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ness a picture of the loads of rice being carried past these starving wretches to the towns for the benefit of those who had money to buy the precious grains.

M. Loti went to visit the Maharajah of Meswar, and it is interesting to note that this prince, though lie is building a new palace, prefers the old dwelling-place of his ancestors, so that he, at any rate, is not so much in love with Western fashions as to bear out the charge which Lord Curzon recently brought against the Indian princes as a whole.

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priests who come to confide in me their distress.” And Italy is in the same way as France “a prey to the spirit of independence and revolt."

La Revue also publishes the second installment of Count Tolstoy's “Political Science and Money," in which the count denounces money as “the new and terrible form of personal slavery which depraves slave and master.” M. Finot contributes a short but interesting paper on “Thuggee in India,” under the title of “The Religion of Murder," and announces the republication in book form of his series, of which this article forms part, entitled “Among the Saints and the Possessed.”

Kammerer contributes a paper on the Republic of Andorra. Andorra is under the joint suzerainty of France and of the Spanish Bishop of Seo d'Urgel. The inhabitants seem to live chiefly by contrabandage, and in other respects to be models of virtue. They have no prisons, and send their criminals to France for incarceration. The capital of the republic contains only 600 inhabitants, and the president draws a salary of only 160 francs a year. There are no roads in the country, nobody worth more than $10,000, and the taxes per capita amount to 25 centimes per annum.

In the number for January 15, M. de Norvins continues his illustrated papers on “The Trust Mania," and M. L. de Persigny writes on the famous Ems dispatch which precipitated the war of 1870–71. M. Camille Melinaud writes on “ The Idea of Punishment as a Moral Prejudice,” concluding that reward and punishment must come from within and not from without. Wickedness does not deserve suffering, nor virtue happiness. “The man truly wise must desire the happiness of all his kind, wicked as well as good.” The same number contains a translation of the first part of one of Korolenko's characteristic stories ; a paper by Emile Gautier on “ The Philosophy of Digestion ;” and an article by A. de Roy on “George Sand, Liszt, and Chopin.”


T ferk rich in articles of general interest. We have

noticed elsewhere M. de Fonveille's paper on aërial navigation, and Mme. Carlier's journal, kept during the Armenian massacres.

M. Pierre Loti continues his intensely interesting Indian articles with two papers on famine-stricken India, including Haidarabad, Golconda, Udaipur, Jaipur, and Gwalior. M. Loti almost surpasses himself in his description of Golconda, which was for three centuries one of the marvels of Asia, and of which the ruins of cyclopean grandeur must affect profoundly even the least imaginative spectator. The Indian legend is that these great blocks of masonry represent the surplus of material which God had left over when He had finished creating the world, and which He consequently tossed away, and they happened to fall here. Here lie buried the ancient kings of Golconda, and their tombs, thanks to the respect which Indians paid to death, seem to have escaped the surrounding desolation, and the funeral gardens are still piously tended. But it is useless to give a mere catalogue of what M. Loti saw. The charm and vividness of his style it is impossible to convey in any summary. Unforgettable also are his descriptions of the famine-stricken population, and of the poor little skeletons, with their great brilliant eyes, who sing the song of famine. He also draws for us with terrible vivid

The editors give the place of honor in their January numbers to an account of Lucien Bonaparte, the one of Napoleon's brothers of whom the world knows comparatively little, although in some ways Lucien was the most romantic member of that wonderful family. He married for love, greatly to his brother's anger, and, further, refused, with great courage, the latter's order to him to obtain a divorce in order that he might contract a grander marriage. This proposal was the more monstrous in that Lucien had by the time been married many years, and was the father of several children, notably a very charming daughter named Charlotte. The whole story,-one which throws a very curious light on the Emperor's character, and even on that of his mother, the redoubtable Madame Mère, -is told by M. Masson, who is becoming the leading authority on the Bonaparte family. Lucien remained true to the wife of his youth, and actually took the important step of emigrating with her and their six children. The whole party started for America, being accompanied by seventeen servants, which shows that Lucien had no notion of giving up his position as brother of the great Napoleon. At Malta, however, the whole party was stopped, and M. Masson publishes a curious letter from the then Marquis of Wellesley (later Duke of Wellington), informing Lucien that the King of England would neither allow him to stop in Malta nor to go on to America, but was willing to allow him to reside in the United Kingdom. Accordingly, this plan was put into execution, and Lucien, his wife, and their children spent some time in England. Thus, the all-conquering Corsican had the humiliation of feeling, not only that he had been beaten in a family quarrel by his favorite brother, but also that the latter had been practically taken prisoner by the English.

THEOPHILE GAUTIER'S DAUGHTER. Mme. Judith Gautier continues her charming reminiscences of her childhood and youth, and those who wish to realize what French family life is at its best, even when spent in a wholly Bohemian and literary circle, should read these pages,-the more so that there are occasionally references to men and women whose fame is world-wide. Touching and absurd, for instance, is the account of a short sojourn made by the Gautiers in London. “We once saw Thackeray; he seemed colossal and superb, and was very kind to my sister and myself. I remember that he admired the way we did our

hair, and asked us to give him details as to how the effect was produced, in order that he might tell his daughters.”

OF INTEREST TO NAVAL EXPERTS. The second number of the Revue opens with an anonymous paper dealing with the French navy, or, rather, with the important question as to what kind of vessel is the most valuable from a defensive and combative point of view. The writer does not believe in large men-of-war ; on the other hand, he is inclined to suspect that the practical utility of submarines has been overrated, and fears that the French are about to attach to their excellent submarine fleet more importance than is wise. The paper, which is highly technical, should prove of interest to naval men of all ranks.

Other articles consist of a number of letters written in Morocco by a French officer some twelve years ago ; a curious reconstitution of the life of a great Roman financier, Caius Curtius, who seems to have flourished about 50 B.C. ; and an elaborate account of the rela


FINLAND: RUSSIA'S CASE. A Russian, who does not sign his name, attempts to make his French readers understand the Russian point of view about Finland, and it must be admitted that he makes out a very good case. He points out that when Finland belonged to Sweden, Finnish patriots were quite as opposed to Swedish laws and Swedish authority as they are now to Russian, and yet now these very same people set up Swedish manners, Swedish customs, and even Swedish law, in opposition to those of their new masters; and this although in the Middle Ages, and later, Finland was far more Russian than anything else. The writer attempts to prove that the situation in Finland is much what would be that in AlsaceLorraine were the conquered provinces to become once more French and then to cling with redoubled energy to German customs, to the German language, and even to the German form of religion !

French eyes before the Anglo-German alliance had THE

been made public.


NOUVELLE REVUE. 'HE editors of the Nouvelle Revue give the place

of honor for January to a long and cleverly illustrated article on Madagascar, and the part taken by General Gallieni in making the island, as he claims to have done, an ideal colony. The writer of the paper claims that in this soldier France has a remarkable organizer, and certainly, if only half of what is here told is true, Gallieni may look forward to a great career at home.

IS THERE A MUSSULMAN PERIL? Yes, says M. Pommerol, whose book is reviewed in the Revue. Europe has sometimes discussed the yellow peril; she should rather fear a Mohammedan peril, for even now there is much to show that the more ambitious followers of Mohammed are only biding their time to make a determined effort to reconquer North Africa and a portion of Asia. How many of us realize that there are at this moment 200,000,000 living Mohammedans, and further, that they are increasing at a rate unknown among the other great religions of the world, for Mohammed makes converts, and serious converts, not only in China and India, but also in central Africa. Many of these men are first-rate soldiers, and as time goes on they are being armed by their foreign masters with the newest engines of war.

HE Rivista Moderna, which is an organ of ad-

vanced thought, writes with positive virulence in favor of the divorce bill now before the Italian Chamber. In the opinion of R. Simonini, marriage is vitiated by its irreparable character, and to the enlightened society of the future the indissolubility of the marriage tie will appear monstrous and inexplicable. However this may be, Mrs. Humphry Ward will certainly be surprised to learn that “ Robert Elsmere ” supplies an argument in favor of divorce.

Emporium starts the new year with an excellent number, containing, among others, a well-timed and profusely illustrated article on the Brera Gallery at Milan, which has recently been subjected to a thorough rehanging and overhauling by the curator, Corrado Ricci.

The Nuova Antologia is scarcely up to its usual level of excellence this month. The editor, Maggiorino Ferraris, summarizes the financial progress of Italy during the year 1902 in an article bristling with facts and figures. Less serious reading is provided by A. Panzini, who describes the castle of Miramar, near Trieste, and by R. Garzia, who contributes an illustrated account of the development of church architecture in Sardinia.

The Rassegna Nazionale continues its agitation against dueling, and issues sheets for the signatures of adherents to the Italian Anti-Dueling League. Lovers of Napoleonic lore will be interested in an account of the Emperor's life on the island of Elba. The Rassegna also publishes a long article on the lamentable condition of the little Italian boys sent into slavery in the glass factories of France, but the author adds little to what has already been published on the subject. It is curious to observe that both an American and an English novel, one by Sarah Orne Jewett, the other by Mrs. Hungerford, are being run simultaneously as rivals.


Yet another paper which deals indirectly with coming conflicts refers to the army of to-morrow. Even now, French military authorities are very much divided as to whether the largest army is the most efficient army. It is to be hoped, from the French point of view, that numbers do not spell strength, for every year it becomes more and more difficult to obtain sufficient recruits, every kind of excuse being brought forward ; in fact, the very term “compulsory military service” is becoming, in France, a farce. And, of course, the more intelligent and the better educated the unwilling conscript the more easy he finds it to invent an excuse which will release him from many weary years spent in the ranks!

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the almost unknown land now called Venezuela as security for sums lent to the Spanish Government. Spaniards and Germans wanted nothing but gold, and more gold, from Venezuela and the unfortunate inhabitants. Every means, even murder, was resorted to to get gold. After all, civilization has not progressed very much since then. This attempt at colonization on the part of the Germans was an utter failure, and the house of Welser was ruined thereby. The Spaniards were supported by their government, and succeeded in driving out the inhabitants and settling there themselves. Today, three hundred and sixty years later, German merchants have succeeded by peaceful means in establishing themselves in Venezuela. There are forty German places of business in the larger towns. Germans own land, chiefly coffee plantations, valued at $5,000,000. The principal railway was built and is controlled by Germans. In other ways, the situation has changed. Then the house of Welser was backed by Charles V., who could hardly be called a German prince. Now, Germans in Venezuela have behind them the German Empire and a real German Emperor !-a state of things with which every German should be as pleased as with the fact that German and English warships are united for common action.

HELMHOLTZ THE PHYSIOLOGIST. The most interesting article in the Deutsche Rundschau is contributed by M. von Brandt. He deals with the miners' strike in America and the problem of the trusts. H. Oldenberg concludes his series of articles on the literature of ancient India. Marie von Bunsen concludes her life-study from the eighteenth century, entitled “Mary Delany.” “The Memoirs of August Schneegans,” the first installment of which is published in this month's magazine, should prove interesting. He was born in 1835, in Strasburg; was therefore an Alsatian, but was loyal to Germany. He was the founder of the Autonomy party in Strasburg. He was elected to the Reichstag after the war, and in 1879 became counsel of the ministry in Strasburg. He resigned because of the attacks made on him for his German leanings. He became consul at Ravenna in 1880, and died as consul-general at Genoa in 1898.

The Deutsche Revue contains few articles of general interest. Leo Koenigsberger writes upon Helmholtz as professor of physiology in Heidelberg. He had then but recently been married, but his library and workroom were already under the charge of his wife, and in consequence, order began to reign there at last. Just before her marriage, she wrote to him rejoicing that she had found a human failing in him-namely, his untidiness, and the disorder in which his writing-table was generally found. She prophesied that before long she would sort things up with an energetic hand,-and apparently she carried out her intention.

and if other countries send contributions to equal or approach it, the result ought to be excellent and take many visitors to what some Italians call the “cold Northern city."

“Wig Time” is an article on the customs and costumes of the Dutch during the eighteenth century. The writer describes the dwelling-house with the fantastic figures of lions and escutcheons outside, and the attempts, sometimes grotesque from a modern point of view, at ornamentation within. The ways of the people, especially the women folk, are sketched, and the reader is referred to the Royal Museum and other institutions for pictures of these ladies. Some of the illustrations are curious, showing various fashions of dressing the head and bair. The writer points out that modern Dutch ideas sprang, to a great extent, from these eighteenthcentury notions, which is not a very surprising fact.

THE BOER WOMEN. In De Gids, Mr. Andriessen gives us a sketch of the Boer women which is full of sympathetic admiration. Beginning with a quietly stirring account of the reception of the news that peace had been concluded on that Sunday evening in 1902, he refers to the heroic struggle made by the Boers against the might of Great Britain, and then says thai behind the Boers was something--a force—that urged them on. That force was the influence of their women folk, so ready to help and to suffer for the cause of the fatherland. To properly understand the Boer women, says Mr. Andriessen, you must know their history; and he tells us all about it, beginning with 1650, when the old Dutch East India Company asked the women of Holland to send some of their poorer sisters to the Cape as wives for the almost womenless colonists. All through the struggles of the Boers in South Africa have the women been a strong force, and their influence culminated in the war so recently ended.


Mr. Quack gives us another article of a socialistic nature, by dealing with yet another old English writer, John Francis Bray, and his book on Labour's Wrongs and Labour's Remedies." Unequal exchanges" between capital and labor is the keynote. “The workmen have given the capitalist the labor of a whole year in exchange for the value of only half a year.”

Professor van Hamel has an interesting article on a philological subject, and the remaining contents include the first installment of a novel, “In High Regions,” by G. van Hulzen.

We welcome a new arrival in Onze Eeuw (Our Century), which somewhat resembles De Gids in style. It opens with a study of Dutch colonization as it affects India and Africa, followed by a story, and essays on Attic speech, or Attic eloquence, and the benefit to modern peoples of a study of that eloquence as shown in Greek authors, Byzantium, and Dante in Paradise. The last-named is specially interesting.

Vragen des Tijds again deals with the housing question, this time in connection with the proposed international congress on the subject, to be held in 1905. The circumstances differ so greatly, not only in different countries, but in different towns of the same country, that it seems impossible to lay down general rules ; yet a congress may be of great utility in solving a vexed question.

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illustrated by some seventy photographs taken by the author. The principal cities and towns of Mexico, as well as the most interesting regions and many of the mountains and table-lands, are described by Mrs. Morris with great amplitude of detail.

In “Mont Pelée and the Tragedy of Martinique,” by Angelo Heilprin (Lippincott), we have the most authoritative account of the great eruptions of 1902 from a scientist's point of view that has yet been published. Professor Heilprin visited Martinique shortly after the great eruption of May 8, and again in August, when it was his privilege to be a close witness of the second great death-dealing eruption of Mont Pelée. He has had quite

VOLUMES OF TRAVEL AND DESCRIPTION. Nearly all of the most entertaining and most important among the travel books published within the past ten years have been concerned with Asia. In that vast continent great tracts of country still remain that may be as fitly labeled "unexplored” as any region of Darkest Africa itself; but the works of Sven Hedin, Dr. G. Frederick Wright, Sir Henry Norman, and others have added greatly to the Anglo-Saxon stock of knowledge concerning those distant lands and peoples. A traveler who has done much in recent years make accessible to English readers a body of reliable information relating to Tibet and other portions of interior Asia is Mr. A. Henry Savage Landor. A new work in two volumes by this author, entitled “Across Coveted Lands” (Scribners), has to do with the somewhat betterknown route through Persia from northwest to southeast. Mr. Landor describes the manners and customs of the people in detail. Reproductions of many photographs taken by him on this journey add impressiveness to the author's pen pictures of present-day social and economic conditions in the Shah's dominions.

“ Around the World through Japan,” by Walter Del Mar (Macmillan), is a volume of notes and impressions the interest of which is largely personal. The writer's judgments are distinctly unfavorable to many phases of the Japanese character, and to many his strictures will doubtless seem unduly severe. The book is illustrated from photographs.

An English artist's studies in Egypt are embodied in a volume by R. Talbot Kelly, published in London by Adam and Charles Black, and in the United States by the Macmillan Company. The reproductions (in color) from Mr. Kelly's paintings, while not uniformly successful from the artistic point of view, at least serve the present purpose well by affording a graphic representation of the life and the scenery described in the text. Mr. Kelly has been a resident of Egypt for many years. In all that time he has been a faithful and sympathetic student of the institutions of the country, and especially of Mohammedan art. To American readers, Mr. Kelly is chiefly known through his contributions on Egyptian subjects to the Century Magazine, several of which are included in the present volume.

Since the Spanish-American War, there has been a revival of interest on this side of the Atlantic in all things Spanish. Among the books that have been recently written with a view to satisfying the demand for information about that ancient land is a volume by Dr. Jeremiah Zimmerman, entitled “Spain and Her People” (Philadelphia : George W. Jacobs & Co.). Dr. Zimmerman has made an extended tour through the country, visiting many quaint and out-of-the-way towns and villages, and closely observing the customs and conditions of the people. There is much to be learned from Dr. Zimmerman's book regarding the commercial and industrial interests of the country and their promise for the future.

Mrs. James Edwin Morris has written an account of "A Tour in Mexico" (New York: The Abbey Press),



exceptional opportunities for scientific observations of volcanic phenomena, and in the present volume he embodies full accounts of the observations thus made. A remarkable feature of this work is the series of photographs taken by the author himself, representing the consecutive stages in the paroxysmal eruption of a very active volcano.

“Highways and Byways in London,” by Mrs. E. T. Cook (Macmillan), is a chatty and entertaining description of the sights of the modern metropolis, with numerous references, of course, to historical associations of this and that locality. The book has been illustrated by Hugh Thomson and F. L. Griggs.

BOOKS ABOUT ART AND ARTISTS. The triumphant success of the half-tone in magazine and book illustration sometimes leads to the hasty inference that wood engraving is already a lost art. The work of such a master among the wood engravers as

Timothy Cole, much of which has been done since the water color, and oil paintings of these famous French era of process pictures began, is enough to convince the masters. Many of the most notable collections in Eumost radical advocate of the mechanical process that rope have been freely drawn upon in assembling the engraving on wood still has its distinctive function, originals of these pictures, and it is safe to say that the which no technical perfection in mechanism can take art of both Corot and Millet has been fully and fairly away. Mr. Cole's volumes on “Old Italian Masters" represented in this book. Short of access to the masterand “Old Dutch and Flemish Masters," in which are pieces themselves, which is denied to most people, the reproduced upon wood many of the most famous paint most satisfactory key to the interpretation of the artists ings in the European galleries, are now followed by and their work is afforded by these studies. “Old English Masters" (Century Company), containing In Mr. Charles H. Caffin's “American Masters of forty-eight specimens of Mr. Cole's work and represent Painting” (Doubleday, Page & Co.), we have brief aping such painters as Hogarth, Reynolds, Gainsborough, preciations of a dozen American painters whose art is Lawrence, Turner, Constable, Wilkie, and Landseer. everywhere recognized as truly representative. Not to Biographical and historical notes on eighteenth-century name them all, Mr. Caffin's inclusion of such men as art in England have been furnished by Prof. John C. Inness, La Farge, Whistler, Sargent, Homer, Fuller, Van Dyke to accompany Mr. Cole's engravings. There and Abbey in his list sufficiently indicates the range of are also valuable notes on the paintings by the engraver these critical and biographical studies. Mr. Caffin's himself.

writings are notably free from technical discursiveness; Another work that reminds us of the honor once ac his style is clear and pointed. There is also a freedom corded to the engraver's art is Lady Dilke's “French from obtrusive prejudice in his estimates of living artEngravers and Draughtsmen of the Eighteenth Cen ists. His essays are decidedly helpful to the reader tury” (Macmillan). This volume not only reproduces seeking to gain a reasonably clear comprehension of the many rare prints, but contains a mass of curious infor aims and tendencies of American art. In the illusmation uot easily accessible even in French literature trated edition of “American Masters" there are repro

ductions of many of the best examples of the painters' work.

Late issues in Bell's “Miniature Series of Painters" (Macmillan) are “Sir Edward Burne-Jones,” by Malcolm Bell; “Frederic, Lord Leighton,” by George C. Williamson ; “Corregio," by Leader Scott; “Alma Tadema,” by Helen Zimmern ; “Holman Hunt,” hy George C. Williamson ; and “Greuze," by Harold Armitage. These little books are so excellent and useful in their way that we wonder why greater care was not taken in the preparation of some of their minor features. Thus, in the list of Alma Tadema's pictures, with which it is attempted to give the names of owners as far as they can be ascertained, half a score of paintings are indefinitely assigned to “America.” It stimulates the curiosity of the American reader to learn that these masterpieces are owned by some of his countrymen, but why should not the book locate for us so famous a painting as “The Coliseum,” which is one of the seven specimens of the artist's work selected for reproduction ? Is a painting lost to the world of art when it comes to America ?

The Rev. Amory H. Bradford, D.D., has written “Messages of the Masters" (Crowell), a series of spiritual interpretations of great paintings. The author frankly disclaims the role of art critic, and states that his object in writing the essays was either to interpret the spiritual meaning of the painters or to follow the suggestions of their work. Thus, the book is essentially

a treatment of art masterpieces from a religious point LĄDY DILKE.

of view. The pictures considered are “The Nativity" and certainly never before brought together in any Eng by Burne-Jones, “The Sistine Madonna" of Raphael, lish publication.

“Les Nuées” by Giron, “The Holy Family" by Murillo, All art-lovers will value the unusual opportunity for “Christ on the Cross” by Munkacsy, “The Pilot" by the study of the works of Corot and Millet presented in Renouf, “Sir Galahad” by Watts, “The Light of the the annual supplement to the International Studio World” by Hohman Hunt, “The Old Téméraire ” by (New York: John Lane), edited by Mr. Charles Holme. Turner, and "The Transfiguration ” by Raphael. Each This volume contains critical essays by M. Gustave chapter is illustrated by a full-page photogravure of the Geffroy and M. Arsène Alexandre, translated from the painting under consideration. French by Mr. Edgar Preston, and notes on the etchings In Bell's series of "Handbooks of the Great Craftsof Millet have been contributed by Mr. Frederick Kep men” (Macmillan) there is a volume devoted to Peter pel. In the matter of illustration all the modern pro Vischer, the great German bronze worker who lived at cesses of reproduction have been utilized in presenting Nuremberg in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. many of the choicest etchings, sketches in chalk and The author, Mr. Cecil Headlam, writes with enthusi.

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