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mode, it may be expedient to guard against embarrassments from these contingencies, by such encouragements to our own navigation as will render our commerce and agriculture less dependent on foreign bottoms, which may fail us in the very moment most interesting to both of these great objects. Our fisheries, and the transportation of our own produce, offer us abundant means for guarding ourselves against this evil.

Your attention seems to be not less due to that particular branch of our trade which belongs to the Mediterranean. So many circumstances unite in rendering the present state of it distressful to us, that you will not think any deliberations mis. employed which may lead to its relief and protection.

The laws you have already passed for the establishment of a judiciary system, have opened the doors of justice to all descriptions of persons. You will consider in your wisdom, whe. ther improvements in that system may yet be made ; and par. ticularly, whether an uniform process of execution on sentences issuing from the federal courts, be not desirable through all the States.

The patronage of our commerce, of our merchants and seamen, bas called for the appointment of consuls in foreign countries. It seems expedient to regulate by law the exercise of that jurisdiction, and those functions which are permitted them, either by express convention, or by a friendly indulgence in the places of their residence. The Consular Convention too with his Most Christian Majesty, has stipulated, in certain cases, the aid of the national authority lo his consuls established here. Some legislative provision is requisite to carry these stipula. tions into full effect.

The establishment of the militia, of a mint, of standards of weights and measures, of the post office and post roads, are sub. jects which (I presume) you will resume of course, and which are abundantly urged by their own importance.

Gentlemen of the House of Representatives,-The sufficiency of the revenues you have established, for the objects to which they are appropriated, leaves no doubt, but the residuary provisions will be commensurate to the other objects, for which the publick faith stands now pledged. Allow me, moreover, to hope, that it will be a favourite policy with you, not merely to secure a payment of the interest of ihe debt funded, but as far and as fast as the growing resources of the country will permit, to exonerate it of the principal itself. The appropriations you have made of the western lands, explain your dispositions on this subject : and I am persuaded, that the sooner that valuable fund can be made to contribute, along with other means, to the actual reduction of the public debt, the more salutary will the measure be to every publick interest, as well as the more satisfactory to our constituents.


Gentlemen of the Senate and House of Representatives,—In pursuing the various and weighty business of the present session, I indulge the fullest persuasion, that your consultations will be equally marked with wisdom, and animated by the love of your country. In whatever belongs to my duty, you shall have all the co-operation which an undiminished zeal for its welfare can inspire. It will be happy for us both, and our best reward, if, by a successful administration of our respective trusts, we can make the established government more and more instrumental in promoting the good of our fellow citizens, and more and more the object of their attachment and confi. dence.




DEC, 30, 1790. I lay before you a report of the Secretary of State on the subject of the citizens of the United States in captivity at Algiers, that you may provide, on their behalf, what to you shall seem most expedient. GEORGE WASHINGTON.

[This report, it is believed, was not published.]


The Speaker laid before the House a letter from the Secretary of State, accompanying his report upon so much of the speech of the President of the United States, as relates to the trade of the United States in the Mediterranean.

[This report, it is believed, was not published.]





JAN. 26, 1791. I Lay before you the copy of a letter from the President of the National Assembly of France, to the President of the United States, and of a decree of that Assembly, which was transmitted with the above mentioned letter.

GEORGE WASHINGTON. [These papers, it is believed, were not published.]



FEB. 14, 1791. Soon after I was called to the administration of the govern. ment, I found it important to come to an understanding with the court of London, on several points interesting to the United States; and particularly to know, whether they were disposed to enter into arrangements, by mutual consent, which might fix the commerce between the two nations, on principles of recipe rocal advantage. For this purpose, I authorized informal conferences with their ministers; and from these, I do not infer any disposition on their part, to enter into any arrangements merely commercial. I have thought it proper to give you this information, as it might, at some time, have influence on matLers under your consideration.




CONGRESS. OCT. 25, 1791. Fellow citizens of the Senate and House of Representatives,

I MEET you, upon the present occasion, with the feelings which are naturally inspired by a strong impression of the prosperous situation of our common country, and by a persuasion equally strong, that the labours of the session which has just commenced, will, under the guidance of a spirit, no less prudent than patriotick, issue in measures conducive to the stability and increase of national prosperity.

Numerous as are the providential blessings which demand our grateful acknowledgments, the abundance with which ano.. ther year has again rewarded the industry of the husbandman is too important to escape recollection.

Your own observations, in your respective situations, will have satisfied you of the progressive state of agriculture, manufactures, commerce and navigation : in tracing their causes, you will have remarked, with particular pleasure, the happy effects of that revival of confidence, publick as well as private, to which the constitution and laws of the United States have so eminently contributed. And you will have observed, with no less interest, new and decisive proofs of the increasing reputation and credit of the nation. But you, nevertheless, cannot fail to derive satisfaction from the confirmation of these circumstances, which will be disclosed in the several official communications that will be made to you in the course of your deliberations.

The rapid subscriptions to the bank of the United States, which completed the sum allowed to be subscribed in a single day, is among the striking and pleasing evidences which present themselves not only of confidence in the government, but of resource in the community,

In the interval of your recess, due attention has been paid to the execution of the different objects which were specially provided for by the laws and resolutions of the last session.

Among the most important of these is the defence and security of the western frontiers. To accomplish it on the most humane principles, was a primary wish.

Accordingly, at the same time that treaties have been provi. sionally concluded, and other proper means used to attach the wavering, and to confirm in their friendship the well-disposed tribes of Indians, effectual measures have been adopted to make those of a hostile description sensible, that a pacification was desired upon terms of moderation and justice.

These measures having proved unsuccessful, it became necessary to convince the refractory of the power of the United States to punish their depredations ; offensive operations have therefore been directed; to be conducted, however, as consistently as possible with the dictates of humanity. Some of these have been crowned with full success, and others are yet depending. The expeditions which have been completed, were carried on under the authority, and at the expense of the United States, by the militia of Kentucky; whose enterprise, intrepidity, and good conduct, are entitled to peculiar commendation.

Overtures of peace are still continued to the deluded tribes, and considerable numbers of individuals belonging to them have lately renounced all further opposition, removed from their former situations, and placed themselves under the immediate protection of the United States.

It is sincerely to be desired, that all need of coercion, in future, may cease, and that an intimate intercourse may succeed, calculated to advance the happiness of the Indians, and to attach them firmly to the United States.

In order to this, it seems necessary_That they should experience the benefits of an impartial dispensation of justice That the mode of alienating their lands, the main source of discontent and war', should be so defined, and regulated, as to obviate imposition, and, as far as may be practicable, controversy concerning the reality and extent of the alienations which are made -That commerce with them should be promoted under regulations tending to secure an equitable deportment towards them, and that such rational experiments should be made, for imparting to them the blessings of civilization, as may, from time to time, suit their condition-That the Executive of the

United States should be enabled to employ the means to which the Indians have been long accustomed for uniting their immediate interests with the preservation of peace-And, that efficacious provision should be made for inflicting adequate penalties upon all those, who, by violating their rights, shall infringe the treaties, and endanger the peace of the Union.

A system corresponding with the mild principles of religion and philanthropy towards an unenlightened race of men, whose happiness materially depends on the conduct of the United States, would be as honourable to the national character, as conformable to the dictates of sound policy.

The powers specially vested in me by the act, laying certain duties on distilled spirits, which respect the subdivisions of the districts into surveys, the appointment of officers, and the assignment of compensations, have likewise been carried into effect. In a matter, in which both inaterials and experience were wanting to guide the calculation, it will be readily conceived that there must have been difficulty in such an adjustment of the rates of compensation as would conciliate a reason. able competency, with a proper regard to the limits prescribed by the law. It is hoped that the circumspection which has been used will be found in the result to have secured the last of the two objects; but it is probable, that with a view to the first, in some instances a revision of the provision will be found advisable. · The impressions with which this law has been received by the community, have been, upon the whole, such as were to be expected among enlightened and well.disposed citizens, from the propriety and necessity of the measure. The novelty, however, of the tax, in a considerable part of the United States, and a misconception of some of its provisions, have given occasion in particular places to some degree of discontent. But it is satisfactory to know, that this disposition yields to proper explanations and more just apprehensions of the true nature of the law. And I entertain a full confidence, that it will, in all, give way to motives which arise out of a just sense of duty, and a virtuous regard to the publick welfare.

If there are any circumstances in the law, which, consistently with its main design, may be so varied as to remove any wellintentioned objections that may happen to exist, it will consist with a wise moderation to make the proper variations. It is desirable, on all occasions, to unite with a steady and firm adherence to constitutional and necessary acts of government, the fullest evidence of a disposition, as far as may be practica. ble, to consult the wishes of every part of the community, and to lay the foundations of the publick administration in the affections of the people.

Pursuant to the authority contained in the several acts on that subject, a district of ten miles square, for the permanent 'seat

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