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SOCIAL SCIENCE. HE American Journal of Sociology (January ;

ownership of land by corporations to 2,500 acres, on the ground that this restriction hinders the agricultural development of the islands.

THE KING OF ITALY. Mr. Sydney Brooks estimates King Victor Emmanuel III. as “a really strong king, who will not only lead, but control; who will not hesitate to command when suggestions fail, and who will see to it that his commands are obeyed.” The powers intrusted to an Italian king, according to Mr. Brooks, are equivalent to those of an American President and an English premier combined ; they are held for life, and no Italian Parliament would ever oppose the will of a popular ruler.


There is a deeply sympathetic appreciation of Phillips Brooks by the Rev. Dr. Washington Gladden. The discussion of the alleged lawlessness of the New York police in breaking into private houses is continued by Justice W. J. Gaynor and Assistant District Attorney Howard S. Gans. In our department of “Leading Articles of the Month," we have quoted at some length from Mr. Thomas F. Ryan's article on The Political Opportunity of the South,” and from Mr. Charles Johnston's interesting account of · Macedonia's Struggle for Liberty.”


HISTORICAL QUARTERLIES. wo of the articles in the American Historical

Review for January--the current issue-are concerned with the Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century ; there is an admirable survey of the literature of the Lutheran movement in Germany by Prof. James Harvey Robinson, while Prof. Herbert D. Foster writes on “Geneva Before Calvin (1387-1536): The Antecedents of a Puritan State."

Of the papers bearing directly on phases of American history, Mr. L. D. Scisco contributes a study of “The Plantation Type of Colony” and Mr. George H. Alden gives an instructive and highly interesting account of * The State of Franklin,” that frontier government of our Revolutionary era which was maintained for three years in defiance of North Carolina and the other States of the federation.

In the department of “Documents” are presented letters, hitherto unpublished, of Gov. William Bradford and his assistant, Isaac Allerton, dated 1623, and of Samuel Cooper to Thomas Pownall (1769–77).

Samuel MacClintock entitled “Around the Island of Cebú on Horseback.” This writer, who the principal of the Cebú Normal School, is impressed by the eagerness of the natives, old and young, to learn the English language and familiarize themselves with American institutions.

Mr. A. J. Roewade describes some of the advanced methods adopted by European countries in the management of public and quasi-public institutions as related to transportation and commerce,-notably the railroads, harbors, and markets.

An experiment in social fraternity successfully conducted in San Francisco by Miss Octavine Briggs, a visiting nurse, is described by Katherine A. Chandler. Miss Briggs rented a house in a crowded street, where her work was centered, and in that house she proceeded to establish an artistic and dainty home, where the demands of refinement and culture were fully met, and where representatives of all the social classes were invited to meet on a common plane and discuss topics of human interest. Miss Briggs' enterprise is in no way a rival of “settlement” work, but offers the more intimate home influence in the neighborhood.

Prof. Albion W. Small returns to the vexed question, What is a “sociologist ?” Not every man, says Professor Small, who deals with facts of society is a sociologist, any more than every tinker and blacksmith is a physicist, or every cook and soap-maker a chemist, or every gardener and stock-breeder a biologist. A sociologist, on the other hand, is a man who is studying the facts of society in the spirit of a philosopher. The worst enemy of the sociologists, in Professor Small's opinion, is “defect of scientific patience.” “Itch to be talked about, without having made any real contribution to knowledge, is the stigma of the pseudo-scientist.”

Writing on “The Social Effects of the Eight-Hour Day,” Prof. Frank L. McVey says, in conclusion :

“The eight-hour day will promote contentment and cheerfulness among the working people of the world. The economic value of this change is yet to be appreciated, but there can be no doubt of its great productive power when applied to industry. Under its influence, the old rate of daily production will be maintained, with little or no effect in the long run upon wages, profits, the unemployed, and foreign commerce.”

“ANNALS" OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY. In the Annals of the American Academy of Po ical and Social Science (bimonthly , January) there is an interesting account by Mr. John W. Converse of the labor system at the Baldwin Locomotive Works. Interesting features of the Baldwin works are the unit system of production, the piecework-payment system, and the apprenticeship system.

Mr. A. E. Outerbridge, Jr., writes on "The Premium System of Wage Payment,” described in a recent number of the REVIEW OF REVIEWS by Mr. H. L. Gantt.

Analyzing “ The Effect of Unionism Upon the Mine Worker,” Mr. Frank Julian Warne concludes that such an organization as the United Mine Workers of America is the only force that can give the mine workers a standard of living conformable to American conditions,


The State Historical Society of Iowa (Iowa City) has brought out the first number of the Iowa Journal of History and Politics, to be issued quarterly, under the editorship of Dr. Benjamin F. Shambaugh, of the University of Iowa. Four contributed articles appear in this first issue—“Joliet and Marquette in Iowa," by Prof. L. G. Weld ; “The Political Value of State Constitutional History," by Prof. Francis Newton Thorpe ; “Historico-Anthropological Possibilities in Iowa," by the Rev. D. J. H. Ward ; and “A General Survey of the Literature of Iowa History," by Johnson Brigham. There are also book reviews and a department of ** Notes and Comment.” The magazine is clearly printed, on good paper, and presents a dignified appearance. Such publications indicate a widespread interest in history on the part of our State societies,

Mr. Edward S. Meade sets forth the investment aspect of the anthracite controversy. He declares that if the miners obtain even half of their original demands, two of the five coal corporations concerned are in danger of severe losses, and the dividends of the other three, at least for some time to come, may have to be reduced. The controversy, in short, is not between the corporation and the miner, but between the miners and the investors.

Other interesting topics covered in this number are “Labor Unions as They Appear to an Employer," by W. H. Pfahler ; “The Evolution of Negro Labor," by Carl Kelsey ; and “The Labor Situation in Mexico," by Walter E. Weyl.


GUNTON'S MAGAZINE. N the February number of Gunton's there is an in

teresting article on “Symptomatic Parties” by Mr. Henry W. Wilbur. Reviewing the returns of the Socialist vote at the last elections, this writer takes the ground that while Populism and Greenbackism in our political history were symptoms of adversity, socialism is a symptom of prosperity not satisfactorily diffused. “The exigencies of the coal strike, and certain matters connected therewith, have wonderfully though differently impressed all classes of society, and have intensified the prejudices of the superficial and the poorly informed to a marked degree. Baer's doctrine of the divine right of the holders of capital to possess the earth without a doubt helped to increase the followers of the symptomatic party of 1902. The lesson which the believers in the evolution of society rather than its revolution must learn is plain. It is the lesson of justice and enlarged opportunity for the masses of men, no matter what may be their part in the world's work."

UNCLE SAM'S STRONG-BOX. In Mr. Julius Moritzen's article on the new mint at Philadelphia the safeguards of the great money vaults are described. In the old mint, occasional visitors were granted admission to these vaults, but now not even the mint officials, except those directly connected with this department, are permitted to enter. The vaults are said to be the largest and most perfect of their kind in the world. “Each is protected by a set of three doors. Of these, the outer door is of a ball-bearing construction in use nowhere else. The four combination locks, and the immensely thick armor plate of which the doors are made, are proof against whatever attack. The vaults, in fact, are invulnerable.

“Further safety in the mint is guaranteed through the complete electric-clock system. There are thirty of these time-pieces scattered throughout the building, besides forty others connecting with a master-clock. Fifty-one telephones, an ink-writing telegraph register, which indicates an alarm from any or all of the thirty-five alarm boxes, and the wonderful switchboard on which are mounted the fuse block, fire-alarm recorder, American District and Western Union call-boxes, the police telegraph and city fire-alarm boxes, are features of protection and convenience no other mint can boast."

he saw when he fell asleep in church, one Sunday, in the country. It is written with extraordinary verve and vividness, as if he had really seen the whole battle in a clairvoyant trance. This, indeed, he declares he did, although this may, of course, be merely a pretense ; but, speaking of the fight, he says: “One thing‘is sure. I was there. Some inherited molecule of gray cerebral matter responded to some local stimulus and repeated its thousand-years-old experience."

THE NATIVE PROBLEM IN SOUTH AFRICA. Mr. Alfred A. Macullah writes very wisely concerning the difficulties of dealing with the black, and still more with the half-breed, population of South Africa. He says: “ To be thoroughly taught the lesson that the first duty of man in the world is to work, is the chief instruction necessary for the natives." But he is not contented with this,-his idea is to transport gradually all the colored population to the north of the Zambesi, where he would found "a great native state regulated by British officials after the manner of India ;” by this arrangement, “those parts of South Africa which are now dwelt in permanently by the white man cannot be given back to the black man; but the latter should at least be encouraged to withdraw into those parts farther north which are still his own under the ægis of the British power."

Sir William Ramsey says:

"In this country, the manufacturer looks askance on the applicant for a post who possesses a degree. He has found by experience that the training which the young man has received is of little value in implanting in him the qualities required for success in the world.”

There must, therefore, he argues, be something wrong in the training. He pleads “for a conservative reaction, --a reaction which shall carry us back to the golden age, when master and pupil worked together for the acquisition and production of knowledge. I have tried to show that this is the aim of America and our Continental neighbors ; that our present examination system is incompatible with such an aim ; that it offers to a student a wrong goal; that it strains him at a critical period of his life, exciting him to a succession of fitful spurts, instead of to a calm, steady progression."

HOPE FOR THE JEWS IN ROUMANIA. Mr. Bernard Lazare, after describing the various legislative methods by which the Jews are being driven out of Roumania, predicts that the remedy will be brought about by economic causes.

“The class of Roumanians who could be substituted for the Jews does not exist, either as traders or work

If Jewish emigration proceeds any faster, it will create gaps which it will be impossible to fill. The Roumanian peasant will have no more grocers, wheelwrights, tile-makers, masons, etc. The landowner will see the income from his property go down,-it has already diminished 23 per cent. in certain villages ; a mass of small Roumanian traders who depend entirely on the Jew will in their turn be ruined ; the Wallachian boyars will feel the injury with the departure of the last Jewish middlemen ; the excise revenues will further decrease, and the state will be obliged to reduce more and more the number of official appointments; indeed, it is already being done. Roumania will be like the cities and nations of the Middle Ages, -after having driven out the Jews, she will send for them


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back again, and by all sorts of concessions she will endeavor to retain in her land the remnant which will have remained of the Jewish settlement.”

RAILWAYS IN CHINA. Mr. D. C. Boulger writes in very good spirits concerning the prospects of British railway enterprise in China.

“British railway enterprise in China, after a long halt, is, therefore, about to make a practical start under favorable financial conditions. With the ShanghaiNanking railway, a new departure will be made. We shall have, in the first place, a solid token of the magnitude of British interests in China. It will be something definite for the government to protect in that Yangtse Valley over which it has watched so long. It is certain to prove a most successful line in its commercial aspect. If any Chinese railway is to earn brilliant dividends, it will certainly be that traversing the thickly populated province of Kiangsu."

THE MECHANISM OF THE AIR. The Rev. J. M. Bacon explains a theory which he has formed as the result of his study of the air currents.

“The atmosphere has been well compared to a vast engine of which the furnace is maintained by the sun's rays which traverse it, the boiler being the moist earth or the cloud-masses on which the heat of those rays is spent, while the condensing apparatus is supplied by the action of the earth's radiation into space."

His theory is that the heated air always ascends in eddies and bubbles. He gives many interesting details in support of this theory. He says:

“A veritable dust ocean lies over towns, often of great depth, yet always having a definite limit above which it is possible to climb and there to find one's self in a pure sky of extraordinary transparency and deepest blue.”

In this lofty region, the rays of the sun seem to have no power; in very hot summer weather, the thermometer registered 29 degrees below zero when the balloon had ascended to the height of 27,000 feet.

ing anything new to it. He says that no remedy will be effective which does not provide for more of the food being grown at home. If England grew as much wheat as in 1854, she would be enabled to give half rations without importing any food from abroad. As for the navy, she would need 350 cruisers of all classes, whereas she has now only 190. Admiral Fremantle thinks that if the reserves were properly developed there would be enough men to man all these ships.

“It is enough to remark that even a second or third class cruiser cannot be built under two years, while a fair seaman gunner can be trained in six months or less to shoot straight; and surely, with our 122,000 activeservice naval ratings, we should be able to afford a nucleus of experienced long-service men-of-war's men.”

THE BLUEJACKET-MECHANIC. Excubitor," in a paper entitled “Admiral-Engineer and Bluejacket-Mechanic," says:

“The manning of British men-of-war is an anachronism. It is an absurdity that over one-fifth of the crew of the Hogue and her sisters should have no special qualification for taking their parts in an action. The time has come when the old system of training and manning must be revised and radically amended so as to suit better the ships of war of to-day, which are highly complex workshops for killing an enemy, and should be provided, not with old-fashioned seamen, with their lore of a bygone art, but with bluejacketmechanics,-men who are really handy men, able to turn their hand to anything in day of battle, use the bit, handle a chisel, or work with dexterity with a hammer. In short, every officer and man in his majesty's fleet must have some knowledge of the mechanical arrangements on which the fighting efficiency of each ship depends. Many of the mechanical ratings in the fleet are taught how to use the cutlass and rifle; why, then, should not the seamen of the navy be given a limited mechanical training, so as to enable them to become in reality ‘handy men' in the rough-and-tumble of battle, when much of the incidental work, which in peace is done by the specialist, will have to be performed by others, either in consequence of casualties among the specialist or because their hands will be too full to enable them to respond to all the calls upon them?”


Mr. Foreman pays a parting tribute to Señor Sagasta. Dr. Dillon writes on Macedonia, Venezuela, and the Dardanelles. A writer named “ Togatus ” pleads for a more intelligible method of presenting the army estimates to the House of Commons.



Mr. J. L. Bashford writes appreciatively of the German merchant marine. Father Maher deals with Mr. Mallock's attack upon him, maintaining that Mr. Mallock has misstated his arguments. There are four pages by Maeterlinck entitled “ Field Flowers,” a miracle play by the Hon. Mrs. Anstruther, and several literary papers.

THE QUARTERLY REVIEW. HE Quarterly Review for January publishes no

THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW. 'HE Fortnightly for February opens with an anony

mous paper on “Lord Kitchener and the Indian Army,” in which Lord Rosebery is taken to task for underestimating the importance of the Indian command, which the writer maintains will require all Lord Kitchener's administrative and organizing powers. After this follows an analysis of the various departments of the Indian army which require revision, the writer's conclusion being that, though progress in many directions has lately been made, the organization is still much behind the times in a military sense. He insists that the main purpose of the Indian army is not to maintain internal order, but to repel the inevitable Russian invasion.

ENGLAND'S FOOD-SUPPLY IN WAR. Admiral Fremantle contributes a few pages on this subject, in which he restates the problem without add

illustrated. The signed articles are, however, not the most important or interesting.

SOUTH AMERICAN ANIMALS. The illustrated paper is Mr. F. Ameghino's essay on “South American Animals and Their Origin.” In this paper he gives an account both of living animals and of those that have long since been dead. His pictures show extinct monsters, giant sloths, and other mammals which, happily for mankind, are only to be found

in a fossil state. There is a picture of a giant bird which had a skull as large and as heavy as that of a horse. Mr. Ameghino thinks that South America was at one time connected by isthmuses,-or land bridges, as he calls them, -with Australasia on one side and Africa on the other. He inclines to believe that the ancestors of the South American hoofed mammals must be sought in Africa.


Twenty-four pages are devoted to an appreciation of the life and work of Emile Zola. The reviewer is not by any means a mere eulogist of an author who, he complains, represented man exclusively as a huddled unit of a herd of beasts ; nevertheless, he admits the intense moral purpose of his writings, and he admits that he has an assured title to fame and immortality for his immense imaginative power. In spite of all his efforts, the poet is constantly discovering himself ; the prodigious power of his imagination is unlimited,—it is unparalleled in its continuity and its steadfastness. " We feel confident that his work will survive for its splendid poetical imagery and vision, and that his name will be remembered as that of one who on a great occasion, at the cost of all he held dear, chivalrously raised his voice on behalf of the oppressed, and recalled his country to a sense of justice.”

A CONSPECTUS OF SCIENCE." Sir Michael Foster writes an article under this head which is chiefly devoted to an account of the “International Catalogue of Scientific Literature.” This catalogue consists of seventeen closely packed volumes, which are devoted to an index of the scientific publications of a single year. The entries are exclusively confined to papers containing the results of original inves-. tigation. The catalogue takes no notice of any book or paper which is not in some way a record of an original scientific discovery, observation, method, or idea. Speaking of the catalogue, Sir Michael Foster says: “As the first fruits of a combined international effort to provide a ready practical analysis of the current scientific literature of the whole world, such as can be used by any man of science, wherever he dwells and whatever be the language he speaks, the volumes possess an interest which reaches beyond science and men of science, and deserve consideration from more points of view than one.”

UNIVERSITY REFORM IN INDIA. The writer of this article describes the recommendations of the university commission which reported last year. The writer advocates the replacing of the universities inder European control, and the disuse of their entrance examination as a test for the government service. The central part of the proposed reforms is that the English teachers, or their representatives, should have due control over their own work.

"Inadequate pay, insufficient arrangements for pensions, the inferiority, in the public estimation, of the “uncovenanted' services to the civil service and the army,—these and other disadvantages mark the grudging recognition which the English mind, especially the official English mind, is apt to pay to the cause of education. . . . It is time that we gave of our best educators, still young and keen and sympathetic, to train her youth in wisdom and strength of character. Side by side with the Indian staff corps and the Indian civil service, we need to establish an Indian educational service, equally honored, as its work is equally honorable ;

for the teacher, no less than the soldier or the councilor, has his share in the high responsibilities of empire.”

THE REFORM OF THE PORT OF LONDON. Even the Quarterly Review feels constrained to take up its parable against the scandalous way in which the City Corporation has neglected the welfare of the port of London. The writer strongly advocates the formation of a unified authority, or trust, which should be subsidized by the County Council and the City Corporation. Of the 112 courts of the United Kingdom, the municipality has complete control in 22 and more or less control in 66. The reviewer believes that the port authority will apply, before long, for a provisional order exempting all ships within the port from compulsory pilotage. He also expects that the provision and maintenance of lighthouses will be kept up by the state, as is the case on all other civilized coasts. The abolition of lighthouse dues and compulsory pilotage will reconcile ship-owners to the increased port charges which they will have to pay in the future.

THE FALLIBILITY OF THE BIBLE. The writer of an article entitled “New Testament Criticism” takes as his starting-point the following statement of the results following the establishment of the antiquity of the human race on earth :

“ The statements of fact which the Bible contains are not, by the mere fact that they stand in the Bible, stamped with the divine guarantee of truth. The biblical history may still compare, and we believe that it does compare, very favorably indeed, as history, with the annals of antiquity generally. But on grounds wholly prior to any critical question whatever, it has become impossible to claim that the Bible, in whatever sense divinely inspired, was produced under conditions which elevate it in all respects above the limitations to which everything written by man is subject ; impossible to rule out of court any conclusion of criticism on the sole ground of its collision with categorical words of Holy Scripture.”

The reviewer then proceeds to examine the net results of textual and higher criticism in dealing with the New Testament.

OTHER ARTICLES. The other articles are very considerable and of widely varied literary interest. The articles on “ The Queen of the ‘Blue-stockings?” and “Diarists of the Last Century” contain a great deal of interesting gossip concerning the world of letters and politics in the last two hundred years. Julia Ady writes enthusiastically about “ The Early Art of the Netherlands.” “The old Flemish masters," she says, “foremost among painters recognized the greatness and wonder of man and nature; they were whole-hearted artists, and they attained a degree of finish and brilliancy which has never been surpassed.” The review of Mr. Sydney Lee's “ Life of Queen Victoria” is disappointing ; the Quarterly has accustomed us to better articles than this on the subject of the late Queen. The article on “Recent Sport and Travel” covers a wide field. The paper on the "Game of Speculation " is noticed elsewhere.

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"In the nearer East, the middle East, and the farther East, existing conditions give rise to very troublesome problems, and troublesome problems are not confined to Asia. Mr. Balfour hopes and believes that the statesmanship of Europe will be found equal to their satisfactory solution. It will greatly assist the efforts of statesmen if the public of the rival countries can manage to retain a sense of proportion in discussing foreign politics. The real questions of the future are of the deepest importance ; why, then, should every trumpery vexatious incident that may make discord between nations be employed to exasperate against each other those whose friendly dispositions are essential to the future peace of the world ?"

THE PROGRESS OF MEDICINE SINCE 1803. This paper is a painstaking, not particularly brilliant, survey of the advance that has been made in the healing art within the last hundred years. Anesthetics, antiseptics, antitoxin, are the three great divisions under which these improvements are marshaled, and to these must be added the X ray, the light treatment for lupus, and the discovery of the part which the mosquito plays in malarial fever.

HENRY JAMES AS A NOVELIST. Henry James, who was born in 1843 and published his first tale in 1866, has been describing his impressions for thirty-six years, in the course of which he has written thirty-four books. The reviewer praises him very highly, but, he says :

“He knows so intimately the human heart, he has unraveled such a complexity of human motive, yet he has only once painted in woman an overmastering passion, and his analyses of motive have taught us chiefly how much we do not know. He has shirked no segment of the social circle, he has painted the magnificence and the pathetic meagerness of existence, yet he has scarcely drawn across one of his pages the sense of its struggle,-that endless groan of labor which is the ground bass of life.”

But, nevertheless and notwithstanding, the reviewer concludes by saying :

“If he has ropped a line but ely into the deep waters of life, his soundings have so added to our knowledge of its shallows that no student of existence can afford to ignore his charts."

EMILE ZOLA The article on Zola is chiefly devoted to an analysis and criticism of his three books on his three citiesLourdes, Rome, and Paris. The art of Zola was that of a scene-painter, strong and vivid, his reproductions of places were lifelike, and his “Rome” is the very best guide-book that has ever been written even for Rome. His instinct for the nauseous bordered on genius, and it was equaled by his skill in presenting it. An immense pity for mankind filled him ; the beauty and the

joy of the world escaped him; he saw only its reverse side, -its cruelty, its wretchedness, and its pain. His talent was that of a supremely clever journalist, -he never could get away from the standpoint of the average

In his trilogy of three cities he embodied his philosophy and set forth his criticism of life. He saw things for the most part on the surface, and the impression left is one of superficiality and limitation. Nevertheless, the reviewer is constrained to pay a tribute of praise to Zola, whose immortal honor it is that in the Dreyfus case, in the eternal battle between light and darkness, he struck unhesitatingly and without flinching the side of light.

A PLEA FOR FACTORY LEGISLATION. An article entitled “The Past and Future of Factory Legislation ” leads up to the following conclusion :

“We all see now that the bodily and mental health and vigor of the industrial classes form an asset of priceless value in the fierce and ever-intensifying economic struggle between Britain and her eager and powerful rivals. We know, or may obtain the knowledge, how to preserve and develop that asset, so far as it depends on industrial conditions. If as a nation we do not avail ourselves of the means thus ready to our hands,-if we do not give our best help toward the extension and realization of the best intentions of our Parliament for the preservation and enhancement of the economic efficiency of the people, -we shall certainly not deserve to escape from the consequences which such apathy and self-indulgence must inevitably entail.”

MODERN MOTOR CARS. The reviewer says that steam is the best for heavy work in a hilly district, but in the hands of a novice the steam motor has the greatest possibility of accident. An electric motor is the best for town work, but it is restricted to a range of thirty or forty miles. The petrol car is least liable to accident, its range is two hundred miles, and its great defects are noise, smell, and vibration. The reviewer pleads for greater elasticity by permitting higher speeds on country roads, and urges that a departmental committee or a royal commission should be appointed to provide a basis for legislation and to advise as to the best method of reforming the existing system of highway administration.

OTHER ARTICLES. The article on “Panslavism in the Near East” is chiefly interesting for the account which it gives of the operations of the Imperial Palestine Society and the opposition offered to Russian propaganda by Turks, Greeks, Jews, French, Italians, Germans, English, and Americans. The first article is devoted to the account of the blockade of Brest at the beginning of the last century. The article on “Double Stars” will be chiefly interesting to astronomers.



A REVUE” for January keeps up its reputation

as the most actual of French monthly publications. The number for January 1 opens with a long unsigned article on the great crisis in the French Church, in which the repeated warnings which we have lately had as to the danger of disruption within the Church are repeated. During four or five years, there

have been annually two hundred secessions of priests from the Freach Church, while the number who remain, but who would fain secede, is innumerable. These priests remain in the Church, not because they have kept the faith, but for fear of misery and hunger. This writer says: “This I affirm because I know it, because my desk is full of letters of pitiful confidence on this subject, and because I receive, constantly, visits from

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