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The Farmer's mode of keeping accounts by debit and credit.

Note. The Farmer may at all times know the state of his acc't. by balancing each, and carrying the results to a balance sheet. His cash acc't. may be settled weekly, or monthly. In that acc't. he will debit all he receives, and credit all he pays away; the am't, on hand will always hal. the acc't if kept right.

Dr.

$ 38/75)

gar at 44s.

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1828.
Henry Abbot,

Dr. Cr.
May 4., To bal. of acc't from book A. folio 6. ||$ 13|50||
i 24. - 5 bu. seed wheat,

at 10s.

6/25, By cash, on acct. as per receipt of this date*

$ 10
Aug. 1.
« amt, of bal. to book C. page 13.

975
Agreeably to the laws of this state, cash $ 1975||$ 1975
items, in a general running acc't, must be ad-
mitted or proved by parole testimony, or paper
voucher, otherwise they are not recoverable;
therefore, it is safe for every one who pays
away money, to take a receipt for the same;
for the form of which, see article on notes,

bonds, &c. appendix.
1823.
Remsen Ballot,

Cr. May 1. By bal. of acc't from book A. pa. 10.

$ 975
16.TO 62 lbs. of fine wool.

at 56.
18.“ 40 bu. potatoes, at 2s 6d, 1 bbl, cider vine-

18
" i bbl. mess pork

1675 June 13. By cash on acct as per receipt

18 an order on B. Bolts accepted*

3550 Aug. 1. “ bal. of acc't to book C. page 31

1025
* Ballot's order on Bolts accepted, is regard-||$ 73 50||$ 73,50
Jed in law, in the light of a note of hand, both
parties are holden for the amt; if paid by Bolts,
Ballot is released; but if paid by Ballot it is stili
an evidence of debt against Bolts, for it was
drawn for value received; the proof of which is

the entry in the acct and the acceptance.
1828.
James Johnson,

Dr. May 6. By labour of his son John 3 mo. at 9 doll.

$ 27
« To 6 bu. seed wheat, at 10s.

$ 7.50
6 12 do. corn.
5s.

750
7s.

788 17. 146 1-2 lbs. of cheese at 10 cts.

14/65 " 136 lbs. butter at 13 cts.

1768 “ 156 lbs. ham at 9 cts.

14/04 “ 1 bbl. mess pork

1675 June 12. By amt. of bit of lumber delivd D. W. Hill as

pr. receipt, and carried to my credit pr. cer-
tificate

135 36 July 1.6 bal of Cr. carried to folio 2d.

76/36 $162'36 $162 36

1

Cr.

(G

16 9 do. rye,

$ 76 36

James Johnson,

Dr. Cr. By bal. of acc't, from folio 1.*

100 July 9. To a span of colts, two years old, per receipt a second hand wagon

22186

46 50 Aug. 1. By note at 3 mo. in full of accts

* When the space or page allotted to one acc't.||$122|36||$122 86 is filled up, the balance may be struck and carried to a new page, or the whole amt. of each acc't, may be carried a head; then the folio to which the acc't is removed should be entered, and the new acc't should refer back to the page whence it was 'brought, as in the above example.

1828.
D. W. Hill,

Dr. Cr. July 1. To amt. of lumber delivered by J. Johnson per certificate

$135 36 6. amt, of butter and cheese, del'd as per rec't Aug. 1. By amt. of bill of iron, deld T. Smith

$265 72 By error in amt, of note*

10 To note of hand on demand for bal. of acc't

5160

88176

* When an error occurs either in debit or||$27572||$27527 credit, it is better to make the correction by an opposite entry, as in the above example, than to attempt it by altering the figures or by an erasure, either of which, generally leaves the book blotted and unintelligible, and the acc't subject to exceptions.

Cr.

1829.
Thos. Smith,

Dr.
To bal. of acc't from book A. folio 35.

$ 5676
May 2.“ 100 cords of hard wood standing, a 31 1-4
cts. per cord

31/25 July 6. " amt. of bill of iron, delivered by D. W. Hill

2651721 15. By cash on acc't per rec't

$300 Aug. 1. “ bal. to book C. folio 37.*

53 73

per rec't

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*The amt. of credit here entered, is intro- $35373||$35373 duced merely to bal. the acc't, and not as a payment or a settlement of the acc't. In book c. folio 37, it is there entered in the debit column, as a bal. still due. (See Remson Ballots

acc't for cxample.) 1828. Rural Tibbitts,

Dr. Vay 2. To sundry articles del'd his order

$ 4484
“ 160 bu. corn, at 4s, 80 bu. rye, at 7s

120
“ 50 bu. wh: at, at 9s, 250 bu. oats at 2s 6d 134 38

Cr.

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Rural Tibbitts,
Brought over.]
June 16. By his draft on Manhattan Bank, N. Y.
Aug. 1. my note on demand for bal. of acc't*

To error on entry, Aug. 1, my note

My note to balance acc't

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* When neighbours get together and settle $40078||$40078 their acc'ts, it is common for them to record the settlement in their respective books, in the following words:--This day reckoned and settled acc'ts with R. Tibbitts, and found due hiin, fifty dollars 78-100, for which I have given my note.

A. B.

R. T. 1828. Bills d. Notes,

Cr. June 13. By Ballot's draft on B. Bolts, unpaid

$ 35 50 16. " Tibbitts' draft on Manhattan bank, unpaid

350 Aug. 1. To note for bal. of acc't at 3 mo. J. Johnson $ 47 94 note for bal. of acc't

D. W. Hill

4160 “ note for bal, of acc't

R. Tibbitts

50178 6 bal. of bills and notes in hand*

245/18

Dr.

* This acc't shows the amt. of bills or notes $38550 $385 50 on hand, their dates, &c. and also those which are out, and remain unpaid.

When any one of these notes are paid or received, the entry should be made in the cash acc't.

Cr.

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Bailey Bolts, 1828.

Dr.
July 1.To 1600 feet oak timber, 14 by 16, at 27 cts. a
foot

$4121-
6 36 cords of wood, deld at his landing a 228| 792
10. By cash on ace't per receipt
ii amt. of goods, deld my family, up to this

date, per bill
6 am't of goods, del'd workmen, per bill
21. span

iron

greys, as per receipt 27. cash on acc't per receipt Aug. 1.“ bal. of acc't to book C. folio 32.

8376

16.

42 87 59 35

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161 50 14528

1828. May 24.

Cash,
June 13. To cash rec'd of H. Abbott
July 10.«
do do

Ballot
do do

Bolts do do

1204 1204
Dr. Cr.

10
18
376
300
161 50

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15. 27."

Smith
Aug. 1. do do

Bolts
Ву do on hand

|$865

$865150||$865/50

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Note. 1. Had this illustration of book keeping been commenced by an inventory of A B's effects, then with the aid of a second inventory and the data furnished by the record of the foregoing transactions, it would not be difficult to find what A B had made during three months, and also what he is actually worth.

Note. 2. A B might have opened an acc't with his farm, or any particular branch of pursuit, charged it with the first cost, and what ever he expended to carry it on, and given it credit for all the proceeds taken from it.

Note. 3. The eldest child, whether a son or a daughter, (for ladies in this country should be accountants, to a certain extent, as well as gentlewen,) should, as soon as their age and acquirements qualify them for the task, be requested to make all the entries in the father's account book, and be present at all settlements, which will not only give the father an opportunity of proving his account, if necessary, but initiate the child into an acquaintance with a subject which is intimately connected with all the transactions of life.

NOTE. 4. The foregoing examples are deemed sufficient to illustrate this simple mode of registering accounts. Any man capable of writing and casting figures, may adopt this system without the least difficulty; in fact, it is strictly applicable to various and extensive dealing.

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The Trademan's mode of keeping accounts.

The second form of keeping accounts, is that which has been long in use and is still continued by the generality of mechanics and traders, and by some merchants. It requires a Blotter or Day Book, a Leger, and a Cash Book.

In the blotter are entered the debits and credits, or particular transactions of each day, in the order in which they occur.

These entries are subsequently posted into the leger under the appropriate name or title to which they belong, and in a fair and legible hand.

The cash book is nothing more than a registry of the receipts and payments made in money; it may be settled each day, week, month or year, as may best suit the owner.

The subjoined examples will fully illustrate the mode in question, and the particular form of each book.

The day book opens with an inventory of the owner's effects, &c.

Inventory of A B's effects, taken Jany. 1, 1828.

Amt. of stock in trade as per bills rendered

of debts due per balance of leger A.
H. Hill's note due May 1, $256 Int. 6 mo. 8 96
D. Dunn's note on demand 312, Int. 12.50
B. Ball's note due Jan'y 2, 1829
C. Crafts note on demand

$||2250

682 50 264|96 324 50 16444 8414

838 04

377054

Amt. of bal. due from A B, as per leger A.'
A B's note to P. Pond-due Sept. 10
A B’s note to W. Willis-due June 6
Acceptance of D. North’s-due March 4

231 150 100 162

643

Utica, Jan’y 1, 1828.
Hiram Horner',
1

To amt. of his account from leger A. Dec. 16, 1827
By amt. of his bill of repairs, &c. rendered this day

and on file

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Ralph Randall To 5 yds. Am. print, a 32 cts., 30 yds. cotton cloth, 1

a 15 cts. "12 yds. ging’m, a 25 cts. 16 yds. Irish linen, a 87 cts. “3 ýds. black broad cloth, at 5,50. trimmings for

coat and vest, 2.37

610 1670

1887

4167

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