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NEW YORK, G. AND C. AND H. CARVILL, AND COLLINS AND HANNAY ;

PHILADELPHIA, JOHN GRIGG ;
BALTIMORE, G. MÓDOWELL AND SONS

CINCINNATI, C. D. BRADFORD.

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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1831,

by GRAY AND BOWEN, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Massachusetts.

10359

CAMBRIDGE:
E, W. METCALF AND COMPANY,

Printers to the University.

PREFACE.

The Conductors of the American Almanac have reason to be gratified by the manner in which the work has hitherto been received ; and they flatter themselves that the volume now offered to the public will carry with it evidence of their endeavor to secure a continuance of the public approbation.

The Astronomical department has again been executed by Mr. Paine ; and it is believed that it will be found to exhibit the same accuracy and ability that have distinguished the corresponding portion of the former volumes. For explanations of this part the the reader is referred to Mr. Paine's Preliminary Observations.

The other portion of Part I. is mostly occupied by a continuation of the Natural History of the Weather, which was begun in the volume for 1831.

Part II. of the Almanac for 1831, is “ particularly characterized . by containing a view of the general and state governments, the Constitution of the United States, the executive government, the national legislature and judiciary, outlines of the constitutions of the several states, and complete lists of their governors, from the first organization of the respective governments." Part II. of the present volume is more especially characterized by the details of the Fifth Census of the United States, by tabular views of all the states, exhibiting their divisions into counties, with their county towns or seats of justice, together with the population of the counties, and also of all those county towns of which the population is given in the census. In addition to this, the population of all the towns or townships of the six New England states and the state of New York, is also inserted ; likewise views of the progressive increase of the inhabitants of the different states.

The Population of the states together with that of the counties and county towns, has been copied, expressly for this work, from the official returns in the Department of State at Washington; but the

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