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it describes Mr. Browning's manner in social life and when he is speaking in his own person. Usuand because it disposes of a statement made since ally, as in these pieces, there is a free use of his death that both he and his wife were believ Christian symbolism, treated in a broad and luers in spiritualistic manifestations. In his ac- cid way that carries the reader into the heart of count of the breakfast at Mr. Milnes's, in Lon the truth symbolized and makes all question of don, in 1856, he says: “ After we left the table, form superfluous. Such is the vision of the judgMr. Browning, introduced himself to me-a ment in Easter Day" and the dream in the younger man than I expected to see, handsome, dissenters' chapel of “Christmas Eve," expresswith brown hair. He is very simple and agree- ing his sympathy with every mood that is sinable in manner, gently impulsive, talking as if cere and earnest, with, at the same time, a keen his heart were uppermost. He spoke of his sense of the humor of their manifestations; his pleasure in meeting me and his appreciation of regard for the substance of worship, not the elemy books, and—which has not often happened gance of its form; his faith in the soul's intuito me-mentioned that the Blithedale Romance' tions; and the conviction found in so many of was the one he admired most. I wonder why." his poems that "good shall be the final goal of And of his visit to Casa Guidi, Hawthorne says: ill”; that “the world's no blot-it means in"Mr. Browning was very efficient in keeping up tensely and means good.” conversation with everybody, and seemed to be “ Men and Women" (1855) includes more of in all parts of the room and in every group at the best and most characteristic of the shorter the same moment–a most vivid and quick- poems than any other of his volumes. “Childe thoughted person, logical and common sensible, Roland to the Dark Tower Came” is a striking as I presume poets generally are in their daily instance of the power to project human feeling talk."... There was no very noteworthy con- into nature; I know of nothing approaching it versation, the most interesting topic being that but Poe's description of the House of Usher. disagreeable and now wearisome one of spiritual Every feature of the landscape gives some siniscommunications, as regards which Mrs. Brown- ter suggestion of being a conscious creature, ing is a believer and her husband an infidel. ... either itself suffering or watching in demoniac Browning and his wife had both been present at glee for the mysterious impending doom of the a spiritual session held by Mr. Home, and had estray caught in the dreadful trap. "Bishop seen and felt the unearthly hands, one of which Blougram's Apology” is the ingenious argument had placed a laurel wreath on Mrs. Browning's of a worldly and comfortable churchman, in rehead. Browning, however, avowed his belief ply to one curious to know how he reconciles it that these hands were affixed to the feet of Mr. with his conscience to profess belief in dogmas Home, who lay extended in his chair, with his that can not possibly recommend themselves to legs stretched far under the table. The marvel- his reason. The subject is treated with the huousness of the fact, as I have read of it and mor most characteristic of Browning, which turns heard it from other eye-witnesses, melted strange- things inside out rather than plays over the surly away in his hearty gripe and at the sharp face of them. It is generally believed that Cartouch of his logic, while his wife ever and anon dinal Wiseman is the original of the bishop. put in a little gentle word of expostulation. I am “ The Statue and the Bust" is founded on a trarather surprised that Browning's conversation dition concerning the equestrian statue of the should be so clear and so much to the purpose at Grand Duke Ferdinand I in the piazza of the SS. the moment, since his poetry can seldom proceed Annunziata, Florence, a strange story, whereof far without running into the high grass of latent the moral, a surprising and unexpected moral, meanings and obscure allusions." The celebrated is drawn for us, contrary to his wont, by the aumedium spoken of by Hawthorne, Daniel D. thor. In reply to an inquiry whether the bust, Home, is supposed to be the original of “Mr. like the statue, had an actual existence, BrownSludge, the Medium,” in Browning's “ Dramatising answered that the story was all fiction, exPersona."
cept that the lady was so shut up by a jealous Mrs. Browning died in 1861, leaving one child, husband, and that the duke placed the statue Robert Barrett Browning, then twelve years of there as a memorial of his daily rides past the age, who has since won distinction as an artist. window. This volume also includes some of the "Prospice,” in “ Dramatis Personæ,” concludes most beautiful of the love poems—“One Word with an allusion to her. The poem is a looking More," " The Last Ride together," “ Love among forward to death.
the Ruins," the remarkable dramatic fragment And the elements’ rage, the fiend-voices that rave,
“In a Balcony," " Love in a Life," and that exShall dwindle, shall blend,
quisite expression of self-effacing love, “MisShall change, shall become first a peace, then a joy,
conceptions." "The Grammarian's Funeral," Then a light, then thy breast,
sketches a student of Greek, soon after the reOh thou soul of my soul! I shall clasp thee again, vival of letters in Europe, one who was content And with God be the rest !
to go on toiling at the roots of things to lay the
foundation of a great thing, letting youth pass The lines at the close of the introduction to by, careless of any results in this life. " The Ring and the Book” are another very beau Among the poems in this book most admired tiful address to his wife.
are “ Andrea del Sarto," * Fra Lippo Lippi,” In 1850 appeared “Christmas Eve and Easter * Master Hugues," “ The Strange Medical ExpeDay," two poems that more than any other give rience of Karshish," and " Holy-Cross Day." an idea of the author's relation to Christianity. In 1864. “ Dramatis Personæ," another volume Of the profound moral import of his work there of short poems, made its appearance, containing can be no question; but it is not always easy to among others the noble religious poems “Rabbi see when his use of Christian ideas is dramatic Ben Ezra ” and “ A Death in the Desert”; “Cal
iban upon Setebos," a curious story on anthropo “ The Red Cotton Night-Cap Country; or, morphic theories of God, from the text “ Thou Turf and Towers" (1873), has much the same thoughtest that I was altogether such an one as general theme as “ Fifine," the opposing attracthyself”; “ Abt Vogler," expressive of Brown- tions of the flesh and the spirit, but is treated in ing's knowledge of and love for music; and a markedly differing manner. It is founded on the witty short poems “Dîs Aliter Visum ” and a series of events that took place in Normandy “Confessions."
and Paris just before the date of the poem. The ** The Ring and the Book," a poem of more leading title, it is said, was suggested by Miss than 20,000 lines, issued in 1868–69, is generally Thackeray, who spoke of Normandy as the regarded as Mr. Browning's masterpiece. The White Cotton Night-Cap Country-a phrase the story of its first suggestion is told in the Intro- poet changed to the one in the title, in allusion duction. At a stall in the Piazza San Lorenzo, to the tragedy going on beneath the simple pasin Florence, Mr. Browning found one day, amid toral life of the country. The second title is a mass of miscellaneous rubbish, a square old supposed to carry an allusion to the sensuous yellow book, part print and part manuscript, the and the spiritual appeals to the allegiance of title page of which he translates as follows: man, which forms the groundwork of the story. A Roman murder-case :
This work probably holds the lowest place of all Position of the entire criminal cause
the longer poems in the estimation of the majorOf Guido Franceschini, nobleman,
ity of readers. With certain four, the cut-throats in his pay;
** The Inn Album ” (1875), is also a story Tried, all five, and found guilty and put to death founded on fact-coarse and repulsive in its bare By beading or hanging, as befitting ranks,
outline, but treated with great power and depth At Rome, on February twenty-two, Since our salvation, sixteen ninety-eight;
of analysis. “Aristophanes's Apology" came out Wherein it is disputed if, and when,
in the same year; in it the Rhodian girl “ BaHusbands may kill adulterous wives, yet 'scape
laustion" appears again, with a translation of The customary forfeit.
the “ Herakles" of Euripides.
Next followed “Pacchiarotto, and how he This book, giving the whole history of the worked in Distemper, and other Poems" (1876), case—the evidence, the lawyers' pleas, an account and “ Agamemnon," a translation from Æschyof the murderer's execution, “ the instrument of lus (1877). In 1878 was published " La Saisiaz," the definitive sentence," establishing the wife's an argument for the immortality of the soul, coninnocence—all these documents found together, taining many exquisite passages, and more easily he bought for a lira (about eightpence). On intelligible to the careless reader than the drathis story he founded the poem. The name, as matic monologues. It was occasioned by the he explains, is symbolical, referring to the man- sudden death of a friend with whom Mr. Brownner in which the facts of this old story are min- ing and his sister were spending a part of the gled with imagination in his work, just as the summer of 1877 at La Saisiaz, a villa among the artificer, when he makes a ring of Etruscan gold, mountains near Geneva. mingles with the pure metal an alloy that ren “ The Two Poets of Croisic” (1878) is the story ders the gold manageable and is freed after it of some out-of-the-way happenings to two poethas served its purpose.
asters. One passage gives a hint of Browning's The story of the tragedy is told over and over choice and treatment of his themes, and, thereagain in the versions of various persons inter- fore, seems specially appropriate for quotation. ested, first by the author, then by the half Rome The first of the two poets has made a prophecy, that sympathizes with the husband, then by the which he believes was conveyed to him in a half that sympathizes with the wife, then by a dream, in reference to the birth of an heir to a certain third party not decided ; then follow the princedom, and the prophecy has been fulfilled, versions of the actors themselves, of the lawyers and this gives rise to speculation as to how a on each side, the Pope's review of the evidence; man might feel who believed himself to have and lastly the husband is again heard from after been made the medium of a divine revelation : his conviction. The portrayals of character, and
How fortune fares especially the development of character in the
With such a mediocrity, who cares! innocent wife and the accused canon, touch the Well, I care-intimately care to have highest point of the poet's achievement in this, Experience how a human creature felt his favorite mode of expression.
In after-life who bore the
burden grave This great epic was followed in 1871 by " Ba Of certainly believing God had dealt laustion's Adventure," a story framing a trans
For once directly with him; did not ravelation of the “ Alkestis” of Euripides, and the
A maniac, did not find his reason melt
An idiot, but went on, in peace or strife, same year“ Prince Hohenstiel-Schwangau. Sav
The world's way, lived an ordinary life, ior of Society," in which an exposition and de
How many problems that one fact would solve! fense of his course are put into the mouth of An ordinary soul, no more, no less, Napoleon III—an argument for the policy of About whose life earth's common sights revolve, taking the world as it is found, and working to On whom is brought to bear, by thunder-stress, ward the practicable, rather than throwing away
This fact-God tasks him, and will not absolve effort on romantic ideals.
Task's negligent performer! Can you guess How such a soul--the task
performed to point"Fifine at the Fair" (1872), treats of incon
Goes back to life nor finds things out of joint ! stancy in love in a way most puzzling to the reader, because there is so much humor in the The two series of " Dramatic Idyls " followed treatment, and the argument proceeds from a in 1879 and 1880, including the popular story character highly imaginative and singularly per- “ Clive.” “ Jocoseria," a volume of short poems, verse and contradictory.
grave and gay, as the name implies, was published
in 1883, and in 1885 " Ferishtah's Fancies,” para- No, at noonday in the bustle of man's work-time bles in Eastern garb, least attractive in thought Bid him forward, breast and back as either should be, and expression of the shorter poems. "Parleyings with Certain People of Impor
"Strive and thrive!” cry “ Speed - fight on, fare tance in their Day; to wit, Bernard de Mande
There as here ! ville, Daniel Bartolis, Christopher Smart, George Bubb Dodington, Francis Furini, Gerard de
After the death of his wife, Mr. Browning Lairesse, and Charles Avison, introduced by a never returned to Florence. He divided his Dialogue between Apollo and the Fates; con- time between Italy and England, usually passcluded by another between John Fust and Hising the season in London, and going much into Friends" (1887), was said on its advent to be society, where his bright and genial manners darker than the darkest of his works; but by made him a general favorite. The following students it is now acknowledged to be worthy to description of his personal appearance was given rank with his best works, dealing with most curi- by Bayard Taylor years ago: "In his lively, ously interesting problems and made vivid by cheerful manner, quick voice, and perfect selfsome of his most eloquent passages.
possession, he made the impression of an AmeriA last volume, “ Åsolando; Facts and Fan- can, rather than an Englishman. His hair was cies,” was announced for publication on the day already streaked with gray about the temples. of his death. It is named from Asolo, the place His complexion was fair, with perhaps the faintof residence of the lady to whom it is dedicated, est olive tinge ; eyes large, clear, and gray; nose with some reference to the meaning of the word strong and well cut; mouth full and rather asolando, roving about in the open air. It con- broad, and chin pointed, though not prominent. tains songs and stories in various keys. Brown- His forehead broadened rapidly upward from ing was always fond of odd stories about the the outer angle of the eyes, slightly retreating. popes, and here he has two, “ The Pope and the The strong individuality which marks his poetry Net” and “ The Bean Feast.” “Muckle-Mouth was expressed not only in his face and head but Meg” is a new version of an old Scottish story, in his whole demeanor. He was about the methe heroine of which was the daughter of Sir dium height, strong in the shoulders, but slenGideon Murray, of Elibank. The little poem der at the waist, and his movements expressed " Arcades Ambo," like “ Donald ” in “ Jocoseria,” a combination of vigor and elasticity.” may be commended to the attention of Bergh
His home in Venice was with his son at the societies. Some of the poems seem specially Palazzo Rezzonico, on the Grand Canal, where significant, now that we know they were written he was taken ill Nov. 27. His illness proved to so close to the coming of the great silence. Such be a serious attack of bronchitis, and in a few are the Prologue, written Sept. 6, describing how days an affection of the heart was developed ; the charm has faded out of nature for the poet but Mr. Browning refused to believe that he was in his age, but suggesting the consolation that not growing better, and his friends were not lies in the significance of nature, In the same prepared for the end that came so soon. Servstrain is “ Reverie," where he expresses his con
ices were held at the Palazzo Rezzonico on Sunfidence in the supreme love and the higher life: day, Dec. 15, in the presence of a large company
of English and American residents, and foreign Somewhere, below, above,
diplomats and officials. The coffin was carried Shall a day dawn-this I knowWhen Power, which vainly strove
on a barge to the central chapel of St. Michael's My weakness to o'erthrow,
cemetery, whence it was taken to England. It Shali triumph. I breathe, I'move,
was at first intended to bury the poet beside his
wife at Florence, but the offer of a grave in I truly am, at last !
Westminster Abbey from the Dean of Westmin-
ster, was accepted and Browning's resting-place Fitful, half guessed, half seen,
in the Poet's Corner is not far from Chaucer's, Grasped at, not gained, held fast.
recalling the lines of Landor: I for my race and me,
Since Chaucer was alive and hale, Shall apprehend life's law;
No man hath walkt along our roads with step
So active, so inquiring eye, or tongue
So varied in discourse.
Browning made it a rule never to speak in
public; but Edmund Yates tells an amusing If not on the homely earth,
story of an occasion when he allowed himself to Then yonder, worlds away,
break this rule: “ One Saturday afternoon, about Where the strange and new have birth, twelve years ago, he was crossing Hyde Park, And Power comes full in play.
walking homeward, and stood a few minutes The Epilogue closes with stanzas recalling listening to an address from one of the pestilent “ Prospice," quoted above-a song of triumph at atheistic lecturers in those parts
. He waited till
the fellow had finished, and then sprang on the approaching death, where he writes of himself as
vacated chair: “Now, my friends, you have One who never turned his back, but marched breast heard him, listen to me.' İle held the attention
forward, Never doubted clouds would break,
of his strange audience for some ten minutes, a Never dreamed, though right were worsted, wrong nary effect that the populace turned upon orator
rapt oration flowing free with such extraordiwould triumph, Held we fall to rise, are baffled to fight better,
number one, and literally chased him from the Sleep to wake.
neighborhood of his exploits."
Toward America and Americans Mr. Brown. the last, of course, being matter of opinion, and ing always displayed the warmest friendship. depending upon the critic's point of view. Much In an article entitled “ English Opinion on the of the obscurity is due to little mannerisms of American War," in the “ Atlantic
Monthly," for expression, inversions, and ellipses, to which the February, 1866, William Michael Rossetti wrote: reader soon grows accustomed; but much also “ Within my own personal circle of observation, is due to condensation, and much to the unfaI could name but one, or at the utmost two, be- miliarity of his thought and the unusual themes sides myself, who in the main, with some vari- with which he deals. A great thinker must ations, according to the changing current of have his own vocabulary and his own style, events, clung to the cause of the North in its en- and one can not deal with metaphysical questirety. The first of these two persons is a painter tions in the language of the wayfaring man. His of great distinction, and a man in other respects careless versification is due in great part to the of very thinking and serious mind, well known rapidity of his work in his later years, which is, by name, and partially by his works, to such perhaps, in part responsible for the frequent ugly Americans as take an interest in fine art. The and prosaic phraseology that is such a rock of second of the two is one of our very greatest liv- offense to the lovers of smooth and elegant
verse; ing poets." Being recently asked if he were but much of it seems due to a preference for the willing to tell, after this lapse of time, who these homely and the forcible in language. Yet while two persons were, Mr. Rossetti replies: “It was those who love his work best could well spare the written so long ago that I have had to search obscurity and the roughness of phrase and word, my memory somewhat, in order to say who were they would not be willing to spare the digressthe great artist and the great author of whom I iveness and the redundancy; for it is not the spoke as having been stanch to the good cause unmeaning wandering of mere diffuseness. of the Northern States. On reflection, I have Every digression throws, some sidelight on the little doubt that the artist was Holman Hunt theme, or has some independent suggestion in it (unless possibly it was Ford Madox Brown). The that adds to the wealth of ideas in the page. author (I am practically certain) was Robert His thoughts are not like figures seen dimly beBrowning-a name I have always pronounced cause the light over them is dim; but rather like with reverence and love, and most especially so the figures in a vast, live, surging crowd, hard to now that the world has to mourn his death." see, not because every one does not stand full of
By a great number of critics and readers, life and action, but because it is hustled and Browning is regarded as the greatest English jostled by the many other forms that crowd poet since Shakespeare; but it is the opinion of around it and disturb its hold on our sight. others that, while the keenness of his insight, the The theory that true poetry appeals to the unprofundity of his thought, his wideness of range, tutored sensibilities of men, that it is at its best and his variety of subject, would entitle him
to among simple people and in primitive times, that very high rank-perhaps the highest--yet his ob- it must decay among the refinements of a cultiscurity of expression, the carelessness and awk vated society and disappears with the advent of ward mannerisms of his constructions, and the a spirit of metaphysical investigation and psygeneral inelegance of his style, forbid his assign- chologic subtlety-such a theory has a place in ment to so high a place. To still others, whose the philosophy that regards the human race as definitions of poetry make it an art appealing fallen from a once high degree of perfection and directly to the feelings and excluding all subtle ever lapsing farther away in its natural state ties of thought and metaphysical inquiry, he from its original susceptibility to purity and seems scarcely to deserve the name of poet, but truth. But it is out of place in that view of the to be a subtle thinker throwing the results of his plan of creation which regards the race as prostudy, which are essentially prose, into a form gressing by constant development to more commore or less rhythmical, and thereby making plex adaptations of body and mind, and thence them needlessly 'obscure. This may be said to constantly more susceptible to the subtleties of have been the prevailing view of his work until a literature that deals with ever more delicate within twenty-five years. He was deemed rather problems of human thought and experience. a poet for poets than for the generality of read. The influence of Browning has advanced as this ers; and indeed a new school of poetic taste had philosophy has advanced in the thought of men to grow up before he could be regarded other- and changed their point of view of the problems wise. Appreciation of his work has shown most of life. striking progress during the past ten years; and That it was open to Robert Browning to behe has probably more readers and admirers in come a master of poetic expression and to deal the United States than in his own country. Pub- with ordinary themes of poetry in a style both lishers report a regular and steady call for his original and popular, is shown by his acted draworks, which have entered the list of standards" mas and his best-known lyrics. While they on their records, whereas ten years ago 'a new speak to the immediate apprehension of an aubook of his met with a very moderate demand, dience and appeal by action and incident to the and the sale soon dropped to an insignificant general intelligence, it is never in a conventional figure.
way or by sacrifice of individuality. There are The current criticisms on Browning's work always unusual phases of character and comare that it is obscure, rough, unmusical, digress- plexities of motive that make the work peculiarive, redundant; that he lacked the faculty of ly his own. But he chose rather to be a student rejection, thereby missing the artistic symmetry of the strange and grotesque in character and conthat was possible to him; that he dealt with duct, to trace the intricate windings of purpose themes too abstruse for poetry; all of which, ex- and go deeper into the moving forces of a man's cept the last, are doubtless true in some measure; strange acts than the man's own consciousness
could carry himself. He likes the inconsistent, during which a regency administered the governto exhibit the triumph of the notions, the preju- ment, Ferdinand, the youngest son of Prince Audices, the small vanities, the obliquities of moral gustus, Duke of Saxony, and Princess Clémentine sense over the plain, straightforward common- of Bourbon-Orleans, daughter of Louis Philippe, sensible forces of right and custom and interest. King of the French, was elected Prince by the He takes us often to the point of view of the unanimous vote of the National Assembly on squinting vision, and shows us how the squint July 7, 1887, and assumed the government on modifies the view. Yet this is not his chief Aug. 14, without waiting for the consent of the characteristic. There is no writer who has ap- powers, which was withheld on account of the proached the human soul on so many sides, por- objections of Russia. Prince Ferdinand has not traying the influences of its environment while yet been confirmed by the Porte and the signarecognizing its essential kinship. Few have tory powers. He was born Feb. 26, 1861, and is ranged through a greater variety of experience unmarried. and emotion and united with so wide and close The executive power is administered, under a sympathy such intense moral earnestness. the Prince, by a council of six ministers, which
He seemed to grow impatient of the work of was composed at the close of 1888 as follows: the dramatist so far as it consists in evolving Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior. character by varied situations and the influence Stambuloff; Minister of Foreign Affairs and of of minor actors. He preferred to take some one Public Worship, Dr. Stransky; Minister of Fiman in some moment when the forces that have nance, Natchevich ; Minister of War, Col. Mutbeen gaining strength in the unnoticed workings kuroff; Minister of Justice, Stoiloff; Minister of of the thoughts and passions suddenly break out Public Instruction, Zivkoff. It was a composite in the stress of some crisis and assert their irre- ministry containing representatives of both politisistible power; and so the dramatic monologue cal parties. The Conservative members, Stoiloff became more and more his favorite form, because and Natchevich, in consequence of disagreements here he need concern himself only with the intri- with the chief of the Cabinet, resigned and were cacies of the thought, the method of the spirit's succeeded about Jan. 1, 1889, by Tontcheff, late dealing with itself. It is perhaps the soul of all President of the Sobranje, as Minister of Justice great drama that it gives intellectual expression and Sallbasheff, another adherent of Stambuloff, to the passional and moral emotions of which the as Minister of Finance. real man is as unconscious as of the circuits of Area and Population. The area of Bulgahis blood. Not dramatic or lifelike in the low ria is estimated at 24,360 square miles, not insense of the word, because men do not analyze cluding that of Eastern Roumelia, which is 13,themselves in moments of supreme passion, it is 500 square miles, making the area of the whole in the higher sense most truly dramatic. It shows principality 37,860 square miles. According to us the man not so much as he conceives himself, the census of 1887, the two Bulgarias have a but in some degree as he might appear to his population of 3,154,375 persons, divided as to Maker, whose perfect knowledge of his heart in sex into 1,605,389 males and 1,548,986 females. cludes perfect knowledge and sympathy with all Of the total population, 2,326,250 are Bulgars, the paths by which he has come to his present 607,319 Turks, 58,338 Greeks, 23,546 Jews, 50,pass and all the obscure windings of his intellect 291 gypsies, 4,699 Servians and other Slavs, 2,245 and conscience.
Germans, 1,069 Russians, 544 French, and 80,074 BULGARIA, a principality in southeastern of other nationalities. The population was diEurope, tributary to Turkey. It was liberated vided in respect to religion into 2,432,154 Orthofrom Turkish rule as the result of the Russo- dox Greeks, 668,173 Mohammedans, 24,352 Jews, Turkish War of 1877, and constituted an autono- 18,539 Roman Catholics, 5,839 Armenian Gregomous principality by the operation of the Treaty rians, 1,568 Protestants, and 3.750 of other faiths. of Berlin. The Prince is elected by the people Sofia, the capital of the principality, had 30,428 and confirmed by the Sublime Porte with the con- inhabitants in 1887; Philippopolis, the former sent of the powers. The office is hereditary. No capital of Eastern Roumelia, 33,442 ; Rustchuk, member of a reigning European dynasty is eli- 27,194; Varna, 25,256; Shumla, 23,161; Slivno, gible. The legislative power is vested by the 20,893. There are 41 towns in North and South Constitution of 1879 in a single chamber, the Bulgaria having more than 5,000 inhabitants. Sobranje or National Assembly, the members of More than two thirds of the army recruits are which are elected by universal suffrage. East- unable to read or write; but now all children are ern Roumelia, now known as Southern Bulgaria, compelled by law to spend four years in the state which was constituted an autonomous province of schools, of which there are 2,000, supported by a Turkey by the Treaty of Berlin, was united to Bul- subvention of 2,000,000 lei, or francs per annum. garia by the act of the people, who deposed their Finances. The revised budget for 1888 makes governor in September, 1885, and proclaimed the the receipts 53,676,046 lei, and the total expendiunion. Prince Alexander assumed the adminis- tures 61,707,944 lei. Of the expenditure, 23,225,tration, and since then the Eastern Roumelians 424 lei were assigned to the Ministry of War, have sent representatives to the Sobranje, and 7,940,443 lei to the
Ministry of the Interior, 6,397,the province has been governed as a part of Bul- 618 lei to the service of the public
debt, and 10,garia, although the union has not been recog- 903,596 to administration of the finances. The nized by the powers, except that the executive budget estimates for 1889 are 63,000,000 lei of authority was confided to the Prince of Bulgaria revenue and 75,000,000 lei of expenditure. by a firman of the Sultan dated April 6, 1886, In December, 1887, the Sobranje authorized as the result of a conference of the signatory a loan of 50,000,000 lei, of which 19,000,000 lei powers. Prince Alexander of Battenberg abdi- were to be applied to the construction of the Zacated on Sept. 7, 1886, and after an interregnum, ribrod-Vakarel Railroad, the same amount to