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the official report of this syndicate for 1901, it "All processes of this kind are based upon is learned that the total output for that year the fact that lignite is a vegetable coal of more was 1,566,385 tons. Including the product of recent formation and, therefore, less perfectly manufacturers outside the syndicate, the grand carbonized structure than anthracite or bitumi. total of the output in all Germany during 1901 nous coals, has lower caloric value, and requires was 1,643,416 tons.
to be compressed and further carbonized by The average selling price in large quantities artificial means. Turf or peat is a still more was 13.33 marks (about $3.20) a ton, and this recent formation, and requires proportionately was the highest price that had been realized more artificial preparation to produce a highsince 1891. Nearly half of the year's output class fuel ; hence the several more or less sucwas absorbed by the German railroads; approx cessful patented processes for carbonizing peat imately, 500,000 tons went to factories and work into so-called peat coal,—an artificial product shops ; retailers took 124,380 tons, and the re which can be used either in irregular lumps or mainder was consumed by German merchant
molded into briquettes. ships or by the navy, or was exported.
" In all that concerns the manufacture of
WORKING DIAGRAM OF A BRIQUETTING PLANT. (The raw material enters at the left, passing through a steam drying-apparatus, then in succession to a mixing-machine,
disintegrator, kneading-machine, and press, from which last it emerges in briquette form.)
There were in operation in Germany
briquettes from brown coal, or from the slack close of 1900 eighty-nine manufactories of fuel and waste of bituminous-coal mines, the probriquettes, some of which had a capacity of cesses employed in France and Germany have more than one hundred thousand tons each per long passed the experimental stage and become annum. In respect to the material employed, a standard commercial industry. If others are briquette works are divided into two general really interested in the subject, there is no need classes,—those which make briquettes from lig that they should risk any large sums of money nite or carbonized peat, with or without the addition of a bituminous matrix, or binder, and those which use as a basic material the waste of soft-coal mines.
“ Brown coal,” or lignite, is abundant and cheap in many parts of Germany. In the works at Deuben, near Halle, this raw material is
CHC “crushed, moistened with water to the consistency of mortar, then passed through a machine which, by compression under heat, develops the bitumen and renders the mass so plastic and adhesive that it molds rapidly into smooth, glis
SPECIMEN BRIQUETTES. tening briquettes of a black or dark brown color,
(They range in length from 6 to 12 inches, in width from 3 to which are practically smokeless and leave a red
8 inches, and in thickness from 249 to 444 inches. These dish-brown ash after combustion.
are currently used sizes.)
in uncertain experiments. They have only to vassalage to the smoke incubus, it will be through study the machinery and methods employed in the enforced use of one or more of three forms European countries, compare their crude mate of prepared fuel,-viz., coke and fuel gas made rials with those found and used here, and they in closed ovens from bituminous coal, and bri. can thus start at the point of technical knowl. quettes made from lignite, peat, and other inedge which Europeans have reached after many ferior materials by processes which have been years of experience."
invented, tested, and proven to be efficient by the Mr. Mason describes several of the patented older and more economical countries of Europe.” processes for carbonizing peat by heating and drying, but perhaps the most interesting of these is a system operated successfully at Munich
THE INDUSTRIAL VALUE OF THE ALPS. and elsewhere, by which black, dense briquettes THAT the Alps have an industrial, or useful, of
a out the application of heat,--simply through the by the tourist. To the Revue de Paris, M. Houlleaction of kneading and drying."
vigue contributes a curious and instructive arti
cle dealing with this phase of the Swiss mounABATING THE SMOKE NUISANCE.
tains. Too long, he says, visitors to . Swiss One of the chief advantages derived from the mountainous regions have simply regarded the use of fuel briquettes in a city like Berlin, as set mountains as beautiful and interesting objects ; forth by Mr. Mason, is the beneficial influence and he points out that were it not for the Alps, in reducing the smoke of factories :
those countries which are situated in their neigh“ Berlin, although a busy manufacturing city, borhood would be arid and utterly different ranks as one of the cleanest and best kept in from what they now are. That group of moun. Europe. One of the first things usually noticed tains known to us all as the Alps benefits Switzerby American and British travelers visiting the land, France, Italy, and Austria ; and of late German capital for the first time is the absence the scientific leaders of thought on the Contiof that cloud of dusty smoke that overhangs so nent have given much thought to the whole many other towns and cities. The reason for question of how these mountainous regions can this lies in three facts : The preponderant use be utilized in a fashion to bring comfort and of coke and lignite briquettes, which are prac wealth to man. Visitors, says the French writer, tically smokeless ; the skillful, scientific con are often surprised to notice that every small struction of boiler furnaces and chimneys ; and, Swiss village is furnished with electric light. It finally, the high standard of skill that is taught would be difficult to overestimate the good that and enforced among firemen who stoke furnaces this abundant and cheap illuminant has brought with coal for steam and manufacturing purposes.
to the lonely Swiss villages, especially in those * It is not every strapping laborer who can where electricity is utilized in many other ways. shovel coal who is permitted to stoke a boiler It has been estimated that the French Alps furnace in Germany. Before he can
alone produce, each year, a force equal to that such a charge he must be taught the theory and of three million horse-power ; that is, were the practice of economical, scientific firing. The same force to be created with the help of ordiSilesian coal used here in most large steam nary steam engines, seventeen million tons of plants and factories is rich in bitumen and coal would have to be consumed. Of course, would rank below many of the bituminous coals the water power of each mountain is not harof the United States, and yet the long, dense, nessed for nothing, but the expense is incredibly trailing clouds of smoke from mill and factory less than that of creating the power, as it were, chimneys which are so familiar a sight in many out of nothing. other cities are rarely seen in this section of Italy alone among the nations of Europe has Germany, where the indiscriminate shoveling of so far attempted to utilize her natural resources raw bituminous coal into the steam and other with a view to driving local railways. There is furnaces is considered an ignorant and wasteful now an electric railway line from Bologna to proceeding
San Felice some thirty-five miles in length, and “Coke-making in retort ovens, by which every yet another, close to Lake Como, is close on a element is saved and bituminous coal is con hundred miles in length. verted into smokeless coke and gas, is another
THE QUESTION OF OWNERSHIP. important factor in German fuel economy and abatement of the smoke nuisance. If other mu One issue which has been raised of late, nicipalities beyond the economic range of anthra and which is likely to be raised far oftener in cite are ever emancipated from their present the future, concerns the difficult question as to
who are the actual owners of these rivers and not be long before every American town of any streams which have their source in the various size will have its light-cure plant, and American highlands of Europe. Should the French pay a ingenuity will no doubt improve the methods. tax to Switzerland for the use of those of her
CAN MALIGNANT CANCER BE CURED ? rivers which have their source in the Alps ?
Yes,” answer the Swiss lawyers ; “ No," cry ** Cancer proper has been generally regarded those in France. The one set argue that the as hopeless. Having used the Finsen ray with water which has its source in Switzerland should good results in a case of cancer of the skin, I be regarded as a coal mine would be in the same decided, in 1900, to prove its results upon the region ; the others declare that water, like air, deeper-seated cancer of the breast. Here, howhas no nationality. It will be extremely inter ever, entered a difficulty. The Finsen ray has esting to see how this vexed question will be slight penetrative power. The use of the Roentsettled, -especially when, as seems so likely, the gen or X-ray in connection with the Finsen ray natural forces of the world begin to play an even suggested itself to me. The Roentgen ray has greater rôle than they now do in public and extraordinary germicidal qualities, but no curaprivate life. In this connection it is interesting tive properties. Light heals ; the X-ray is not to state that in all those French colonies where light, but something beyond light the nature of water has a certain actual value, such as Algiers, which is an unfathomed secret. Therefore, to every stream, however humble, is considered as destroy the germs, I used the X-ray, which the property of the state, and not of the private broke down the cancerous tissue and killed the individual through whose land it flows.
bacteria. Then I used the Finsen tube to heal the open sore which resulted.
The Finsen ray
alone would have done the whole work had it THE FINSEN LIGHT IN AMERICA.
been able to penetrate to the core of the ailment. 'HE readers of the REVIEW OF REVIEWS will Under the double radial attack, the area of ul
remember Mr. Moritzen's article on the ceration quickly shrank, and after several months extraordinary accomplishments of the Danish of treatment, disappeared. That was two years physician, Dr. Niels Finsen, published in the ago ; there has been no return of the growth REVIEW OF REVIEWS last autumn. A very in since. Subsequently, cases of abdominal cancer teresting group of articles appears in the Feb were treated with the same result. The Finsen ruary McClure's from various writers telling light has also been found useful in the treatof the marvelous results Dr. Finsen has ob. ment of birthmarks. It gives rise to no pain, tained in curing lupus and preventing small and leaves only a white scar which will unpox markings by the use of his light method, doubtedly fade out and in time assume almost a and showing how the cure is being taken up by
normal aspect. other countries. Dr. George G. Hopkins, writing on “ The Finsen System in America,” shows that as early as 1899 he had a Finsen tube built “It is yet too early to assert that the Finsen for his use, which was the first in this country, ray, used in combination with the X-ray, will and cases of lupus were successfully treated definitely cure malignant cancer. Until the with this apparatus until the tube was broken, cases of apparent cure have been under observaowing to defective mounting. Dr. Hopkins then tion for several years there can be no certainty made a hasty trip to Copenhagen, studied the that the disease is eradicated. This much, how. light treatment under Finsen himself, and ever, we may say : that the dreaded scourge can brought back another tube with him. Since be arrested even in its last stages, and the sufferthen, lupus cases have come to be treated from ings of the patient almost nullified by the simple all parts of the United States and Canada. Ex action of the actinic rays. Should the apparent cept in cases where the disease was very far cures of cancer prove permanent, we must readvanced, the cure has been complete, even gard Finsen's discovery as the greatest mitigant more surely than by the use of the knife. Other of human suffering since the first use of anphysicians have now taken up the treatment, æsthetics. And, in any case, the future of the and the number is constantly increasing.
new science is glorious with hope. It is in its The light cure in America is the same as that infancy yet ; when coming years shall have esemployed in Copenhagen, except that it is used tablished it beyond the suspicion of quackery, here for cases that could not be reached with when it shall count its devoted students and the apparatus in Finsen's hospital. For in eager experimenters in every institution of heal9 tance, in America, cases of internal abdominal ing the world over, what limit can imagination tumor have been successfully treated. It will set to its achievements ? "
THE GREATNESS OF THIS MEDICAL DISCOVERY.
THE PRESENT STATUS OF THE BLOOD-SERUM recover, while the percentage of convalescents THERAPY.
decreases with every day's delay. However, if ON BEHRING'S blood-serum therapy, one larger quantities are injected later, the patient
of the most precious gifts of modern bac may still be saved. It is well, therefore, to have teriology to suffering humanity, is discussed by recourse to the serum as a preventive measure Medical Counselor Prof. Dr. Wilhelm Dönitz, of even before the disease has been diagnosed as Berlin, in the Deutsche Monatsschrift, in that diphtheria, as no ill effects ensue to the person lucid yet scholarly way which the Germans so treated, and all suspicious cases are sure to term allgemeinverständlich, -that is, adapted to be reached in that way. Other children in the the general reader. Since 1890, when von family affected also may be rendered immune by Behring was conducting his epoch-making ex having a weak solution of serum injected. In periments at the Koch Institute for Infectious the writer's opinion, “ No child now need die Diseases, bacteriologists have been working to of diphtheria." produce a diphtheria serum of maximum power, their efforts being very nearly crowned with It was known long ago that a
The results obtained in the case of tetanus person who recovered from an infectious dis less satisfactory. Although the tetanus ease was protected for a long time against a sec. serum has been brought to as high a degree of ond attack. Then came the discovery that most perfection as the diphtheria serum, it has much agents of disease, chief among which are the less scope, on account of the nature of the disbacteria, produce their noxious effects by secret ease, as the symptoms of tetanus do not appear ing a poison in the body they attack; and bac at once. It takes some time before the spores teriologists succeeded in separating the poison of the tetanus bacillus in the wound germinate produced by the bacteria of diphtheria and te and form poison, and this poison, again, does tanus and evoking by means of them the same not immediately produce in the spine and brain symptoms as those produced by the bacilli them the disturbances that become manifest as lockselves. With the further discovery that a sec jaw, and when they do appear, the poison canond attack of the disease may be induced by not be neutralized to any great extent; if they injecting into an animal a still larger dose of are such that life cannot continue, no quantity the poison, the foundations for the modern of serum will avail, for it can neutralize only serum therapy were laid.
the poison circulating freely in the fluids of the
body. As it is impossible to tell how far the ACTION OF THE SERUM.
action of the poison may have advanced, in a The action of the serum is explained by the case of tetanus, physicians inject the serum at writer as follows : “ We now know that when a the very first symptoms. person, or an animal, is recovering from a dis
PROPHYLACTIC TREATMENT. ease like diphtheria, chemical substances are produced in the body that are capable of neu 6. The best results have so far been obtained tralizing the poison of the diphtheria bacilli. with the prophylactic treatment, veterinary surBy subjecting the animal to a second attack, the gery leading the way. It appears from experiability to produce such matter is increased, and ments made by French surgeons that out of if further attacks are induced, these substances 2,300 large domestic animals, mostly horses, (which the German physicians call Schutzstoffe that underwent operations and immediately after. protective matter) are increased to such a de. ward had serum injected, not a single one died, gree that the blood, or its liquid portion, the while at the same time and place hundreds of serum, may be used as a curative; for if this other animals not so treated perished. Other serum be injected into a person suffering with experiments referred to animals that had rediphtheria, the protective substances contained ceived injuries such as often lead to tetanus ; of therein neutralize the diphtheria poison in the these, 400 animals that had serum injected bebody, thereby removing the direct cause of the tween the first and fourth day after the injury disease. Such a serum is therefore called an were not attacked by tetanus, but a horse that antitoxic serum.”
received the injection on the fifth day was at
tacked in a mild form." In view of these exADVANTAGE OF THE SERUM TREATMENT.
periments, the prophylactic treatment is also Statistics have shown that if the serum be used in cases where persons are injured, and it administered with the first suspicious symptoms, has been successfully applied by the German the children who are subjected to that treatment army surgeon Herhold in the recent Chinese on the first day of the disease will positively campaign.
WHAT HOPE IS THERE FOR THE FUTURE ? The third kind of serum so far used with suc Mr. Begbie gives, among others, the following cess, finally, is that against snake bites, made by as the most important results of his conversaCalmette. It is obtained by inoculating horses tions with Sir William Crookes : with the poison of the most venomous snakes, “I asked him if he could see any hope that which are kept for that purpose.
The poison is science will one day unlock the mystery and taken from the snake by opening its mouth and show us wonders of the spiritual world. He repressing upon the poison glands, the venom fused to prophesy. His work is now entirely in being caught on a watch crystal. Once, Cal physical science, and to speculate in the realms mette himself was bitten in the finger during of metaphysics offers him no temptation. But,' this operation, but as he immediatly applied his he said, if you had come to me a hundred years serum, he was saved, though his finger had to be amputated. This serum is efficacious for all snake bites, probably because all these poisons are related chemically. It must be applied at once, as snake poison causes death within a few hours ; but the serum, on the other hand, acts even a short time before the fatal moment.
SIR WILLIAM CROOKES.
SIR WILLIAM CROOKES AND PSYCHICAL
ond article on master workers to the Pall Mall for January, and this time he sketches the life and doings of Sir William Crookes. In his presidential address to the British Association, with reference to his connection with the Psychical Research Society, Sir William Crookes said :
“ To stop short in any research that bids fair to widen the gates of knowledge, to recoil from fear of difficulty or adverse criticism, is to bring reproach on science. There is nothing for the investigator to do but to go straight on, to explore up and down, inch by inch, with the taper his reason ;' to follow the light wherever it may lead, even should it at times resemble a will-o'. the-wisp."
ago, do you think I should have dreamed of
foretelling the telephone? Why, even now I NO BRIDGE BETWEEN THE SPIRITUAL AND THE
cannot understand it! I use it every day, I
transact half my correspondence by means of it, These are brave words, and Mr. Begbie en but I don't understand it. Think of that little deavored to ascertain from the man who spoke stretched disk of iron at the end of a wire rethem whether he had succeeded in coming near peating in your ear not only sounds, but words, er the mystery,—whether he was able to handle —not only words, but all the most delicate and and examine it. Says Mr. Begbie :
elusive inflections and nuances of tone which “ As frankly as he uttered his faith to the separate one human voice from another! Is not British Association, he told me that he had that something of a miracle ?'” come to a brick wall. Still, he has nothing to With regard to the progress of science in reretract ; still, he believes that it is in the power lation to the supersensual boundaries of physof science to gain new and brighter glimpses ical existence, Mr. Begbie says: of a profounder scheme of cosmic law; but, for “ His attitude is this : It is impossible to tell himself, he has come to a brick wall.
whether science may not some day stumble upon « There is no bridge between the spiritual the soul. Men of science believe more than and the material world,' he said ; and I don't they can express—spiritually as well as physsee how there can be.'