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DICKENS AND LANDSEER.
on - Charles Dickens as a Lover of Art and Art. ists," written by: his youngest daughter, Mrs. Kate Perugini. The following recollections of Landseer are quoted from this article :
· For Edwin Landseer, my father had a pecul. iarly enthusiastic admiration, placing him with Maclise in the high estimation he held of their many-sided genius; and I have often heard him say that of all the men he had known during his literary career, those two must inevitably have risen to the highest point of excellence in whatever profession or position in life they may have found themselves.
“ In Edwin Landseer he had not only a warm friend, but one for whom his own regard increased as they both grew older and Landseer had a little put aside the slight affectation of manner which his position of a renowned painter, a great wit, and a spoiled pet of society had tempted him to indulge in. There is a story my father used to tell touching upon this, and upon the excessive nervousness and the sensitive nature of the artist, which I think I may relate.
LANDSEER'S NERVOUSNESS. "It happened that on one occasion when Landseer was engaged to dine at my father's house all the company had assembled in the drawing-room with the exception of the painter. My father, who had invited him earlier than his other guests, knowing that he would probably arrive the last of all, grew impatient, but drawing out his watch, determined to wait for him another quarter of an hour. After that time had elapsed, no Landseer appearing, he decided upon going downstairs with his friends, and dinner was well-nigh half over before Landseer walked in. My father received him rather coldly, thinking that his affectation was becoming intolerable and deserved a slight punishment; but my aunt, who sat near to where Landseer was placed, noticed that he was very pale, and that his hands and face were twitching nervously. He became more composed as the dinner proceeded, and after it was over, took my father aside and told him that he had left his studio early enough to reach Devonshire Terrace in good time for dinner, and was anxious to be in time, as he knew my father's punctual habits, but that, as his foot almost touched the doorstep of the house, one of those terrible fits of nervousness and shyness to which he was subject came upon him, and he was obliged to walk up and down the street for a long time before he could sum. mon up courage to ring at the bell. I can imagine
The part marked 1 is preëminently the Dickens country, from Yarmouth on the north to Dover on the south. Apart from “David Copperfield,” “Pickwick,” “Great Expectations,” etc., it comprises Gad's Hill and Broadstairs, for long, the novelist's two favorite places of residence. Rochester (the Cloisterham, Dullborough, Mudfog, etc., of the novels) may be called its literary capital. (Several of the novels, mostly cast in London or other towns, run into No. 1, as, besides those named, “A Tale of Two Cities,” “Bleak House,” etc.)
No. 2. For parts of “Oliver Twist,” “Old Curiosity Shop,” “Barnaby Rudge,” etc.
No. 3. Mainly for “Nicholas Nickleby” in its two sections, and also in its upper part for “Master Humphrey's Clock.”
No. 4. The country of “Martin Chuzzlewit” away from London.
No. 5. The country of “Dombey and Son."
MIMICRY IN BIRDS.
how the severity of my father's manner softened
STUDIES IN BIRD-SONG. at this confession, and how eagerly and affection IT
T is a charming diversion from the usually* ately he must have assured his friend of his solid articles of the London Quarterly Review warm sympathy."
when Mr. Robert McLeod favors us with an
essay on the development of bird-song. WAS AMERICA THE CRADLE OF ASIA ? views two works on the subject by Mr. Charles N interesting article in the March Harper's, A. Witchell, who defines bird-song as the whole America the Cradle range of voice in birds.
He suggests that the of Asia,” shows the falsity of our usual concep
first vocal sounds were cries of terror or anger. tion of America as "the new world,” and gives To the danger-signal and combat cry is added some almost startling evidence to support the the call-note. These three strands have been belief that Asiatic civilization was cradled on this woven into the song of most of our birds. side of the Pacific. · We find upon the western continent things not only similar to those of Asia, but precisely identical with them ; things Imitation is represented as one of the princinot only the same in form and use, but in source pal sources of musical composition among birds : and development as well, and at the same time - The warblers have, as we might expect, much so empirical and complex that no theory of their in common in their voices ; and the sedge war. having been produced independently under like bler, a mighty singer, is a gifted mimic. There conditions, of their being the products of a sim is practically no limit to the variety of sounds it ilar yet independent creative impulse, seems lon can reproduce. We have listened to its extraorger tenable.
dinary song, – a medley of many strains, -, * If we reject the theory of Asiatic origin, when twilight was deepening into darkness, and there are two explanations open to us : First, have been entranced. It is impossible to describe that at one period of man's history he had cer it,---rapid, of many tones, of manifold lights and tain ideas in common on both continents; that shades, of varied cadences, reproducing with his customs were fundamentally the same and absolute fidelity the songs of neighbor birds, in knew no geographical boundaries. Second, that some cases apparently arranged in a preconcerted these identical customs originated in America, order. Buntings imitate pipits ; greenfinches and were disseminated thence over the world ; and yellow-hammers have similar voices ; and that the American culture, no longer to be re we know that in winter they seek their food in garded as sterile and unproductive, must be the same places, and hear each other's calls. So given its due place among the influences which imitative is the jay in a wild state that it has have contributed to the origin and development
been known to introduce into its song not only of our own civilization."
the shrill whew of the kite, the scream of the Dr. Culin supports the latter view notwith buzzard, and the hooting of the owl, but the standing that it presupposes an antiquity for bleating of
bleating of the lamb and the neighing of the horse. American civilization as great, if not greater, A sparrow, we are told, educated under a linnet, than the earliest known or suspected Babylonian hearing by accident a goldfinch sing, developed or Egyptian eras.
a song that was a mixture of the songs of these Among the curious evidences cited to support
two birds ; while another, brought up in a cage this theory are the divining-rods described in of canaries, sang like a canary, only better ; a the oldest known Chinese book, the Yi King, third, reared in a cage close to a skylark, imi. dating from the twelfth century B.C. “Now, tated with surprising success the skylark's song, the splints used in Asia find their counterpart in but interrupted the strain with its own call-notes. America in the gambling-sticks used by many Animal cries, too, have been imitated. The tribes. Thus, in Hupa Valley, California, we roar of the ostrich and of the lion, it is said, are find the same bundle of fine rods, manipulated so similar that even Hottentots are sometimes in the same way by rolling in the hands, divided unable to discriminate between them." at random into two bundles and counted off as
THE NIGHTINGALE'S REPERTORY. in Asia. Even the number of the sticks remains practically the same.” The common use of the Mr. Witchell is undoubtedly a bold man. He arrow as a symbol for man, the similarity of the has not feared to attempt a description of the Mexican game of patolli to the Hindu game of witchery of the nightingale's song. The prosepochesi, and other such marvelous coincidences writer has rushed in where even poets feared to are described by Dr. Tulin to support his the tread ; and we are grateful to the reviewer for ory that America contributed her share to the reproducing the passage which follows : world's civilization.
- The fullness of tone which the nightingale
displays interferes with the accuracy of imitation calls that of Oberammergau, is situated in the in many instances ; and, indeed, so wonderful is French Jura, and the sanatorium is about a mile the song that the listener is apt to forget all else from the village. It is a very large building, than the supreme impulse and passion of the of which the most important section is called singer. Perhaps the surroundings of the bird
the cure gallery, consisting of a sort of huge increase the effect. The murmur of the stream ; roofed-in balcony of course entirely open to the the soft moonlight which bathes the dewy air, and where the patients spend the whole day meadow and sheds white waves across the wood reclining on deck chairs. A rather melancholy land tract, checkered with shadows of clustering feature of the sanatorium--to Anglo-Saxon nofresh May leaves,—these are suitable features in tions—is that the sexes are never allowed to the realm of this monarch of song, and increase meet ; each sex has its own dining-room, drawthe effect. Now it prolongs its repetitions till ing-room, even its own gardens. the wood rings. Now its note seems as soft as Of course, the fact that the sanatorium is a a kiss ; now it is a loud shout, perchance a threat philanthropic institution makes it far easier to (rrrrrr); now a soft peeuu, peruu, swelling in an carry out the rules, and in some ways makes the amazing crescendo. Now it imitates the sip sip experiment a more interesting one. No cases in sip sisisisisi of the woodwarbler, now the bub the very first or in the very last stages of the bling notes of the nuthatch. The scientific in disease are accepted for treatment. vestigator is abashed by this tempestuous song,
A SANATORIUM HOTEL. this wild melody, the triumph-song of Nature herself, piercing beyond the ear, right to the The writer went on from Hauteville to another heart. It is pleading now! "But no, it is de sanatorium, managed on very different lines. clamatory; now weird, now fierce ; triumphant, There he soon discovered that the patients were half merry. One seems to hear it chuckle, mock, mostly of the wealthier classes, and in many and defy almost in the same breath."
cases the guest under treatment was accompanied by several relations, while, of course, there
was no bar put to ordinary intercourse between The reviewer thinks that the influence of love
Indeed, he says that it would be diffon the evolution of bird-song has been much ex cult to tell such a sanatorium from an ordinary aggerated. In the case of migrants, the male hotel, were it not for the cure gallery, and for bird sings rapturously before the arrival of the the fact that in many of the rooms the windows female, but “as a matter of fact, it is not till have been bodily taken out. courtship is over, the nest built, and domestic
DAVOSPLATZ. cares begun that the bird utters its full heart. . The perfect melody is not that of one who woos, From this place he went on to Davosplatz, of but of one who has won. . . . Song, which in its all the high-altitude cures in some ways the highest display belongs to the spring of the year, most interesting, though, of course, it is only is uttered in the main by the adult male. It is comparatively lately that the open-air cure, as probably a manifestation of vigor and exuberant now understood, has been practised there. It is vitality. It is the overflow of the new life and clear from this paper that the French municipal contagious gladness which the springtide, with authorities are tackling the whole problem of its abundance of food and its bright sunshine, consumption and its cure in a business-like spirit. bring to the healthy bird."
Ere long, every great industrial center in France will have its state-managed sanatorium, where
the poorest will have the best and most skillful LIFE IN A CONSUMPTION SANATORIUM.
WHY BIRDS SING.
tuberculosis, fresh air and food will do
THE REFORM OF THE JAPANESE SYSTEM OF much, but they will do more for the consumptive patient if the cure is carried out in a high
WRITING. altitude. M. Corday contributes to the Revue
AT T a time when European institutions of de Paris a vivid and most interesting account learning are introducing the Chinese lanof life in a French sanatorium, or open-air guage and literature into their curricula, Colum
bia University being the first one in this counThe sanatorium described is that of Haute try to offer courses in Chinese, this winter, ville en Bugey, and is entirely devoted to the the Japanese, who more than 1,200 years ago needs of the consumptive workers of Lyons. adopted the Chinese system of writing, are delibThe tiny village, of which the description re. erating the means of discarding that system as
DISADVANTAGES OF THE CHINESE SYSTEM.
too cumbersome and adopting a phonetic system nese system of writing, together with Chinese similar to the Latin alphabet. The system of culture, their intellectual life becoming SinoChinese hieroglyphics and its disadvantages for Japanese, as the culture of ancient Italy was a progressive people like the Japanese, anxious Græco-Roman. And through the continued to assimilate Western culture, is discussed in a study of Chinese literature, more than thirty fascinating article by Ludwig Riess, an thousand ideograms became fixed in the memory professor of the university of Tokyo, in the of the educated classes. When the Japanese Preussische Jahrbücher for December. This com decided to accept European culture, about half plicated system of eastern Asia, that is still the a century ago, and introduced in an amazingly principal subject of instruction in progressive short time the appliances of modern civilization, Japan and backward Korea, that puzzles the they were confronted with the question that the Dutch soldier and the German planter on Java writer still regards as the most important one and Sumatra, and that in our ethnographic for Japan's future : Shall the system of writing museums is the means of bringing to light the adopted from the Chinese be retained, in view inexhaustible intellectual treasures of ages long of this new condition of things ? or can and past, the writer designates as one of the greatest will a convenient means of written communicamarvels of human ingenuity.
tion similar to the European alphabet crown the work of Europeanizing Japan, that has been so
auspiciously begun ? Some analogies to the Chinese ideograms may be found among Western peoples ; for instance, numerals, mathematical signs, chemical formulæ, Although attempts have been made to introsignals, escutcheons, emblems, flags at half duce a phonetic system that in theory has been mast, the Red Cross, etc., are signs that are brought nearly to perfection, the writer holds universally recognizable. Ideograms, directly that at the present stage of the intellectual deexpressing ideas without the medium of words, velopment of Japan it is impossible to discard at form the basis of the system of the thousands of once the Chinese system, as it is too intimately signs by means of which the eastern Asiatic connected with the life and literature of the peopeoples express their thoughts to the eye, whereas ple, countless ideograms being fixed in the memfor the Western peoples the sound that reaches ory of most men and half of the women, and the ear is the chief medium for transmitting 2,350 of these signs alone being used in the thought, for even in reading we unconsciously daily papers. Still, its disadvantages are patent translate the letters into sounds. The Chinese in any attempts to acquire a more universal culsees in his ideogram a concrete conventional ture.
As the writer says :
“Seven years of image of the idea presented to him. Thoughts schooling and a one-sided development of the are transmitted to him by his system of writing memory are the price that every Japanese must as clearly and intelligibly as thoughts are trans pay for acquiring his national culture. Although mitted to the architect by his plan, to the geolo- he receives in addition an unusual training of gist by his map, to the physician by the curves the eye and develops great skill in drawing that of temperature of his patient, to the meteor is of advantage to all the arts and crafts, the ologist by his weather chart. As the image Japanese pupil is far behind Western children called up before the eye is originally independ as regards intellectual activity and practical ent of the sounds that convey the same thoughts knowledge. In
sense, independent to the ear, discrepancies may arise between the thinking, ethical ideals, and imagination, the Japwritten and the spoken words that are entirely anese student cannot compare with the German impossible in a phonetic system. Faithful graduate." These differences, the writer thinks, stenographic reports of speeches seem strange are due not so much to racial peculiarities as to to the reading public of Japan. The Japanese the schooling the Japanese receives. Up to the is not impressed by the solemn proclamations of age of thirteen or fourteen, the Japanese child the Emperor when he listens to them, but when cannot read anything outside of his class lesson, he sees them in good print. The work of the and is therefore shut off from all those sources great Japanese poet does not delight the ear by of information that a Western child finds in his its harmonies of sound, but the eye by its bril outside, miscellaneous reading. liant display on paper.
On the stage, the exaggerated situations and the pantomime of the players serve to supply the limitations of the It is proposed, in the first place, to make a language.
selection of the 1,300 most indispensable ideoCenturies ago, the Japanese adopted the Chi grams,
child must learn. Next
THE DALAI LAMA.
comes the old Japanese system, the double sylla- government offices. The houses are mostly of bary with 49 characters each, that are used for clay and sun-dried bricks, while those of the particles and inflections. And in the third richer class are built of brick or stone, hewn place, the Japanese child, already overburdened into square blocks, and neatly fitted. They are with reading exercises, must learn the Latin all given a coat of whitewash, which with the redletters of our Western alphabet. As regards painted woodwork of the doors and windows imthe sequence of teaching these three systems, parts a fictitious air of cleanliness. Windows are the writer holds that the child should begin sometimes glazed, but more often prepared in with the last-named, the European phonetic sys. Chinese fashion, and the buildings rise from two tem, as it is the simplest and most quickly to four stories, some having towers and gilded learned, and has moreover the advantage of roofs. Within, the most striking characteristic training the ear as well as the eye, thus enabling is the dirt. Very few have any chimney or hole the child to learn to read more quickly by himself. for smoke, which is expected to find its way out Aithough this question of the sequence may
of door or window. Nevertheless, the ceilings seem petty, the writer thinks that it involves are frequently silk, the walls hung with satin or much of the efficacy of the impending reform brocade, and the floors glossy ; but the effect is in the intellectual development of the Japanese that of gaudy squalor. For furniture, Tibetans people.
have stuffed rags or flat cushions to sit on, with
miniature tables on which food is set. Tea is THE SACRED CITY OF LHASSA REVEALED. drunk all day long, a favorite form being "butARIOUS attempts have been made to pene tered tea,' a concoction of tea-leaves stewed and
trate to the city of the Grand Lama, in mixed with rancid butter and barley flour. MutTibet. It seems to be the general belief that ton and yak beef are eaten in great quantities, the feat has always proved impossible ; but this but our traveler speaks of the tsamba,' or baris far from being the case, and it is generally to ley gruel, as the national food.'' be seen that those adventuring either with large trains or from the Chinese frontier are the ones doomed to failure. There is now living quietly The life of the little Incarnate Buddhas, who in India a man who has been in Lhassa and occupy the central position in Lhassa and of the knows about all that is to be known of it. His Buddhist faith, seems to be a very unpleasant report to the Indian Government, obtainable one, if we may judge by the writer's account of long since in Russia, has been rescued from ob what Manning and the Abbé Huc saw on their scurity by the Royal Geographical Society, and visits : will soon be published. Mr. Archibald Colquhoun “ The hall at the top of the palace in which writes an interesting account of Lhassa and Tibet the poor little fellow sat was full of solemn lamas. in the January Cornhill.
motionless and silent as the grave, each with his
eyes fixed steadily on the tip of his own nose. WHAT IS LHASSA LIKE ?
In the midst of this grave assemblage sat the Mr. Colquhoun says :
sacred head of the Buddhist religion, a bright, “ It is not difficult, by means of the descrip- fair-complexioned boy with rosy cheeks, large tions of Huc and our traveler, to conjure up a and penetrating eyes, and an Aryan type of picture of the sacred city; and considering that countenance. His frame was thin with fastings architecture in Tibet is usually of the most un. and prayers, and one cannot help feeling heartornamental character, a bird's-eye view must be sick at the thought of the poor child, a mere more impressive than might be expected. Domi. puppet in reality though invested with so much nating everything is the rugged mass of Potala, sanctity, cut off by no fault of his own from all the palace of the Dalai Lama, itself some nine the joys of youth, and probably destined to die stories high in the center, probably about three a violent death in his early manhood, since the hundred feet high, and surmounting a conical powers that be prefer a young and helpless Dalai hill. Flags and strings of colored rags wave Lama. No wonder that Manning, when he visand flutter in the breeze from every window, ited the Dalai Lama of his time, could think of and the gilt domes and roofs glitter in the sun. nothing but the beautiful face of the doomed shine. Round Potala are towers, chapels, and child, and that he felt his eyes full of tears." pavilions, gleaming with gold and silver, and below lies the town, from which an avenue of giant trees leads to the palace. The center of Mr. Colquhoun gives an interesting account the city is the great temple, or cathedral, from of how the choice of this chief priest is arrived at : which all the streets radiate. Here are also the “At present, the choice of this chief priest of
HOW THE DALAI LAMA IS CHOSEN,