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But no person

rected to the president of the senate–The president of the senate shall, in the presence of the senate and house of representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes for president, shall be the president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed: and if no person have such a majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as president, the house of representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the president. But in choosing the president, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the house of representatives shall not choose a president whenover the right'of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March then next following, then the vice-president shall act as president, as in case of the deat'ı or other constitutional disability of the president.

The person having the greatest number of votes as vice president, shall be the vice president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have a majority, then from the two bighest numbers on the list, the senate shall choose the vice president-a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two thirds of the whole number of senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. constitutionally ineligible to the office of president, shall be eligible to that of vice president of the United States.

IN CONVENTION, Monday, Sept. 17, 1787. PRESENT, the states of-New-Humpshire, Massachusetts, Connecti

cut, A, Humilton from New York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina, South-Carolina, and Geurgia. Resolved, That the preceding constitution be laid before the United States in congress assembled, and that it is the opinion of this convention, that it should afterwards be submitted to a convention of delegates, chosen in each state by the people thereof, under the recommendation of its legislature, for their assent and ratification; and that each convention assenting to, and ratifying the same, should give notice thereof to the United States in congress assembled.

Resolved, That it is the opinion of this convention, that as soon as the conventions of nine states shall have ratified this constitution, the United States in congress assembled should fix a day on which electors should be appointed by the states which shall have ratified the same, and a day on which the electors should assemble to vote for the president, and the time and place for commencing proceed. ings under this constitution. That after such publication, the electors should be appointed, and the senators and representatives elected. That the electors should meet on the day fixed for the election of the president, and should transmit their votes, certified, signed, sealed and directed, as the constitution requires, to the secretary of the United States in congress assembled. That the sena. tors and representatives should convene at the time and place age signed. That the senators should appoint a president of the senate,

for the sole purpose of receiving, opening and counting the votes for president; and that, after he shall be chosen, the congress, together with the president, should, without delay, proceed to execute this constitution, By the unanimous order of the convention,


IN, CONVENTION, September 17, 1787. SIR, -We have now the honor to submit to the consideration of the United States in congress assembled, that constitution which has appeared to us the most advisable.

The friends of our country have long seen and desired, that the power of making war, peace and treaties: that of levying money and regulating commerce, and the correspondent executive and judicial authorities, should be fully and effectually vested in the general government of the Union: But the impropriety of delegating such extensive trust to one body of men is evident. Hence results the necessity of a different organization.

It is obviously impracticable in the federal government of these states, to secure all rights of independent sovereignty to each, and yet provide for the interest and safety of all: Individuals entering into society, must give up a share of liberty to preserve the rest.

. The magnitude of the sacrifice must depend as well on situation and circumstance, as on the object to be attained. It is at all times difficult to draw with precision the line between those rights which must be surrendered, and those which may be reserved; and on the present occasion, this difficulty was increased by a difference among the several states as to their situation, extent, habits, and particular interests.

In all our deliberations on this subject we kept steadily in our view, that which appears to us the greatest interest of every true American, the consolidation of our union, in which is involved our prosperty, felicity, safety, perhaps our national existence. This important consideration, seriously and deeply impressed on our minds, led each state in the convention to be less rigid on points of inferior magnitude, than might have been otherwise expected; and thus the constitution, which we now present, is the result of a spirit of amity, and of that mutual deference and concession which the peculiarity of our political situation render indispensable,

That it will meet the full and entire approbation of every state, is not perhaps, to be expected; but each will doubtless consider, that had her interest alone been consulted, the consequences might Havebeen particularly disagreeable or injuri ous to others; that it is liable to as few exceptions as could reasonably have been expected, We hope and believe; that it may promote the lasting welfare of that country so dear to us all, and secure her freedom and happiness, is our most ardent wish. With great respect, we have the honor to be, Sir, Your excellency's most obedient and humble servants,

By unanimous order of the convention.
Jis Exceliency the President of Congress,

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What of bills that have passed both By whom was the constitution estab

houses? Yished? What six special objects had What of bills returned by the president? they in view?

What vote of both houses makes them ARTICLE 1.

law? Sec. 1, How is the legislative power Under what regulation is such vote ta

disposed of ? Of what does congress consist?

ken? What time has the president Sec. 2, How often are the members

to return a bill?

What of orders and resolutions sent to of the house chosen? By whom are they chosen?

the president? How are the electors designated?

Sec. 8. What power has congress with What are the requisites for a represen

regard to taxes, duties, &c.? tative?

What of borrowing money?

What of commerce? On what grounds are representation and taxation apportioned?

What of naturalization and bankruptcy? How often is the enumeration to take

What of coining monoy? and counter

feiters? place? How are vacancies in the house filled?

What of post offices aud roads?

What of science and useful arts? What power does this sec. give to the house?

What of courts? What of piracies,&c? Sec. 3. Of what is the senaie compos

What of war? What of armies?

What of the navy? ed?

What of land and naral forces?
By whom and for what time chosen?
What classification is made of the sen-

What of the militia?

What of arming them, Sc.? ators? What is the object of this arrangement?

What of legislation over particular pla~

ces? How are vacancies in this body filled?

How are these powers secured? What are the requisites of a senator?

Sec. 9 What are the limits of the Who is president of the senate?

powers of congress relative to the What are the powers of the senate migration and importation of persons with regard to its officers? .

into the statos? What of impeachments?

What of the writ of habeas corpus? What, when the president of U. S. is

What of attainder or expost facto laws? tried? What vote convicts?

What of capitations, or taxes?
To what does judgment extend?
To what is the convicted party further

What of exports from one state to an

other? liable?

What of the commerce between the Sec. 4. What is the regulation adopt

states? od for holding elections, for members

What of vessels going from one state of congress?

to another? What is the regulation for the meeting

What of drawing money from the treasof congress?

ury? Sec. 5. Enumerate the powers of each What of titles of nobility, and presentshouse contained in the first clause of

to officers from foreign parts?

Sec. 9. Relate the limitations of the What are the powers granted by the

powers of the states enumerated in second clause?

the first clause of this section. What of the journal of each house?

Relate those in the second clause. What of the adjournment of either Relate those in the third clause. house?

ARTICLE 2. Sec. 6. What of the compensation of Sec. 1, Who holds the executive powthe members of congress?

er? What of their privileges, and the liber- For what term are the president and ty of debate?

vice president chosen?" What of their appointment to civil By whom are they chosen?

trust while members, and of those How are the electors appointed? who hold trusts under the U. S.? Where do the electors meet to choose See. 7. What of bills for raising reve

a president? (see amendmont, art. 14.} nuc?

How do they prepare their ballots?

this sec.

What further duties are they to do?

restrictions? What power has con. By whom and before whom are the

gress over the property of the U. S. votes opened and counted?

and under what restrictions. How is the choice determined?

Sec. 4. What is the guarantee of the How is the choice made if the electors

U. S. to all the states, and by what do not appoint?

means? Ilow are the votes taken in the house?

ARTICLE 5. What makes a quorum? what a choice?

Upon what conditions may congress What if the house neglect to choose a

propose amendments to this constie president until the 4th of March?

iution? How many states must ratify Ir the electors choose no vice presi to render it valid? dent, what is done?

What is the proviso on this subject? What makes a quorum in the senate for

ARTICLE 6. this vote? and what makes a choice?

What is the regulation in regard to What makes a person eligible to the debts made before the adoption of office of presideni?

this constitution? What the vice president?

What, with this constitution, forms the When the president is removed, who holds the office?

supreme law of the land?

What of the oath binding the officers of What is done when both the president

government to observe this sonstituand vice president are removed? tion? What of religious tests, &c. What of the president's salary?

ARTICLE 7. What of his oath of office?

What of the ratification of this constia Sec. 2. What are the powers of the

tution? What yearof the Christianera? president, enumerated in the first What of the independence of the I'. S. paragraph of this section? What of his powers in the second

Who was president of the house of par

deputies? How many and what states agraph?

were represented! What powers have congress in the ap

AMENDMENTS. pointment of inferior officers?

Art. 1. To what does the first amend. What are the president's powers in re ment refer, and what are its provisgard to vacancies?

ions. Sec. 3. What are his duties and pow. ART. 2. To what does the second aers set forth in this section?

mendment refer, and what are its Sec. 4. How may the president and provisions?

all civil officers be removed from Art. 3. To what does the third atheir trust?

mendment refer, and what are its ARTICLE S. Sec. 1. Where is the judicial power


ART. 4. What of the right to bear arms? vested?

ART. 5. What of quartering of soldiers? How long do the judges hold their of ART. 6. What of search and warrants?

fice? What of their compensation? ART. 7. To what does this article reSEC. 2. To what subjects does the fer, and what are its enactments? judicial power extend?

ART. 8. To what does the eighth aIn what cases have they an original mendment refer, and what are its jurisdiction?

provisions? What an appellate jurisdiction?

Art. 9. To what does the ninth aWhat of the trials for crimes?

mendment refer, and what are its Sec. 9. Of what does treason consist?

provisions? What testimony convicts of treagon? ART. 10. To what does the tenth aWhat of the punishment for treason? mendment refer, and what are its ARTICLE 4.

provisions? Sec. 1. What of the credit given to Art. 11. To what does the eleventh public acts?

amendment refer, and what are its What power regulates the manner? provisions? SEC. 2. What of citizenship?

Art. 12. To what does this article Persons fleeing from crime into a for refer, and what are iis provisions?

eign state, how are theybrought back? Art. 13. What limitation of the judiWhat of persons held to labour, fieeing into another state?

cial power does this article provide?

Art. 14. To what does the last aSec. S. What power may admit new states into the anicn, and under what

mendment refer, and where have its provisions been considered?


op THE


WE, the PEOPLE of the State of New York, asknowledging witli gratitude the grace and beneficence of God, in permitting us to make choice of our form of Government, do establish the Constitution.


The Legislature. Sec. 1. The legislative power of this state, shall be vested in a Senate and an Assembly.

Sec. 2. The senate shall consist of thirty-two members. The senators shall be chosen for four years, and shall be freeholders. The assembly shall consist of one hundred and twenty-eight members, who shall be annually elected.

Sec. 3. A majority of each house, shall constitute a quorum to do business. Each house shall determine the rules of its own proceedings, and be the judge of the qualifications of its own members, Bach house shall choose its own officers; and the senate shall choose a temporary president, when the lieutenant governor shall not attend as president, or shall act as governor.

Sec. 4. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and publish the same, except such parts as may require secrecy. The doors of each house shall be kept open, except when the public welfare shall require secrecy. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than two days.

Senatorial Districts. Sec. 5. The State shall be divided into eight districts, to be called Senate Districts, each of which shall choose four senators.

The first districts shall consist of the counties of Suffolk, Queens, Kings, Richmond, and New-York.

The second district shall consist of the counties of Westchester, Putnam, Dutchess, Rockland, Orange, Ulster, and Sullivan.

The third district shall consist of the counties of Greene, Columbia, Albany, Rensselaer, Schobarie, and Schenectady.

The fourth district shall consist of the counties of Saratoga, Montgomery, Hamilton, Washington, Warren, Clinton, Essex, Franklin, and St. Lawrence.

The fifth district shall consist of the counties of Herkimer, Oneida, Madison, Oswego, Lewis, and Jefferson.

The sixth district shall consist of the counties of Delaware, Otsego, Chenango, Broome, Cortland, Tompkins, and Tioga.

The seventh district shall consist of the counties of Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, and Ontario.

The eight district shall consist of the counties of Steuben, Livingston, Monroe, Genesee, Niagara, Erie, Allegany, Cattaraugus, and Chautauque,

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