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exertion of their hands or brains. The Demo was Southern men, like Bayard of Delaware, cratic party won its repeated victories from 1800 Hill of Georgia, Lamar of Mississippi, and Gar. to 1860, and its victories of 1876, 1884, and land of Arkansas, who lent their votes in criti. 1892, because it advocated those conservative cal emergencies in support of the return to policies which lay at the foundation of party specie payments and sound money and in saving doctrine in the time of Jefferson, Madison, and the Republican party in Congress from its own Monroe, and which inspired in the country the worst elements. conviction that a Democratic administration It is needless to recite the history of the meant strict adherence to the Constitution, care resolute fight made by the last two Democratic ful economy in public expenditures, and the ad administrations for the gold standard and against ministration of laws regarding taxation and the debasement of the currency.
While Demoprivilege which would conform most nearly to cratic Secretaries of the Treasury, like Daniel the theory of equal rights and privileges for all Manning, Charles S. Fairchild, and John G. and the greatest good to the greatest number. Carlisle, were struggling to counteract the effects Among those policies, a return to which at the of Republican silver legislation, Republican Prespresent time would bring strength to the party, idents, Secretaries, and Senators were denoun. these may be enumerated :
cing their action and sending roving bimetallic "1. A moderate tariff for revenue,
without commissions abroad to demonstrate their desire prejudice to domestic industries.
to make new concessions to the enemies of the "2. A sound currency.
It is the testimony of John «3. Moderation in public expenditures. Sherman that the silver law of 1890 was passed
66 4. The restriction of the federal govern. because a Republican President could not be ment to its legitimate functions, and opposition counted upon to veto a free-coinage bill. How to the further extension of its powers over the different the record of the Democratic President acts and industries of the people of the States." who followed, who was willing to sacrifice his
On the question of the tariff, Mr. Ryan has no party, if need be, to the preservation of the gold more radical a proposition to make than this, standard and the maintenance of the national that the Democratic policy “should have due honor ! Both Presidents followed the historic regard to the reasonable needs of American precedents of their parties,--the Republican, in manufactures, but should not prostitute Con looking to government interference with monegress to the contemptible part of acting as the tary laws as a means of creating value ; the pliant tool of special interests." The question Democrat, in looking to the bullion in the coin of absolute free trade, in this writer's opinion, as the test of value, which law might recognize may be eliminated. No Democratic Congress, but could not alter." he says, will ever wipe out protection, or re As a practical currency measure of urgent duce it upon highly finished products below a importance, especially to the agricultural regions reasonable protective point."
of the South, Mr. Ryan cites the bank-note re. form scheme advocated by Secretary ('arlisle
and by his Republican successors, but not yet What Mr. Ryan has to say about the currency
enacted into law by a Republican Congress. is more interesting, because more at variance
ADMINISTRATIVE ECONOMY. with recent official Democratic utterances. He begins with a rehearsal of the party's record on Another Democratic virtue of the past in the money question while in power :
which Mr. Ryan glories is that of frugality in “ The Democratic party was the first champion the conduct of the Government : of the gold standard in the United States, and "Moderation in public expenditures has been its leaders have been among the foremost in ad one of the historic policies of the Democratic vocating an intelligent reform of the bank-note party. If there has ever been a tendency to currency When the gold standard first became carry economy too far, it has been more than law in 1834, it was largely by the efforts of counterbalanced by Republican extravagance, Thomas Benton and Andrew Jackson, both and is an error which is too rare in the adSouthern men, one of whom earned the epithet ministration of modern governments. The of Old Bullion' by his firm devotion to that ordinary expenditures of the United States have standard. At a later date, after the country increased $260,226,935 or $4.63 per capita for had been plunged into the abyss of depreciated 1885, to $187,713,791 or $6.39 per capita for paper, against the advice of the conservative 1900, and $509,967,353 or $6.56 per capita for bankers of New York, and when faltering steps
1901. A part of this great increase has, no were being taken to restore gold payments,
it doubt, been occasioned by the growth of the
DEMOCRATS AS DEFENDERS OF THE GOLD STANDARD.
country and by the new classes of functions im undue favors to special interests ; upon the cur. posed by Republican legislation upon the federal rency, freedom for the use of credit in all forms government; but the question whether these which are useful to industry, without any further new expenditures are justified goes deeper than regulation than public safety and convenience the mere salary roll of a new bureau, and touches require ; upon public expenditures, freedom from the vital Democratic doctrine whether these new waste and excessive taxation ; upon the regufunctions ought in any case to be imposed upon lation of corporations, freedom from special fathe federal government. Upon this issue of vors and from any interference except such as economy and the strict scrutiny of public ex is necessary to the maintenance of equal opporpenditures, Mr. Tilden achieved his victory of tunity for all under equal laws,—these doctrines, 1876, and Mr. Cleveland commended himself to adapted to present conditions, are in harmony the confidence of the Democrats of New York in each case with the fundamental teachings of and the nation. The South, which profits only the fathers of Democracy; they are in harmony in a limited degree by the wealth arising from with the interests of the South ; and, what is new inventions, railway extension, and the more, they are in harmony with the true intereconomies in production obtained by improved ests of the nation, and the continuance of its industrial management, is less disposed, perhaps, progress in the paths marked out by the found than the North to witness with patience the ers of the Republic and the framers of the Conlavishing of the money raised by taxation upon stitution." objects of doubtful utility or beyond the legiti. mate scope of federal action."
A CORPORATION LAWYER OF THE NEW TYPE. AGAINST FEDERAL INTERFERENCE.
*HE specialist in corporation law is now a The rest of the article is mainly a protest
force to be reckoned with at the bar of most against the undue extension of the powers of
of our great cities ; but it is not so many years the federal government which is threatened by since the type was evolved. Indeed, there are the anti-trust legislation now before Congress. men still on the sunny side of fifty who have Mr. Ryan dwells upon “the vital Democratic seen the entire development of this particular principle," that there shall be the least possible interference by the state with private rights, and that the citizen shall be free under equal laws to seek and welcome opportunity whenever it is found.
• The fundamental policy of the Democratic party is the policy of industrial freedom. This policy, heretofore respected by all parties within our own broad limits, if not in our relations with other peoples, is now threatened by the application of the nostrums which handicap the industry of Germany, France, and Russia. The ball and chain of government interference with manufactures, with the Bourse, and with exchanges, which they are compelled to drag along in the unequal race with America, it is now proposed that we shall fasten upon our own free limbs, in order that our industries may not reduce the cost of their products to too low a point, and may not reap too rich a reward for their economy and efficiency !
Against these new follies of budding statesocialism, the Democratic party of the Union can afford to array itself with unflinching faith, and in such a movement the Democrats of the South should be the leaders. Such an attitude would be in harmony with the Democratic faith branch of legal practice since they left the law of the past ; it would be in harmony with the school, and this remark applies to the most best aspirations of the Democracy for the future. prominent and best part of all the latter-day corUpon the subject of the tariff, freedom from poration lawyers,—Mr. James B. Dill, of New
THE TELEPHONE AND THE AUTOMOBILE AS
York. In the March Cosmopolitan, Mr. Dill is tleman who was at Mr. Dill's house at the time sketched by Mr. William J. Boies in the series gives this account of what happened : of “Captains of Industry," and assuredly the “The manager of the automobile station was title fits a man who has played so important a hurriedly called up, and Mr. Dill said, quickly : part in the organization of modern industrial • Send up my two machines with a man on each, enterprises.
and see that they are supplied with plenty of The newspapers have told about the big fees gasolene for long distance work.' that Mr. Dill receives from corporations, but In two minutes the familiar chug, chug' they have usually neglected to tell how he paved was heard under Mr. Dill's library windows. the way for this success twenty years ago, soon
One machine procured a stenographer, and the after entering the profession, when by hard work other conveyed a brief message to a clerk, stathe mastered the intricacies of corporation law ing that he must get ready to leave for the city and made himself an authority that the biggest at once. The stenographer's hands were soon of the corporations have been eager to consult going like the piston-rod of a steam - engine in perfecting their organization. The man who in the effort to jot down the short, pointed made himself so useful in putting these concerns sentences. on their feet was found equally valuable in later " The opinion was finished just sixteen minutes years when other difficulties had to be faced by before the New York train was scheduled to these same corporations. He has always proved leave a station four miles from Mr. Dill's house. to be the man for the emergency, and has earned The automobile, with the clerk aboard, covered a reputation, Mr. Boies says, for “hustle, grit,
the distance in thirteen minutes, breaking every and shrewdness."
speed-limit ordinance known to New Jersey constables in the effort to catch that train. Another automobile was telephoned for to meet the clerk
at the New York end, and when the machine got One incident related by Mr. Boies throws light under way scarcely twenty minutes remained in on the kind of - hustle" that characterizes Mr. which to cross the city to the Grand Central Dill's methods. A banking syndicate three hun Station. The trip was made with eight minutes dred miles from New York suddenly found it. to spare." self in a legal predicament that required imme The clerk caught the midnight express, de. diate action. It was 9 o'clock at night, and it livering the opinion on time the next day. The was decided to call up Mr. Dill on the long document was immediately submitted to the op. distance telephone and ask for an opinion. Mr. posing attorney, who on reading it abandoned Dill was at his East Orange, N. J., home.
the injunctory proceedings altogether. This is what the bank people said :
“We want your opinion on such a provision [naming it] of the corporation law.
SVEN HEDIN, THE GREAT SWEDISH
EXPLORER. divided here as to what ought to be done, but must reach a decision and act on it by nine THE last century has produced two great o'clock to-morrow morning. I will briefly give you the facts over the telephone, and you must Hedin. Of the latter, there is an interesting desend us a written opinion, stating whether, in the scription in the Scottish Geographical Magazine for first place, what we propose to do is covered by January : the provision in question ; second, if we do this, From boyhood he showed that his natural whether we can be enjoined ; and, third, if we bent lay in the direction of geographical disare enjoined, whether we will be beaten in the covery. When only fifteen or sixteen, he made fight.”
a series of maps to illustrate the path of every " You shall have it. My man will be at your explorer of the Arctic regions, and the drawing office with the document at nine o'clock to-mor. and execution of these maps were extremely good. row morning. Don't give yourself any anxiety, Later on, he pursued a course of geographical and don't ask for any more miracles to-night.' literature, and finally completed his studies at " But how will you do it ? It is nearly ten
Berlin under Baron von Richthofen. In 1887, o'clock now."
he wrote an account of his experiences in travel. “ If I take time in discussing “how,' you will ing through Trans-Caucasia to Persia, Mesoponot obtain the result. Give me the facts." tamia, and home by Turkey and Bulgaria. In
Mr. Dill got them, and said “Good-bye.” 1890, he was sent by King Oscar on a mission to
With that, the long-distance circuit was closed, the Shah, and published next year an account of and the local telephone came into use.
his journey. In 1891, he translated into Swedish
General Prjevalsky's travels in northern Asia.
A FRENCH PHILANTHROPIST. In the following year, he published an account of his travels in eastern Persia and through Bok
In the Revue des Deux Mondes, there is hara to Kashgar, with many clever sketches by given an interesting account of a remarkable himself, as he is an accomplished draughtsman. Frenchman, Augustus Cochin, the most actively All this was an excellent training for the infi
beneficent of that wonderful group of liberal Ronitely more arduous journeys he was about to
man Catholics, which included Lacordaire. Co. undertake. In February, 1894, with twelve
chin was born in 1824, and died in 1872 ; yet durhorses and four men, Dr. Hedin began a dan.
ing this comparatively short life he accomplished gerous journey across the Pamirs from Tashkend
an immense amount of good, and had a very real to Kashgar, in eastern Turkestan."
influence on his generation. He was only nine. One great object of this expedition was to ex
teen when he founded his first workman's club, plore the glaciers of the mountain Mushtaghata,
which was at the same time a mutual aid sosome 25,500 feet high.
ciety. * After spending the winter in Kashgar, in
In order to carry out his scheme for the amelFebruary, 1895, Dr. Hedin started eastward to
ioration of the working classes, he entered politi. explore the Takla-makan desert, in the hopes of
cal life, and became mayor of one of the most finding traces of ancient civilization, and then
populous districts of Paris. With extraordinary intended to penetrate into Tibet. Unfortunately,
energy, he threw himself into the difficult ques. this journey turned out disastrously, and it was
tion of the housing of the working classes. He almost by a miracle that the hardy traveler es
started an insurance society, and last, not least, caped with his life.”
he compelled the government to open a post-office In December, 1895, he left Kashgar and
savings-bank. He was evidently one of those traversed the Takla-makan desert, being the first
idealists who are capable of causing their ideals European to venture across it. He then made
to come true: Not content in taking so active a Khotan his headquarters.
part in benefiting the Paris worker of all classes * Great preparations were here made before
and conditions, he organized several great purely crossing the great Kuenlun range and thence by charitable centers. In 1855, he found the funds way of Koko-nor to Peking. An idea of the
which enabled the Little Sisters of the Poor to hardship undergone during this long march may
open a home for one hundred and eighty destibe gained by the fact that out of fifty-six bag. tute old men and women. Three years later, he gage animals, no less than forty-nine died on the
organized the first home for incurables in Paris. road. Where pasture was scarce or wanting, Thanks to his efforts, the first country convathey died at the rate of one or two a day. The
lescent home ever opened in France was built in Kuenlun was crossed by a pass about 16,000
the neighborhood of Paris, and every Friday he feet above the sea, and a range more to the
was himself at home to all those, from the very south was traversed by a new pass 17,000 feet high. For two whole months the party wan
poorest beggars, who desired to ask his help.
Concerning these cases, observes his son, he dered cross the plateau of Tibet without seeing preserved an absolute silence, and, further, he a single living being, and the caravan had dwin.
never allowed his name to be directly associated dled to an alarming extent.
any of his innumerable good works. There " In January, 1897, Dr. Hedin reached Pe.
is something very sad in the thought that Cochin king, wnd there enjoyed a well-earned repose
died just after the Franco-Prussian War, and before returning to his native country. Between
before his beloved country had recovered from 1899 and 1902, Dr. Hedin explored the Tarim
the terrible moments through which she had River from near Yarkand to its lower extremity,
just passed. and has mapped it in about one hundred sheets. This survey included a part of the desert of Gobi that had never been visited before. The
THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF AUSTRALIA.
'HE half of 1900. A
is one man perished under the incredible hardships poet. An interesting article is contributed to undergone while traversing this inhospitable and the Woman at Home by a writer signing herself lofty region, destitute of all vegetation. The Ignota” on the life of Lord Tennyson. His longest journey through Tibet was begun in famous father wrote of him : «Kindest and best May, 1901. Two attempts to enter Lhasa of sons and most unselfish of men." One of proved unsuccessful owing to the hostility of Lord Tennyson's greatest obstacles in the path the Lamas."
to greatness, as well as one of his great assist
ances, has been that he is known rather as the son of his famous father than for his own work.
" The new governor-general of the Australian Commonwealth had an exceptionally good train. ing, from childhood upward, for the not very easy task which lies before him. He has known, and been intimately associated with, many of the great thinkers and workers of our time, from Queen Victoria—who had for him both affection and esteem-to General Gordon.
“ The story goes that on the occasion of the christening the historian remarked, "Why not give the child your own name as well as mine? Why not call him Alfred Hallam Tennyson ?' · For fear,' said the deep-voiced bard,— for fear he should turn out a fool ! Let his name be Hallam only.'”
Educated at Marlborough and at Cambridge, Hallam Tennyson filled for many years the dif. ficult post of private secretary to his father. He follows in his father's footsteps, and writes poetry. Perhaps in the future more of his work may be published.
ONE OF VAUGHAN'S MEN. When preparing for Holy Orders, he was one of “ Vaughan's men," and put himself under the moral guidance and finished scholarship of the Dean of Llandaff. As Canon Benham preached the sermon when Dr. Davidson was ordained in Croydon Church, in 1875, he has known him for a quarter of a century. Dr. Davidson became curate of Dartford after his ordination. Two years later, he became resident chaplain to Archbishop Tait, where he fell in love with Edith, the archbishop's daughter, and married her on November 12, 1878. His business capacity was tested when, as resident chaplain, he had to organize a conference of English, colonial, and American bishops at Canterbury. His honey
was interrupted by the death of his mother-in-law, who died three weeks after they were married. For four years he became the right-hand man of the widowed archbishop ; he was not only chaplain and secretary, but the confidential adviser of the primate.
HIS OFFICIAL CAREER.
CHAPLAIN TO DR. BENSON.
Canon Benha believes it was he who The four years following the death of the
convinced Dr. Tait that the Public Worship poet-laureate were occupied in the preparation of his biography by his son. After this ap
Regulation Act had proved a failure. When
Dr. Tait died, Dr. Benson made Dr. Davidson peared, Lord Tennyson was quietly fitting him
his domestic chaplain, a post which he preferred self for future official duties, and in 1899 re
to two rich canonries that were pressed upon him ceived the appointment to the governorship of
in vain. He became examining chaplain to South Australia. At first, the South Australians regarded him with reserve, but after his arrival
Bishop Lightfoot at Durham. Queen Victoria
made his acquaintance when she sent for him to he soon won his way to the hearts of the major
tell her more about the last days of Archbishop ity. The fact that he allowed himself to be interviewed for Sir John Langdon Bonython's
Tait. Just then the deanery of Windsor fell
vacant, and the Queen, after a conference with well-known paper, the Advertiser, did much to
Mr. Gladstone, nominated Dr. Davidson to that reassure the colonists as to the nature of their
post. The Queen made him her confidant, and new governor. On the retirement of the first governor-gen
in 1891 appointed him to the See of Rochester, eral, Lord Hopetoun, Lord Tennyson accepted
where he very nearly died, but pulled through
chiefly owing to what the doctor attributed to the post for one year. Since he was one of the
the calmness of his patient. After a time, he hardest workers for federation, it is only fitting
was appointed to Winchester, whence he has that he should receive this honor.
been transferred to Canterbury. He leaves his
diocese at peace, and Canon Benham speaks in THE NEW PRIMATE OF ENGLAND.
the warmest terms of the sympathy which he
has ever shown to his colleagues. 'ANON BENHAM contributes to the Treas.
ury for February some reminiscences of Dr. Randall Davidson, the new Archbishop of
DICKENS' COUNTRY. Canterbury. Canon Benham says that Davidson is a very good scholar and a very well-read man.
made excursions in the home and eastern He had a terrible accident in the latter part of counties of England, and once traveled as far his university career which laid him by for north as South Durbam. The Pall Mall Magamany weeks, and prevented him going in for zine for February contains an interesting paper honors. His old master, Vaughan, of Harrow, by Mr. W. Sharp, devoted to a description of felt confident that, but for that accident, he the localities mentioned in Dickens' novels. would have distinguished himself greatly.
Scott covered much of the Continent and all of
LONDON is the real Dickens land, but che