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venience. The grounds upon which such an at this time. It will be remembered that Mr. argument would be permissible were well set Loomis, who had attained prominence in Ohio forth in Dr. Hill's address to which reference journalism, went to Venezuela as United States has been made.

minister in 1897, serving at that post until ap

pointed, a little more than a year and a half ago, In this connection it is to be noted as minister to Portugal. At a former period, A Change in the State De- that Dr. Hill has accepted the Presi Mr. Loomis had spent several years -as a partment.

dent's appointment as minister to sul in France. Switzerland, to which post he will proceed at once. He has been First Assistant Secretary of

His post at Lisbon is filled by the State for more than four years, and has rendered Diplomatic appointment of Mr. Charles Page

Changes. public service of varied scope and high character

Bryan, who, having just completed five years of service as United States minister to Brazil, is conversant with the Portuguese


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(New American minister to Japan.)

through a period when the foreign relations of the United States have been of exceptional importance, and have therefore required in the

HON. CHARLEMAGNE TOWER. State Department men of Dr. Hill's great knowledge of international law and diplomatic history.

(Who succeeds Dr. Andrew D. White as ambassador to

Germany.) It is well known in Washington that the Presi. dent offered Dr. Hill the post of minister to language. The various recent changes in the Japan after that position had been declined by foreign service of the United States have indi. Mr. John Barrett; but for reasons of a personal cated a strong tendency to professionalize our and family nature, Dr. Hill found it more con diplomacy. Thus, our readers were last month venient to go to Switzerland, where due atten reminded of the fact that Mr. Bowen, who suction to his public duties will not prevent the ceeded Mr. Loomis at Venezuela, had performed carrying on of important study and writing in conspicuous service as United States consulthe field of diplomatic history. At the State general at Barcelona, Spain. Mr. Charlemagne Department, Dr. Hill is succeeded by Mr. Fran Tower, who succeeded Dr. Andrew D. White at cis B. Loomis, who brings to our diplomatic Berlin, was transferred from St. Petersburg. headquarters in Washington much experience His place at St. Petersburg has been filled by and knowledge that will be of particular value the transfer of Mr. Robert S. McCormick from

Vienna. Mr. Bellamy Storer is promoted from the post of minister to Spain, following a previous service as minister to Belgium, by being made ambassador at Vienna. Mr. Arthur S. Hardy, in turn, goes to Madrid, thus vacating the position in Switzerland to which Dr. Hill has been appointed. Before going to Switzerland, Mr. Hardy had been minister to Greece, and before that, minister to Persia. The post of minister to Japan, made vacant by the sudden death of Mr. Buck, in December, has been filled by the appointment of Mr. Lloyd C. Griscom, of Philadelphia, who thus obtains a remarkably rapid promotion from the post of minister to Persia, to which he had recently been appointed after having rendered brief but prominent ser. vice as secretary of legation at Constantinople. Mr. Richmond Pearson succeeds Mr. Griscom as minister to Persia, being promoted from the consulate at Genoa, Italy.




Two things are important in our forAn Excellent eign service ; first, that the men we

send abroad,—whether as ambassadors, ministers and secretaries of legations, or

HON. FRANK B. LOOMIS, OF OHIO. as consular officials,—should be, personally, men

(First Assistant Secretary of State.) belonging to the highest type of American citizenship; second, that they should have those

The delay of reciprocity with Cuba qualities of directness and practical efficiency Reciprocity caused great anxiety in this country that belong to the American method of doing

last year, and was productive of much public and private business. It is, of course, bitter feeling in Cuba toward the United States. desirable, though less important, that they Fortunately for Cuba and for our good relations should be versed in the conventionalities of with that republic, there has come about an European diplomacy. It may now fairly be amazing change in economic conditions, due to a said for our foreign service as a whole that it marked increase in the world's market price of probably meets all these tests to a higher degree, sugar. This radical change in price was due to on the average, than at any time for many years several causes, important among which may be past. We ought by all means to pay our repre mentioned a comparative shortage in the beetsentatives abroad much better salaries, and to sugar crop of Europe, and the anticipated workprovide permanent quarters for them in the ing of the Brussels agreement, by virtue of principal capitals. Appreciation of the work of which the principal European sugar-exporting the State Department found expression in a re countries have agreed to give up the system of markable dinner in honor of Secretary Hay, last export bounties. With profitable prices for their month, given by the Ohio Society of New York. products, the Cubans could borrow money, and Our more recent diplomatic negotiations with engage hopefully in agriculture and industry. foreign countries have had to do, in the main, with What has thus become a fairly comfortable situcommercial affairs. With England, we have ation would, of course, be still more improved negotiated a treaty to obviate a misunderstanding and better safeguarded by a tariff reduction of about our construction and control of an isth 20 per cent. on Cuban sugar and other products mian ship canal, and have effected a reciprocity entering the ports of the United States. And treaty on behalf of Newfoundland. The most inasmuch as the advance in the world's prices of immediately important of these commercial ne sugar has been highly profitable to the American gotiations has been that with Cuba, by virtue of producers of sugar from the beet root, there was which a treaty was completed agreeing upon last month a corresponding withdrawal of oppo. mutual trade concessions between the govern. sition to the plan of Cuban reciprocity. So far ments of the two republics, ratified by the Cuban as this country is concerned, the real grounds of lawmaking body, and wholly assured, last month, urgency for the Cuban reciprocity treaty are no of acceptance by our Congress at Washington. longer the needs of Cuba, but the benefits to be


conferred upon our own producers and traders buy out the assets of the new Panama Canal by giving them a preferred position in the mar Company of France for a sum not greater than kets of a rich island which can buy increasing $40,000,000, and (2) to secure perpetual control quantities of flour, textiles, machinery, and vari and jurisdiction over a strip of territory not less ous other products of farm and factory.

than six miles wide, by negotiation with the

Republic of Colombia, such strip, of course, to The most difficult as well as the most comprise territory on both sides of the canal Negotiating for the ship far-reaching of all the commercial route as well as the Panama Railroad, and the

negotiations with which our govern ports of Colon on the Caribbean Sea and Panama ment has been occupied is that which is neces on the Pacific Ocean. The Spooner act approsary in order to clear the way for constructing priated $40,000,000 with which to make pay. a transoceanic ship canal. Some of our readers ment in full to the French company, and further will remember distinctly what legislation was authorized the President to pay whatever sum adopted by Congress last June before the long might be needed to Colombia for territorial consession of the present Congress ended, but others cessions. It was provided, however, in this may like to be reminded again of its exact Spooner act, that if the President should not be nature. The great and elaborate canal commis able to obtain a satisfactory title to the property sion appointed by President McKinley, under of the French company, or should not be able the chairmanship of Admiral Walker, had re to make acquisition of territory from Colombia ported in favor of the Nicaragua route. It had, “within a reasonable time and upon reasonable however, also reported that the Panama route terms," then the President, having obtained terhad some engineering and other advantages, but ritorial concessions from Nicaragua and Costa was out of the question because of the impos Rica upon terms that he should regard as reasibility of dealing on reasonable terms with the sonable, might proceed without further authority French company, which had practically aban from Congress to build the Nicaragua Canal. doned the situation, but clung to the assets. The The remainder of the act made provision for the commission stated that in its judgment the work creation of an isthmian canal commission to actually performed by the old and new Panama have charge of construction, provided for bond companies, together with the stock owned by issues for the estimated cost of a canal, and those companies in the Panama Railroad and all contained all other provisions necessary to enable other assets, including maps, plans, and the like, the President, without further legislation, to acwould not be worth more than $40,000,000 to quire a route and proceed to dig a canal deep a purchaser proposing to complete the canal, enough for the largest ships afloat. The great whereas the French company had been demand merit of the Spooner act lay in the fact that it ing about three times as much. When this re finally placed on the statute books legislation port became public, as everybody will remember, authorizing a canal, and giving practically equal the French company immediately sent its agents sanction to two possible routes. But it threw to Washington with the proposal to sell out at a heavy responsibility on the President and his the commission's figure of $40,000,000. Where executive advisers. upon the President referred the matter back again to the Walker commission, which promptly changed its report and recommended Panama instead of Nicaragua.

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The House of Representatives, under The the lead of Mr. Hepburn, had with Spooner Act.

practical unanimity passed a bill adopting the Nicaragua route and appropriating a large sum of money for construction. The Senate, however, was impressed by the new situation, and after much discussion it finally agreed upon a compromise measure introduced by Senator Spooner, which was duly accepted by the House, and became a law by the President's sig. nature on June 28. This measure, entitled “ An Act to Provide for the Construction of a Canal Connecting the Waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans," authorized the President (1) to


From the Herald (Boston).


a Canal.

The difficulties and delays that have American railroad across it, and to the trans. Our Position ensued have arisen in a somewhat at Panama.

shipments due to the existence of that route, unexpected quarter. It had been sup and not at all to its connection with Colombia. posed that there might be trouble on the score of the imperfections of the French title ; but

It should be remembered that the Attorney-General Knox took this matter in hand Benefits from great canal we propose to build is and made a report declaring the title to be in all

not for anybody's pecuniary profit, respects valid, so that the President might feel and it is to be open to the ships of the whole justified in paying over the $40,000,000. A world. In so far as Colombia, which, like our deadlock occurred in bargaining with Colombia own country, lies on both oceans, may in future for acquisition of the desired property. Our develop a merchant marine and a navy, it is of State Department has been negotiating on the the highest importance that such a canal should basis of the lease of a strip of land six miles be built. And it is certainly desirable for wide. It is to be noted that the Spooner act Colombia that the canal should be in the hands distinctly declared that “the President may ac of a friendly power that could have no motive quire such additional territory and rights from for aggression, and that could guarantee to CoColombia as in his judgment will facilitate the gen. lombia the most favorable possible use of the eral purpose hereof." Colombia, for a long while passage for her public vessels, and for her coastpast, has been subject to revolutions so frequent ing trade and merchant marine. For the United and so persistent that it may fairly be said that States to take charge of the Isthmus, thus prorevolution and disorder are chronic in that coun tecting Colombia against revolutionary disturbtry.

Under a treaty made by us a long time ances in that remote region, and for the United ago, when the Panama Canal was built, we have States, further, to build a canal and give Colomacquired both the right and duty to maintain bia the use of it, would be beneficial in the order on the Isthmus of Panama for the sake of highest sense, through many centuries to come, the effective operation of the railroad. During to the people of the South American republic. the whole of the period through which the dis Nothing else could promise so much for the cussion of this Panama Canal subject has ex stability and development of the great latent tended, the maintenance of order on the Isthmus resources of Colombia as to have the United of Panama has been due solely to our active or States as a firmly established neighbor on the potential efforts. The railroad would have been Isthmus, with the great canal open to the peaceseized, first by the insurgent faction and then by ful traffic of the whole world. the government faction, but for the presence of our warships at Colon and the occasional patrol

Thus, if Colombia were a responsible

Terms of a ling of the railroad line by our marines.

Proper Bar- country, with a normal public opingain.

ion and a stable government, a propoAt the present moment there seems sition like this might be in order : Colombia Colombian and to be something of a lull in revolu. would agree to make over to the United States,

tionary activity, but there is no rea for purposes of permanent protection and necesson to suppose that peace and civic order are at sary jurisdiction, the isthmian district known as hand. The government at Bogota, the capital the State of Panama, on consideration that the of Colombia, is absolutely unable to regulate United States should build a ship canal and give affairs in the Isthmus of Panama, for several perpetually to the government and people of reasons, among which is the fact that the Panama Colombia the same privileges in the use of that Railroad is farther from Bogota, by the actual canal as those enjoyed by the government and time it takes to reach it, than it is from St. Pe. people of the United States. This would be a tersburg, or even from Constantinople. It takes splendid bargain for Colombia. Yet, instead of two or three weeks to ascend the Magdalena taking such a view of the matter, certain ofRiver from the seacoast to Bogota, the capital ficials, apparently possessing a technical authority of Colombia. The republic is of such territorial to represent Colombia, have been presuming conformation that the Isthmus of Panama is no

upon the determination of the American people more an essential part of its normal and appro to complete a canal at any cost, and have been priate area than Alaska was an essential part of blocking negotiations by holding out, not only the area of Russia. The complete cession of the for a ten-million-dollar payment to begin with, Isthmus of Panama to the United States need as consideration for a of a six-mile strip, not involve any national sentiment whatsoever. but are also demanding a permanent annual pay. Panama owes such development and importance ment of many hundreds of thousands of dollars as it possesses solely to the construction of an

as rental money.

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We Might

In view of the chaos existing upon unsatisfactory. A right solution is far more to Have Occupied the Isthmus and the total inability of be desired than a prompt one. It is natural

Colombia to maintain governmental that there should be strong pressure brought to institutions there, we should have been abun bear on our government to conclude any sort of dantly justified, long ago, in assuming an indefi arrangement with Colombia by the various innite occupancy of the Isthmus pending the estab terests, legal, journalistic, and otherwise, that lishment of a responsible and constitutional are serving the cause of a French company which government in the republic. The present gov expects to get $40,000,000 in cash out of the ernment is nothing better than an arbitrary dic. United States Treasury in pay for the assets of tatorship. As against the demands of these an abandoned enterprise, and for franchises Colombian officials, it would not seem to be a which on their face were originally non-transstraining of our rights under international law ferable, and which had expired some time ago, to make a reckoning of the actual cost to which although renewed for a short term by means we have been subjected, in recent years, by the which would hardly bear investigation. necessity of protecting life and property on the Isthmus, and maintaining the operation of the

It is a relief to turn from this Panama Panama Railroad. It is important that the pre Tehuantepec scheme, which suggests infinite confu. liminaries should be arranged in a proper way

sion, if not infinite lobbying and corbefore we spend perhaps $200,000,000 in con. ruption, to note the progress of a clean, honorstructing a canal. That we should be charged able, and business-like undertaking further north, in perpetuity a high rental for constructing a at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, in Mexico. It public work on Colombian soil that will be of will be remembered that the great American enthe highest benefit to Colombia, is a financial gineer, Captain Eads, proposed, as the crowning proposition with hardly a parallel in all history work of his life, the construction of a ship rail. for its absurdity. Meanwhile, fresh doubts seem road across that isthmus. Whatever the ento have been thrown upon the engineering feasi gineering possibilities of his novel project, it was bility of the alternative Nicaragua route, and dropped, after his death, as experimental and the whole situation is befogged and extremely hazardous. More than sixty years ago, the



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