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hands of the people, who delegate it, under proper restrictions, and for limited periods, to officers or public servants of their own choice. The confederate cast which our form of government takes, arises from the association of twenty-four in(lependent states into one grand federal family. And their great bond of union is the federal constitution.
I hope, sir, said Horace, you will have the goodness to explain the federal constitution to us; for I have long wished to know something of it.
At some future time, my son, I will comply with your request most cheerfully. And, in the mean time, think closely of what we have said this evening, and see how many questions you can answer from our conversation, when I find leisure to ask them.
MENSURATION.- LESSON 3.
Globes or Spheres. Note 1.
A globe is a round, solid body, bounded by a surface, every part of which is equally distant from a point within called the centre.
Note 2. The diameter and circumference of a globe, are found by the same means employed to determine those parts of a circle; to wit, multiply the diameter or divide the circumference by 3.14159.
Obs. 1. The surface of a globe may be found by the following:
Rule. Multiply the circumference by the diameter, and the product will be the surface. Thus:
The largest ball near the top of the spire of St. Paul's Church, is 3.5 feet in diameter; what is its surface?
3.5 X3.14159=10.994565 X 3.5=38.48 + Ans. The axes of A's miniature globes, are each 7 inches; what is the sum of their surfaces?
Ans. 308in. nearly. OBS, 2. The convex surface of any segment or zone of a sphere, may be found by the following
Rule. Multiply the given height of the segment by the circumference of the whole globe, the product will be the an
Thus:The diameter of B’s globe is 42 inches; and the height of a zone of which, is 9 inches; what is the convex surface of that zone?
42X3.14159=131.94678X9=1187.5in. + Ans. Suppose the diameter of a globe to be 18 inches, and the height of a segment taken from it, 4in. what is the surface of the segment?
Ans. 226.2, nearly.
REMARKS, &c.—LESSON 4.
Versification. NOTE 1. All who pretend to read or write have more or less to do with the subject of versification; henco, some general idea of the nature and principles of this species of composition, will be found of particular advantage.
Note 2. Versification is the art of combining and arranging a certain number and variety of syllables into measure, termed poetical feet; agrecably to certain laws.
Every species of verse is composed of feet, and rhyming verse is distinguished from the other kinds, by a correspondence in the sound of the last word of one line, with that of the last word in a subsequent line.
Every foot in poetry is formed of a certain number of syllables, variously connected and accented, each of which possesses peculiar powers of its own,upon the right application of which depends the beauty and the effect of numbers.
All feet used in poetry, consist either of two or three syllables, and they may be classed under eight varieties. Those of two syllables, are
Those of three syllables, are 1, A Trochee, (marked); 1, A Dactyle, (marked) 2, An Tambus,
2, An Amphibrack, 3, A Spondee,
; 3, An Anapest, 4, 4 Pyrrhic,
4, A Trebrach,
SPELLING.LESSON 5. ig-no-min-ious ig-no-min'yús leg-is-la-tion lēj-is-la'shún im-pli-ca-tion im-plē-kā'shăn lib-er-a-tion lib-er-a'shún im-po-si-tion im-po zish'un lig-num-vi-te lig-núm-vi'të in-au-spi-cious in-aw-spishús lim-i-ta-tion lim-e-tā'shun in-ci-den-tal in-sē-děn'tăl lit-i-ga-tion lit-te-ga'ahun in-co-he-rence in-ko-he'rēnse lo-co-mo-tion lo-ko-mo'shún in-de-cis-ion in-de-sizh'un mac-er-a-tion măs-ěr-ā'shăn in-de-co-rous in-de-koʻrūs mach-i-na-tion măk-z-nā'shăn in-de-co-rum in-de-ko'răm inal-e-dic-tion măl-e-dik'shăn in-de-pen-dence in-de-pēn'děnse mal-e-fac-tor măl-e-fák'tūr in-di-gest-ion in-de-jest' yun man-i-fes-to măn-e-fes to in-ef-fi-cient in-ěf-fish'ěnt man-u-fac-ture măn-nū-făkt’yure in-flu-en-tial in-fŭ-ěn'shăl man-u-mis sion măn-nu-mish ăn in-no-va-tion in-no-vă'shūn math-e-mat-ics măth-e-măt'tiks in-qui-si-tion in-kwẽ-zish ăn mat-u-ra-tion mat-yu-ra shăn in-spi-ra-tion in-spē-rā'shũn mau-so-le-um mâw-so-lēļūm in-stal-la-tion in-stăl-lā'shún me-di-a-tor mē-de-a'tūr in-sur-rec-tion in-sūr-rēk'shūn mens-u-ra-tion měns-yū-ra'shun in-ter-ces-sion in-těr-sěsh'ùn met-a-mor-phose mět-ta-mòr'fus in-ter-fe-rence in-těr-fo'rēnse mi-cro-scop-ic mi-krő-skop'ik
in-ter-mis-sion in-těr-mish'ùn inin-is-tra-tion min-is-trā'shun in-ter-sec-tion in-těr-sěk'shún mis-de-mea-nor mis-de-mē'nŭı in-tu-i-tion in-tū-ish'ùn mit-i-ga-tion mit-e-ga'shun in-un-da-tion in-un-dā'shŭn mod-er-a-tion mod-děr-ā'shún in-vo-ca-tion in-vō-kā'shún mod-u-la-tion mod-dū-la'shun ir-ri-lig-ious ir-rê-lij'ús mo-les-ta-tion mõl-ěs-ta'shún ir-ri-ta-tion ir-rē-tā'shún mu-ri-at-ic mū-rê-ăttik ju-ris-dic-tion jū-ris-dik'shūn mu-ti-la-tion mū-te-lā'shūn ju-ris-pru-dence jū-ris-prū'děns nom-i-na-tion nõm-e-nā'shăn lac-er-a-tion lăs-ěr-ä'shūn non-con-for-mist nõn-kõn-fòr'mist lam-cn-ta-tion lăm-ăn-ta/shũn ob-du-ra-tion bb-du-ra shăn
CONVERSATIONS, &c.—LESSON 6.
Sheriff's Office, s.c. Evening, said Mr. Brown to his sons, has overtaken us again, and we are comfortably seated round a good fire;-a blessing which thousands of poor creatures stand in need of this cold night. What shall be the subject of conversation, my lads?
I hope you will not question us, said Philo, on what was said last evening, for I am not prepared to answer.
Be good enough to explain the constitution.
Before I do that, replied Mr. Brown, I should be glad to read it once or twice, and to have you read it also.
I was thinking to-ray, sir, said Horace, that I would ask you, the first opportunity that offered, how the officers of government, immediately in our own county and town, were appointed, and what their powers and duties are.
A gond subject, my son, and I am glad you have introduced it. It gives me pleasure to find that you take an interest in such matters, and are desirous of understanding them. Every man should know something of the government under which he lives, and be able to judge of the manner in which it is administered:--besides, every man is liable, under our government, to be called upon to take a share in its administration. At what point will you begin, my son? With the officers of the county, if you please, sir, said Ho.
How many and what are they? The officers of the county may be classed under eleven heads; to wit:--Sheriff, Coroner, Judges of the Common Pleas, County Clerk, Surrogate, Justices of the Peace, Loan Officers, Supervisors, County Treasurer, Auctioneers, and Inspectors of different commodities.
I am pleased that you mentioned the sheriff first; for he seems to be a very strong man among us, said Philo. How is he appointed and what are his powers?
You must understand, replied the father, that we live not only under the United States' constitution, but also under a state constitution, which is our fundamental law.
This instrument determines the mode in which nearly all the county officers are appointed. It provides that, in each county of the state, a sheriff shall be elected by the people; that he shall be a substantial freeholder; that he shall hold his office for three years, but can hold no other state office for the time being, nor can he be re-appointed for the next following three years. For the faithful performance of his trust, he gives a bond with security, which is lodged in the county clerk's office; and he acts under the solemnity of an oath, administered by the county clerk or county judges, the purport of which is, that he will faithfully serve the people, &c. All the public officers of the state, whether civil or military, hold their trust under the salemnity of an oath.
What you have said of the sheriff, sir, said Philo, relates to his appointment; what are his duties, &c.?
He is the first man in the county, my son; to him is committed the peace and custody of the county, and he defends it against its enemies. He imprisons those who even attempt to break the peace, and in the prosecution of his duties, he can order all the people of the county to attend him. His great business, however, is to serve precepts for the people; but he cannot levy a force to aid in this unless he finds resistance. The sheriff, nevertheless, is liable to severe punishment, if he exercises any needless severity or wanton cruelty.
I should suppose, inturrupted Horace, that the sheriff must liave stceled feelings and blunted sensibilities, or his sympathies would sometimes be strongly excited.
No doubt, my son, but he often passes through scenes which call forth his compassion, and try his patience. His duty leads him to daily familiarity with misery and infamy, the concomitants of crime:-For he marshals the accused to courts of justice, where he keeps order. He calls together the grand and petit juries; has the custody of the jail; the execution of those condemned to die; and the transportation of those sentenced to places of confinement. In short;--his duties are inore extensive and difficult, and his office attended with greater risque, than any other trust in the county. He has the power, however, of appointing deputies, who do a large portion of his business, and who are under heavy bonds to him for their faithfulness.
What compensation does the sheriff get for his trouble and risque? said Philo.
His compensation is derived from fees and commissions on the business which he does, all of which are fixed by law; and he gets a moiety of the fees, &c. which are earned by his deputies.* * For the fees of the several county officers, see appendix.
GLOBES, OR SPHERES.--LESSON 7.
RULE. Multiply the cube of the diameter by.5236, and the product will be the solidity. Thus:
What is the solid contents of a globe whose diameter is 20 inches?
20X20=400 X 20=8000, X.5236=4188.8, Ans. Obs. 1. When the solid contents of a sphere is given, the diameter may be found by reversing the above operation. Thus:-...
What is the diameter of a sphere, whose solidity is 4188.8? 4188.8;.5236=8000, the cube root of which is 20. Obs. 2. The weight of solid bodies of like densities is
proportionate to the cubes of their diameters. Thus:
A's leaden ball is 6 inches in diameter, and weighs 32lbs.; what is the weight of B’s ball, which is of the same metal, and only 3 inches in diameter?
6X6=36 X 6.=216, the cube of the diam. of A's ball. 3X3=9X3=27, the cube of the diam. of B's ball.
Then, as 216: 32 : :27 : 4lbs. Ans. Obs. 3. The middle section or zone of a globe is that part of it which is left when two segments have been cut off parallel to its axis. The solidity of the section may be found by the following
Rule. 1. Add the squares of the semidiameters of both ends of the zone, and reserve the sum.
2. Add 1-3 of the square of the thickness of the zone, to the above reserved sum.
3. Multiply the amount by the thickness of the zone, and that product by 1.57, and the last product will be the answer.
What is the solidity of the middle zone of a sphere whose ends are 14ft. each, in diameter, and whose thickness is 3ft.? 14:2=7ft. semidiameter;--and 7X7=49X2=98, reserved sum. 3X3=9=1-3=3+98=101, X3=303, X1.57