Africa are to be asked, in the future, to share in the support of the British army and navy. It is to be remembered that the shipbuilding programme of Germany and other countries is of peculiar interest to the “ Mistress of the Seas ;” and the English have not by any means given up their idea that their navy must be equal to the combined fleets of any two or three foreign powers. Mr. Arnold Forster, the admiralty secretary, whose position corresponds to that of our Secretary of the Navy, has introduced a naval budget for the coming year that calls for the unprecedented expenditure of $180,000,000. Mr. Arnold-Forster's argument is that England's great navy is a grim necessity to a country that imports two-thirds of its food-supplies Ger many has no need of a navy except for purposes of aggression. It is the growth of the German navy that is compelling the United States to spend so much money on ships, and that is at the bottom of England's costly and regrettable increase of naval armaments. England is not building ships for aggression, but as a form of national insurance. At the present date, accord

ing to Mr. Arnold-Forster, England has seventyMR. BRODRICK, ENGLISH WAR SECRETARY.

one warships in process of construction. Mr.

Brodrick, the war minister, has also a very forWith their thousands of hardy fisher midable budget. Never before, in time of peace, The Empire

men and mariners on the eastern sea have England's expenditures for the two armed fenses.

board, the Canadians are about to services been so huge. Mr. Brodrick's reorganienter in earnest upon the organization of a naval zation of the army has given so little satisfaction militia to serve Dominion or imperial needs in that there will be a good deal of grumbling about time of war. This will be to some extent a con

paying the bills. His army estimates amount to tribution toward that vol. untary system of mutual and joint defense which Mr. Chamberlain now de. clares the whole empire must enter upon or face inevitable dissolution. Mr. Chamberlain has come back from South Africa with such enhancement of prestige, when the rest of the Balfour administration is under sharp criticism, that everything he says attracts profound attention. He has much to say about a certain “new conception of empire," which means, when reduced to hard and business-like terms, that England's army and navy bills havé

John Bull: "What I want to know is this, Mr. Brodrick-am I an island ? or am I

a continent? If I'm an island, I want a big navy and a small army. If I'm a continent, outgrown the ability of

I want a big army and a small navy. I can't afford to be an island and a continent, John Bull to pay them too!"-From the Westminster Budget (London).


and Its De



almost the same total as the navy bill, and may be set down, in round figures, at $175,000,000. In apologizing, last month, for the increase of army expenditure, Mr. Balfour, the premier, called attention in a somewhat sensational way to Russia's activity in the direction of India. John Bull is disposed to say that he could stand

increase of army expenditure, or could bear the cost of naval expansion, in the face of a clear emergency ; but he hates mightily to pay the bills for expansion in the two services at the same time, with no well-defined reason for either.



The Irish Situation.


The govo

It is this state of mind of the overburdened taxpayer, and nothing else,

that somewhat threatens the brilliant consummation of the government's Irish land scheme. The Irish landlords will not sell for less than a certain scale of prices based upon average rental, the tenants will not buy them out except upon a lower basis similar to that established by earlier precedent, and it has been expected that the national treasury would pay the difference in order to settle forever the Irish land question and pave the way for economic prosperity and political harmony. It would be a good investment for England, even with the present weight of her financial burdens. Meanwhile, the Irish Nationalist members of Parliament have thus far through the session abstained from annoying the Balfour government, and are on their good behavior, awaiting the presenta tion of the promised land measure. ernment, last month, further placated the Irish by introducing some detailed bills in the line of increasing the powers of the Irish county councils and local-government bodies. We publish elsewhere an interesting article by the Hon. Horace Plunkett, in the form of an interview, on the progress of agriculture in Ireland under the auspices of the coöperative societies which he has done so much to promote. It is almost needless to say that if the great land-purchase scheme should go through in the near future, there would doubtless be a very rapid development of the sort of rural coöperative progress of which Mr. Plunkett is the best exponent.

Mr. Chamberlain's trip is regarded Mr. Chamber

in England as having accomplished South Africa. wonders toward bringing about a better feeling between the races in South Africa. He extols the plan of visitations by colonial secretaries, and declares that personal acquaintance and contact can accomplish wonders in settling difficult problems. He praises the Boers, and expects their leaders to show loyalty to their

new government. His particular contribution to the improvement of political affairs in Cape Colony seems to be the forming of a friendly personal alliance with Mr. Hofmeyr, Mr. Sauer, Mr. Merriman, and the other leaders of the socalled “ Afrikander Bond,” which really controls and will continue to dominate the affairs of South Africa. Mr. Merriman and Mr. Sauer are the present leaders in the House of Assembly. Mr. Hofmeyr was Mr. Rhodes' chief political ally in the old days, and although not in the Cape Parliament now, he is the real head of the Dutch-speaking element. If one asks what Mr. Chamberlain actually accomplished, it is enough to point to the fact that he succeeded in arranging for the payment of $150,000,000 toward the South African war debt by the owners of the Johannesburg gold mines. Further than that, a second sum of $150,000,000 on that debt is to be assumed by the taxpayers of the Transvaal and Orange River colonies ; that is to say, they will issue bonds for that amount, and will provide for interest and sinking fund, —with a British guarantee of the debt, in order to make the bonds marketable. Mr. Chamberlain has not solved the difficulties that involve the labor problem in South Africa, nor

lain and


communicating with Holland in remonstrance against the inconvenience to German traffic of the Dutch railway strikes. It is none the less true that there is much apprehension in the Netherlands on the ground of Germany's supposed desire for an excuse to interfere in Dutch affairs. The expressions of displeasure in Germany at the tone of American public opinion in respect to the question of naval expansion are decidedly bitter. The German naval budget as presented by the naval secretary, Admiral von Tirpitz, and slightly modified in the Reichstag, amounts to approximately $50,000,000. The feeling in Germany on the score of American trade rivalry has risen to maximum height. The industrial depression to which this feeling is somewhat due is, however, reported as less serious from month to month. The Emperor's versatility has been shown in recent theological pronouncements (see page 467), in an attempt to secure reforms in German literary style, and in sundry other directions.



Mr. Merriman. Mr. Hofmeyr. Mr. Sauer. Mr. Chamberlain.



In France, the most important public topic, last month, was the action of

the Chamber of Deputies in supporting the extreme policy of Premier Combes and the ministry on the school question. The prin. ciple established in the law of associations as enacted under the former premier, M. Waldeck

Rousseau, was that schools carried on by men has he greatly changed the feelings of the Boers and women of the religious teaching orders must toward England ; but all elements in South apply for express governmental authorization. Africa have rather liked his sharp, direct meth The latest law, as adopted last month, simply ods of discussion, and are the better disposed to refuses in a wholesale way to grant the applicasettle down to the peaceful pursuit of agricul. tions. Some months will be required to make ture and industry. On March 19, Mr. Chamber the extremely important changes and translain made the interesting statement in the House fers requisite to an execution of this radical of Commons that one hundred thousand Boers

measure. The principal argument of Premier had been “repatriated,"—that is to say, restored Combes had to do with the anti-republican charto their homes, –a large proportion of them from acter of the instruction in the monastic schools. the military prisons in St. Helena, Ceylon, Ber It is to be feared that so harsh a policy will have muda, and elsewhere. Mr. Chamberlain also unfortunate reactions. It seems to be the prestated that the government was giving the new vailing opinion that the Combes ministry cannot colonists, under the peace provisions, the sum of last very much longer, and that M. Rouvier or $75,000,000 toward the expenses of their reset M. Ribot will be the next premier. Although tlement. He has been treated in London like a President Loubet's seven-year term, which began conquering hero, and the newspapers were full in 1899, has three years yet to run, there is of talk, last month, of a reconstructed ministry already definite talk of making M. Waldeckwith Chamberlain as premier and Balfour as Rousseau his successor. In a recent address in foreign minister.

the Chamber of Deputies, the foreign minister,

M. Delcassé, declared it a necessity for France The German chancellor has naturally that Morocco's independence should be mainAffairs.

been defending the Venezuelan ex tained, expressed satisfaction with the status of

pedition before the Reichstag, al the Franco-Russian alliance, mentioned hope. though he has had to face some sharp criticisms. fully the rapprochement of France and Italy, and Count von Bülow has also pointedly denied the took an altogether favorable view of the inter. report that the German Government had been national position of the republic.


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