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sides, without even exacting that the dealers should refuse to handle his rival's wares. Immediately after this curious proposal, the American and British interests “ got together," and there was much jubilation in England over the defeat of the invader ; but Mr. Mayo says that the net result of the agreement was that the Imperial Company surrendered the entire foreign market to the Americans and gave them an interest in its own business as the price of peace
THE RETAIL TRADE.
THE CAREER OF THE TOBACCO TRUST. THE HERE is a good account of the extraor
dinary growth of the tobacco trust by Earl Mayo in the March Frank Leslie's. Mr. Mayo thinks the achievement of Mr. James B. Duke, the head of the tobacco combination, in bring. ing the bitterly antagonistic competing firms together was in some respects even greater than Mr. John D. Rockefeller's in founding the Standard Oil Company, because the latter had the ad. ' vantage of starting his plans in the infancy of the industry. No trust except the Standard Oil Company exercises so complete a monopoly as the tobacco combination. Like Mr. Rockefeller, Mr. Duke's start toward his present imperial position in the tobacco trade was made from very small beginnings, and the Duke firm's entire output could be carried in a handbag in 1865.
After the Philadelphia Centennial, the growth of cigarette manufacture in the United States was very rapid, and by 1890 had grown to a product of two billion a year. W. Duke & Sons were one of the largest manufacturers, but there were half a dozen struggling neck-andneck for supremacy. The most lavish advertising and premium schemes were used.
66 At one time the competition had reached a point where a coupon, a colored reproduction of a photo. graph, and a card bearing a representation of a flag, done in colors, were all given away with a five.cent box of cigarettes." Notwithstanding the bitterness of the antagonism, Mr. Duke succeeded, in 1890, in forming the American To. bacco Company, and brought into it all the large rival concerns. From cigarette manufacture, Mr. Duke went on to capture, by the hardest fighting imaginable, the pipe-tobacco and chewing-tobacco markets. In establishing the fame of the “ Battle-Ax” brand of chewing to. bacco, $4,000,000 was sunk, but since then $12,000,000 has been earned.
To-day, there are two great manufacturing corporations, the American Tobacco Company and the Continental Tobacco Company, the first making cigarettes, the second plug tobacco, and dividing the pipe tobacco between them. A subsidiary company, the American Snuff Company, makes 15,000,000 pounds of snuff a year.
Finally, the great combinations under Mr. Duke had got practical mastery of the manufacture of tobacco in all its forms. Now people are asking themselves if the trust is determined to be its own retailer as well, because an ominous new concern, the United Cigar Stores Company, has appeared on the horizon. No less than $500,000,000 worth of tobacco is sold every year, a trade prize worth working for. The Cigar Stores Company has started four hundred stores in the best locations, and is constantly ex. panding. The officials say they have nothing to do with the tobacco trust, and that they are simply trying to bring the business of cigar and tobacco selling to an orderly and economical basis. But the retail dealers are sure the trust is try. ing to swallow them through this new mouth. Where the retail dealer will not be bought out, one is apt to see a magnificent shop of the United Cigar Stores Company opened up next door. If sumptuous fittings do not capture the trade, the big store may sell some favorite brand of fifteen-cent cigar for six cents apiece, and these tactics, of course, will soon see the small dealer's end.
THE CONQUEST OF THE AIR. T° O the second January number of the Revue
des Deux Mondes, M. de Fonvielle contributes an interesting paper on the disasters which have happened to various aëronauts, and also on the progress which has nevertheless been made concerning the conquest of the air. He explains at great length the difficulties which confront any one who tries to photograph objects on the earth from any considerable height in a balloon. This is a matter which has long occupied the attention of the French ministry of war, and it is easy to see how essential it might be, in the course of a campaign, to obtain a negative which would be sufficiently large to enable men, horses, guns, etc., to be clearly discerned, without relying upon any subsequent enlargement, for which there would be probably no time. Apparently, the clouds floating below a
THE TOBACCO WAR IN GREAT BRITAIN.
Mr. Mayo describes the Homeric battle in England of the American Tobacco interests, led by Mr. Duke, against the Imperial Tobacco Company, composed of the leading British houses, hastily organized to repel the American invader. This fight culminated in Mr. Duke's offer to give to the retail dealers all the profits of his company for four years and $4,000,000 be
balloon always intervene in the most annoying which Mr. Archer draws between the arrange-
AN ENTHUSIASTIC AËRONAUT.
“At the latter, the workmen were miserably ascents that he forgets the exact number ; but
housed in wretched wooden shanties. Professnever, except perhaps on one occasion, did he ors described the tunnel itself as a veritable attempt to decide, before starting, on the place hell, continuous labor in its pestiferous atmoswhere he intended to alight. Indeed, as he says
phere being almost certain death for the young. himself, as a rule, all that he asked of Æolus Owing to the air, vitiated by the perpetual exwas not to drop him down into the empire of plosion of dynamite, the smoke from hundreds Neptune! Both the experiments and the tragic of reeking oil lamps, and the exhalations from fate of Severo naturally interested him pro the bodies of men and horses, being insufficient. foundly. His enthusiasm for the magnificently renewed, together with the entire absence of sights which are unrolled before the aëronaut in sanitary appliances, 80 per cent. of the miners the upper regions of the air reaches quite a lyrical
suffered from a form of trichinosis consisting of pitch, and we even find him regretting that Vic microscopic worms in the intestines. During tor Hugo never went up in a balloon. Certainly, the eight years the tunnel took to make, no less this idea suggests a new method of furnishing than four hundred lives were lost, either from our popular novelists with some amount of im tunnel worm' or from pneumonia, the latter agination.
originating through the sudden change from To M. de Fonvielle, aëriel navigation has be the hot galleries to the cool Alpine atmosphere come a physical necessity ; and he finds that if outside, while another two hundred were killed he goes for some time without his air cure, as
or maimed by explosions and passing trucks. he calls it, he becomes languid and nervous. He greatly regrets that the attention of French inventors has been so exclusively concentrated « Things were managed better at the Arlberg, on the construction of steerable balloons, to the but it has been reserved for the Simplon directexclusion of artistic, scientific, and sporting orate to inaugurate, with their refinements, a aëronautics ; and he looks forward to the time new era in the history of social science. To obwhen the establishment of a really scientific viate the risk of pneumonia, large dressing-halls meteorology will enable us to make use of the are provided at either entrance. On emerging wind, and to travel by its aid. This, he says, from the galleries, the men are compelled to would be preferable to inventing machines enter these halls, which are ready-heated for which are designed to overcome the wind's their reception at the temperature which they powerful resistance. Nevertheless, he pays a have just left, and to stay therein for half an warm tribute to M. Santos-Dumont, and con hour while the temperature is gradually cooled siders that the world owes him a larger debt of down to that prevailing outside.
The men are gratitude than it is now willing to admit. conveyed into and out of the tunnel in train
loads, and the space between the tunnel exits
and the platforms where they alight is roofed TWO WAYS OF BORING THE ALPS.
over and boarded in, so that no chill may be HE longest tunnel in the world, the St. contracted on this short portion of the journey.
Simplon tunnel, is the subject of an ad The halls are equipped with baths, hot and cold mirable sketch by Mr. H. G. Archer in Cassell's douches, etc., and here the men take off their Magazine. When open for traffic in May, 1904, mining clothes, which are at once hung up in it will be 124 miles long, the St. Gothard being heated rooms to dry, ready for the next day's 93, the Mont Cenis 77, and the Arlberg 67. work. Adjacent are canteens, under official Perhaps the most pleasing feature in the sketch control, and selling nothing but the best food is the witness it bears to the vastly greater care and liquor at nominal prices. Excellent hospitaken of the workmen in this than in any of the tals have been provided, in case of accident or preceding bores. Strange to say, one of the illness; and, lastly, in order to minimize the most formidable dangers to the health of the risks of accident inside the tunnel, the trains navvies is the intense heat of the tunnel, the are run by time-table and protected by signals, temperature having risen as high as 123 degrees while the narrow.guage contractors' track is Fahrenheit. A valuable illustration of the prog. laid at one side, thus leaving plenty of room for ress of civilization is supplied by the contrast pedestrians.”
A RIVAL OF THE LOCOMOTIVE.
“MOTORING” AT NINETY MILES AN HOUR. HOW THE TROLLEY COMPETES WITH THE N the Badminton Magazine, Charles Jarrott
T is one of those many facts “not generally mobile race. To do this he had to cover 321
known” that the number of passengers car. miles in 353 minutes, along fifty-three miles of ried on American steam railroads is less to-day road literally filled with ninety other cars. The by over twelve millions than it was seven years danger was very great, from the high speed at ago, notwithstanding the remarkable prosperity which the cars traveled, and most of all from the of the country. An explanation of this apparent dust raised all along the route. Mr. Jarrott paradox is supplied by the rapid growth of the says :
trolley. At least, that is the hypothesis adopted “In the open stretches, where the wind was by Mr. Samuel E. Moffett, writing in McClure's able to take effect on the dust, the road was for March, and the data embodied in his article clearer ; but in the pine forests, where the dust seem to justify his position. was unable to escape, the air was more like a Commenting on the falling off in steam pasNovember fog in London than anything else I senger traffic and on the accompanying increase can describe. It was of no use slackening speed, in the average passenger haul, Mr. Moffett says : however, and on and on we went, with no other “Of course, people are not really traveling means of knowing we were on the road than an less frequently than they used to, nor are they occasional glimpse of the tree-tops on either side. journeying longer distances. More passengers
- The trouble of passing other cars was a very by hundreds of millions are traveling than ever apparent one. The hooter was quite useless, before, but the steam railroads are not carrying human lungs soon gave way, and the only thing the increase. The growth in the length of the left to do was to watch for a favorable piece of average passenger haul on those roads means road, take the opportunity, and rush by. That that they are steadily losing the short-haul busitroubles were being experienced by other com ness, which a younger and more vigorous rival petitors we could see, as evidenced by the state is claiming for its own. of their cars, many of which were completely smashed up on various parts of the course.”
Mr. Jarrott made two stoppages to replenish " Inch by inch, the field is contested, and his supply of petrol and water, and on one of slowly, sullenly, the locomotive is giving way these occasions lost seven minutes. Starting before the insistent trolley. A dozen years ago, No. 32, there being a two-minutes' interval be it was only the car horse and the cable in the tween the starting of each car, he nevertheless towns that were threatened by electric traction. finished first of all the competitors on his 70 Then the trolley poked an inquiring tentacle horse-power Panhard. His most exciting ex over the city limits into the suburbs. perience he describes as follows :
sults were satisfactory, and swiftly the electric " It was soon after this that I caught up Mr. lines flung their spider filaments from town to W. K. Vanderbilt, Jr., and then came some of town, until now great sections of the country the best racing I have ever enjoyed. With the are cobwebbed with them. The trolley map of two cars going wonderfully well, both of us tak. eastern Massachusetts looks as complete as the ing all legitimate (and a good many illegitimate) steam-railroad
have a little time to risks, neither of us able to gain an advantage spare, you can go on an electric car to almost over the other, for over ninety kilometers we ran any part of southern New England that you wheel and wheel ; but I eventually succeeded in could reach by a locomotive, and to a good getting by at the corner at Longlier.”
many parts that you could not. His sensations during the race are also given : “In Massachusetts, last year, four times as
“Many times have I been asked the question many passengers were carried by electric cars as to what incidents I met with during this race. as on the steam roads. Of course, that was due Beyond the one or two I have mentioned, it is chiefly to the dense city traffic ; but still, the quite impossible to remember any. If one were city street-car systems were pretty complete able to recall at the moment each episode as it seven years ago, and the trolley passenger busioccurred, it would probably in itself make a com ness has doubled since that time, while the plete little story. The passing in the dust of steam passenger business has actually declined. each individual car is an exciting business in it The electric mileage of the State has increased self ; but, having once got by, it is lost to mem. from 9 to 18 per cent. every year since 1894. ory, the one idea being to keep on faster and In 1901, the increase was 242.7 miles. In the faster till the next car is passed, and so on until same year, the length of steam lines was rethe end."
duced by 1.39 miles.
" In Connecticut, where there are no very of the Union Traction Company. You do not large cities to inflate the trolley figures, and have to calculate your train time by a nautical where one great steam-railroad system is sup almanac. You can go at any hour of the day. posed to be the feudal proprietor of the entire You will travel in a car as large and heavy as a State, there were 20 per cent. more passengers standard railway coach, over a track built al. on the electric lines in 1900 than on the steam most entirely upon the company's own ground. roads. And that is the way the tide is running It will take you two hours to make the run on everywhere.
an express car, or two and a quarter on a car “In its early development, the trolley had making all stops, but of that twenty-five minutes four advantages. It could run separate cars at are lost within the city limits of Indianapolis, frequent intervals ; it could take on and let off where the through cars have to accommodate passengers anywhere along the road ; it could themselves to urban traffic on the local tracks. take people near their homes and offices, and it The fastest limited express train on the parallel could pay a profit at nominal fares. Per contra, line of the Big Four covers the same distance it had the disadvantage of less than railroad in one hour and thirteen minutes. The local speed, not because there was any difficulty in trains take ten minutes less than two hours. The making an electric car that could go as fast as a electric cars cover part of their schedule at the locomotive, but because the trolley track, as a rate of a mile a minute. Each car is driven by rule, was laid on the surface of the public high- motors of three hundred horse-power. Imagine way, crossed all intersecting roads at grade, and three hundred horses galloping in a procession was a thoroughfare for vehicles, pedestrians, and a quarter of a mile long, with a street car traildomestic fauna. These characteristics still pre. ing along behind, and you can begin to realize vail over most of the electric mileage of the a little of the meaning of the electric revolution. country, but as the trolley lines have grown To keep this power under control, there are air longer and the need for sustained high speed has brakes, with independent motor compressors. become more urgent, the tendency has developed The track over which you skim on this Indiana to build the roads on private rights of way and road is as well graded, as solidly constructed, to operate them by steam-railroad methods. and as thoroughly ballasted as the Pennsylvania
Railway. Instead of a starter' to turn the cars MODERN OPERATING METHODS AND HIGH SPEED.
loose and leave their subsequent fate to Provi. “Go, for instance, to Indianapolis, and take a dence, there is a regular train-dispatcher, who spin of fifty-three miles to Muncie over the lines keeps watch of every one as carefully as if it
which runs its trolley freight, passenger, and mail cars between Los Angeles and Santa Monica, found that their fruit was suffering from the roughness of the trip. They stated their grievance, and the result is the · Lemon-Growers’ Express,' which carries the delicate spheroids to market as gently as in a baby's cradle.”
Another instance : 400
“ There is no troublesome red tape about the trolley freight system. The Cleveland & Eastern Railway, for instance, handles milk on its forty-mile line at a uniform rate of two cents per gallon for any distance. The farmer buys packages of tickets at that rate. When his
milk is shipped it pays its fare like a passenger. ELECTRIC ENGINE, TOLEDO & WESTERN RAILROAD. A twenty-cent ticket is handed to the conductor (Thirty-five tons; built in company's shops.)
for each ten-gallon can.
The conductor punches
the tickets, and passes them on to the office. were the Empire State Express. Only, instead The company returns the empty cans free." of sending his orders by telegraph, he uses the telephone. At every switch, the wires come
THE SOUTH AND THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY. down to a box, from which instantaneous connection can be made with an instrument at the RIOR to the Civil War, Southern Democrats motorman's elbow. There is no ringing up Cen had a preponderating influence in the leadtral. The train-dispatcher is always at the other ership of the Democratic party, and through end of the wire, and a simple · Hello' will get that leadership in the direction of national polhis attention.
icy at Washington. That influence has largely " This is a fair example of the modern inter disappeared, but the fact that the South, with urban roads in actual operation to-day. On the the border States, still sends one-third of the Buffalo & Lockport line, the present cars go, in delegates to every national Democratic convenplaces, at the rate of fifty miles an hour, with an tion has caused more than one Southern Demo. average outside of Buffalo of thirty-three miles, crat of the present day to raise the question, but the General Electric Company has submitted Why does not the South regain her old-time estimates for machinery to develop a schedule supremacy in the party councils ? As a sort of speed of seventy-five miles an hour. If that exhortation to the leaders of the Democratic rate could be kept up, it would carry you from party in the South to unite on a platform of New York to San Francisco in less than two principles likely to command the assent of days. If a track were laid around the world on Northern Democrats, Mr. Thomas F. Ryan conthe eighty-fifth parallel of latitude, a car going tributes to the North American Review for Febat that velocity from east to west would keep up ruary a noteworthy article on “ The Political Op. with the earth's rotation and beat Joshua's mir portunity of the South.' acle by holding the sun in one place all sum That this appeal is really addressed to the mer."
gold-standard element of the party is made evi. dent in the following extracts :
"In determining what shall be the policy of The development of the trolley freight busi the next Democratic National Convention, the ness is also outlined in Mr. Moffett's article. action of the South will be almost decisive, if The managers of many of the trolley lines that the conservative men of that section exert them have made a specialty of carrying freight seem selves to resume their old influence in the party. to have made it a point to look after the inter. It is high time that the Democrats of the South ests of patrons in every way possible.
realized that they have nothing to gain by co• The electric freight service is üs flexible as quetting with Populism, or by following vagaan elephant's trunk, and as adept in picking up ries which have excited the distrust of conservalittle things. It grows rich off the crumbs of tive and thoughtful men everywhere, and which, business that a steam road would despise. It is during the last six years, have too often united always ready to go out of its way to accommo against the Democratic party all who had a dollar date the special needs of its patrons. The lemon. to lose by the debasement of the metallic standgrowers along the Los Angeles Pacific Railroad, ard, or whose success was to be sought by the