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a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or sus jects.
Of the original and appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and con. suls, and those in which a state shall be a party, the supreme court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the supreme court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations, as the congress shall make,
Of trials for crimes.--Of Treason. The trial of crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall be at such place or places, as the congress may by law have directed.
Sec. 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.
The congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason: but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted.
ARTICLE IV. Faith to be given to public acts, loc. of each state. Seo. 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the public acts, records and judicial proceedings of every other state.And the congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.
Privileges of citizens.--Fugitives from justice to be delivered up. Sec. 2. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states,
A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another state, shall, on demand of the executive authority of the state from whick he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime.
Persons held to service, or labour, to be delivered up. No person held to service or labour in one state, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labour, but shall be delivered up on claim
of the party to whom such service or labour may be due.
New States may be admitted. Seg. 3. New states may be admitted by the congress into this Union, but no new state shall be formed or erected within the juris
diction of any other state; nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, or parts of states, without the consent of the legislatures of the states concerned as well as of the congress.
Disposal of territory and other property of the United States. The congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular state.
Guarantee and protection of the States by the Union. Sec, 4. The United States shall guarantee to every state in this Union, a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened) against domestic violence.
Of amendments to the Constitution. The congress, whenever two thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this constitution, or, on the application of the legislature of two thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the congress: Provided, that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the senate.
ARTICLE VI. Former debts and engagements to remain valid. All debts contracted, and engagements entered into, before the adoption of this constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this constitution, as under the confederation. This Constitution, the laws and treaties of the United States, to be the su
preme law of the land. This constitution and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, any thing in the constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding.
Cath to support the Constitution.--No religious tests required. The senators and representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States,
When this Constitution shall take effect. The ratification of the conventions of nine states, shall be sufficient for the establishment of this constitution between the states so ratifying the same, DONE in convention by the unanimous consent of the states present, the ser
enteenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty seven, and of the independence of the United States the twelfth. In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our names.
GEORGE WASHINGTON, President,
and Deputy from Virginia, New-Hampshire-John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman. Massachusetts-Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King. Connecticut-Wm. Samuel Johnson, Roger Sherman. New-York-Alexander Hamilton. New-Jersey-William Livingston, David Brearley, William Patterson, Jonathan Dayton. PennsylvaniaBenjamin Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robert Morris, George Clymer, Thomas Fitzsimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouverncur Morris. - Delaware—George Reed, Gunning Bedford, jun. John Dickinson, Richard Bassett, Jacob Broom. Maryland-James M'Henry, Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer, Daniel Carrol. Virginia--John Blair, James Madison, jun. North Carolina-William Blount, Richard Dobbs Spaight, Hugh Williamson. South Carolina-John Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Pinckney, Pierce Butler. Georgia-William Few, Abraham Baldwin. Attest,
WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary.
The Conventions of a number of the states having at the time of the
adoption of the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added; the restrictive clauses in the amendment were adopted, as extending the ground of public confidence.
Articles in addition to, and amendment of, the Constitution of the United States
of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the legislatures of the several states, pursuant to the fifth Article of the original Constitution.
Of Representatives, After the first enumeration required by the first article of the constitution there shall be one representative for every thirty thousand, until the
number shall amount to one hundred, after which the proportion shall be so regulated by congress, that there shall not be less than one hundred representatives nor less than one representative for every forty thousand persons, until the number of representatives shall amount to two hundred, after which the proportion shall be so regulated by congress, that there shall not be less than two hundred representatives, nor more than one representative for every fifty thousand persons.
ARTICLE II. Compensation of Representatives and Senators. No law varying the compensation for the services of the senators and representatives, shall take effect, until an election of representatives shal have intervened.
ARTICLE III. Free exercise of Religion.-- Freedom of Press.-Right of petition. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
Right to bear arms. A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.
No soldier to be billetted, except, fc. No soldier shall in time of peace be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
Unreasonable searches prohibited. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and cffects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
ARTICLE VII. Proceeding in certain criminal cases.--Property secured. No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.
Mode of trial in criminal cases In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to a speely and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence.
Mode of trial in civil cases. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed iwenty dollars, the right of a trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact, tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined, in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
Concerning bail, fines, and punishments. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cfuel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Rights not enumerated. The enumeration in the constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
Powers reserved to the people. The powers not delegated to the United States by the constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively or to ihe peopic.
Limitation of the Judicial power. The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.
ARTICLE XIV. Manner of electing President and Vice President. The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot, for president and vice president, one of whom at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves, they shall name, in their ballots, the person voted for as president, and, in distinct ballots, the person voted for as vice president, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as president, and all persons voted for as vice-president, and of the number of votes for each, which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the government of the United States, di-