Gambar halaman

Providing that persons who have paid taxes more than once on the same property in the same year may have the excess so paid refunded by the State or county upon proof thereof before a judge of probate, and upon obtaining from such judge a certificate of the amount so overpaid. To authorize the taking outside the State and erpetuating the testimony of non-residents of the State. Authorizing the Governor to issue patents to purchasers of swamp or overflowed land or lands in lieu of the same, which have been or may be patented to the State upon satisfactory proof that such lands have been fully paid for. Appropriating $22,500 for the expenses of the encampment of the State troops for 18S9 and 1890. Providing that all deeds or conveyances of any kind not filed and recorded within the time prescribed by law, may be filed and recorded within two years from the date of this act, and such record shall be valid notice as against all but existing bona-fide creditors and purchasers without actual notice of such deed. Authorizing members of the various farmers’ alliances and other similar organizations to form thernselves into a body corporate. To enable planters, farmers, and crop-growers to mortgage unplanted crops. Providing a penalty of $25 and upward for selling any pool or ticket or other device, or wagering any: thing upon any horse-race, prize-fight, drill, base-ball game, or other contest occurring outside the State, or for acting as agent of any one in procuring or placing outside the State an pool, ticket, or other device or wager, and giving the mayor of each city and incorporated town concurrent jurisdiction with the courts over offenses against this act occurring in the county in which said city or town is situated, and giving the police of such city or town authority to make arrests within five miles of such city or town. To provide for the sale of |...}. of minors in order to remove the proceeds from the State. Authorizing the vernor to convey title to the United States of lands needed by the latter for lighthouses, or other aids to navigation, the State retaining concurrent jurisdiction for legal purposes over such lands. To regulate the survey and division of lands into town lots, and requiring such surveys to be recorded in the office of the judge of probate before sales of such lots are made. A fine is imposed for selling lots without complying with this act. Providing that if the owner of any judgment or decree rendered by a court of record for the payment of money shall file, in the office of the judge of probate, a certificate of the clerk of said court reciting the nature of such judgment or decree, the same shall be a lien for ten years on all land of the defendant in said county and shall be notice to all persons of the existence of the lien. Defining a lawful fence. Punishing embezzlement in the same manner as larceny. Permitting the State health officer to modify the restrictions of all quarantines established by county and municipal authorities when such appear to be too severe or too lax. Authorizing private business corporations incorporated under the laws of this State to hold meetings and do corporate acts in other States. Declaring it unlawful to employ female clerks in stores without providing accommodations for sitting down and resting and allowing them to do so when not otherwise employed. A fine of not less than ten dollars is io for violating this act. Permitting the issue of preferred stock by corporations organized under the general laws. To enable heirs and distributees to perpetuate testimony to show that they are such. Permitting the codification every ten years of the local laws of each county. Providing that railroad corporations of the State

go hold meetings and transact business outside the State. Regulating the public printing of the State, and providing that it shall be done by contract. Assenting to the act of Congress of March 2, 1887, providing for the establishment of agricultural experiinent stations in the States. Incorporating the cities of Fort Payne, in De Kalb County, and Jenifer, in Talladega County. Providing for local option in Covington and Geneva Counties. Providing that the widow or minor children shall not forfeit to the claims of heirs or creditors any homestead estate set off to them by their removal therefrom, if they still reside in the State or are only temporarily absent therefrom. Requiring county tax-assessors to make a list of all lands in their county, and the owners, and to file the same for public inspection in the office of the judge of probate.

Education.—The report of the State Super

intendent of Education for the year ending Sept. 30, 1888, presents the following statistics. Outside of 14 separate school districts, in which are included the larger cities, there were taught during the year 3,744 schools for white, and 1,958 for colored children. The total number of white pupils enrolled in these schools was 159,671, and of colored pupils 98.919. The average daily attendance of white children was 98.675, of colored children 66,424. The white schools were taught 68.9 days on an average, and the colored schools 67.4 days. There were employed 2,368 male and 1,350 female teachers in the white schools, and 1,290 males and 585 females in the colored schools. There was an average of 41 pupils to each teacher of white children, and 49 p"| to each teacher of colored children.

he average monthly pay of teachers, $22.31, is less than in nearly every other Southern State, and the total available school fund for 1887–'88 amounted to only $539,209.04. The Legislature has this year increased by $100,000 the annual o for school purposes.

he number of pupils enrolled in the separate school districts, and not included in the above figures of enrollment, is as follows: Birmingham, 2,156; Montgomery, 1,543; Selma, 891; Tuscaloosa, 679; Eufaula, 452: Decatur, 411; Huntsville, 520; Troy, 533; Opelika, 289; Brownsville, 249; Cullman, 182; Prattville, 209; Uniontown, 564; total, 8,678. In these districts the sum of $174,183.10 was raised in 1888 by local taxation for support of schools, in addition to the State "Poo

he biennial report of the trustees of the State University for the years ending in June, 1887 and 1888, gives the total number of matriculates for 1886–87 as 212, and for 1887–88, 238. During this period there were 111 graduates. During 1887 the sum of $53,556.11 was received from all sources, and the sum of $53,632.77 disbursed. In 1888 the receipts from all sources were $57,444.54 and the disbursements were $57721.49, leaving a balance on hand, June 16, 1888, of $1,976.06. Many improvements have been made in the past two years. Garland Hall has been built and furnished, water works have been built, two new professors' dwellings have been erected, and the chemical laboratory has been fitted up with the newest and best apparatus to be found.

The normal-school property at Florence consists of thirteen acres and a building worth about $50,000. The annual appropriation of the State has been $7,500. There is a primary department in addition to the normal course. At the begining of this year there were 135 normal pupils at this school, and 121 persons were graduates. The number in attendance during 1887–88 was 218. A State normal school and university for colored students has been located for several years at Marion, in Perry County. The Legislature undertook, in 1887, to establish the Alabama University for colored o: and to use the money heretofore appropriated to this normal school for the use of the new university. This proceeding was declared by the State Supreme Court to be illegal, and the legislature of this year accordingly determined to continue the normal school, abandoning the idea of a university, and to change its location to some place to be chosen by a board of trustees. The sum of $15,000 was appropriated for land and buildings. The normal school at Jacksonville, established in 1883, gave instruction to 176 pupils during 1887–88, at an expense of $5,109.60. At the Livingston Normal College there were, during the same period, 126 pupils; at the Huntsville Normal School, 135 pupils in the normal course and 167 in the model school; at the Tuskegee Normal school, 525 pupils; and at the Troy Normal School 135 pupils in the normal course and 304 in the model school. The school at Troy was established in 1887. All who enjoy the benefits of normal instruction at these institutions are required to sign an obligation to teach for two years at least in the common schools. A bill abolishing the entire normal-school system was debated at length in the General Assembly of this year, and found supporters sufficiently numerous to carry it through the Lower House, but it failed to become a law. Railroads.-The valuation of railroad property, as assessed by the State board for 1889, aggregated $40,163,776.18. This valuation only includes tracks and rolling stock, all other property, real and personal, being assessed in the counties by the tax assessors. The statement shows an increase in valuation over last year of $4,855,918.81. Industrial Development.—The valleys of the Tennessee and the upper Alabama rivers in the northern portion of the State have witnessed in the past few years a wonderful development. Five years ago Birmingham was but little known and gave but little promise of the growth that has marked its history since 1886; Anniston was hardly heard of outside of its own county: Decatur was a country town of probably 1,200 inhabitants: Bessemer had not even been dreamed of by its projector: Sheffield was a corn field : Roanoke numbered fewer than 2,000 |. Florence was a sleepy Southern town, iving on cotton trade alone; and Huntsville was similarly situated. (See Citi Es AMERICAN, REcENT G Rowth of, in “Annual Cyclopædia" for 1888 and 1889.) On the other hand, the central counties of the State, embracing the so-called “black belt.” where agriculture is the leading industry, show a steady decline. Not only are the proprietors of the soil selling their farms or leaving them to tenants, but the negroes are rapidly emigrating.

so that farm laborers are becoming difficult to procure. These emigrants go either to Texas and the West or to Birmingham and other cities of the “mineral belt.” During the present year the negro exodus has been unusually large. Nevertheless, Montgomery and Selma, the two cities of this region, have grown in population.

The southern tier of counties—including Clark, Monroe, Pike. Washington, Butler, Conecuh, Escambia, Covington, and Geneva–constitute the timber belt of the State. The logging and milling industry here flourishes along the streams, which furnish water for floating logs to market or |. for sawing them. For several years both o and milling have proved very profitable, and large quantities of lumber are shipped to the North and to South America and England. The Alabama Midland Railroad, from Aiono, to Bainbridge, Ga., 175 miles, constructed during the year, runs through the eastern portion of this belt.

Immigration.—On Dec. 12, 1888, a convention of nearly 600 delegates from all the Southern States met at Montgomery, under the name of the Southern Interstate Immigration Convention. The presence of the commissioners of immigration and of agriculture from the various Southern States, together with other delegates appointed by the several Governors, gave the convention an official standing. John D. Roquemore, of Montgomery, was chosen tempora president, and P. W. Peeples, of Mississippi, o president. The sessions continued or two days, and after an earnest discussion it was resolved to establish a Southern Interstate Immigration Bureau, “for the purpose of securing added population and capital for the Southern States and Territories, securing uniform freight and immigration rates, the opening of a general office and the establishment of such other offices and agencies, the arranging of fairs and expositions, establishing ports of entry, and the doing of all other things necessary for the development of every State and Territory embraced in the call of this convention.” It was voted to chose an executive committee to consist of a member from each State and Territory, that said executive committee shall elect a general manager, and that said executive committee and general manager shall constitute the Southern Interstate Immigration Bureau. The executive committee chosen by the convention selected B. F. Chilton, of Texas, to be the general manager. A few weeks later he issued an address explaining the proposed work of the bureau, which included not only the dissemination of literature regarding the South, but the establishment of a permanent Southern exposition at some large Southern city and the equipment of a special car containing specimens of Southern products and information regarding lands that may be purchased by intending settlers, this car to visit all the large centers in the North and West. In 1888, Commissioner R. F. Kolb adopted the plan last mentioned, and in a car equipped with Alabama products visited the various cities of the West and Northwest. He claims that as a direct result of this trip, more than 1,000 people and over $1,000,000 of capital have come into the State during the first half of this year.

Farmers' Organizations.—For many years the “granges" were the only organizations known to the farmers of the State. They had their season of prosperity, but of late have declined. In the northern counties there are a few agricultural wheels, so-called—semi-political farmers' clubs, which have attained considerable popularity in Arkansas and Tennessee. During the past three years “farmers' alliances” have succeeded the “granges” in popularity. They have absorbed other local agricultural societies, and at the beginning of this year had been oranized in 46 of the 66 counties of the State. There is a central State Alliance, and a State Exchange has been established during the year. The efforts of the organization during the year were chiefly directed against the combination known as the Jute Bagging Trust, by which the price of the covering for cotton used by farmers was increased about 100 per cent. A conference of delegates from alliances in nearly all the Southern States met at Birmingham on May 15 for the purpose of considering this subject, and recommended the farmers to use cotton bagging instead of jute. This recommendation was ap|..." by the State Agricultural Society of Alaama at its State convention at Union Springs, on July 24 and 25. The annual meeting of the State Farmers' Alliance, at Auburn, on Aug. 9, took similar action, and on Aug. 21 the Southern Interstate Farmers' Association, at its annual convention, in Montgomery, strongly urged all planters to avoid the use of jute bagging. The latter convention, of which L. L. Polk, of North Carolina, was president, adopted resolutions advising farmers to insist that no more than the actual weight of the bagging be taken out for tare by purchasers; that they avoid using commercial fertilizers; that they secure the election to office of those who are friendly to the agricultural interest; that the acreage of cotton be gradually reduced to nearly half its present amount; and that the area thus released be sown with various grains. Exports.-For the year ending Aug. 30, 1889, the total receipts of cotton at Mobile were 230680 bales, and the exports 229,184 bales. The total export of lumber, 48,284,162 feet. is one third larger than in any previous year, and the export of 3,049,440 cubic feet of timber, also largely exceeds the record of previous years. There was a considerable shipment of staves and shingles both to domestic and foreign ports. There were also shipped 66,950 crates of cabbages, valued at $133,900, and 46,508 barrels of potatoes, valued at $111,619. The total value of all exports to foreign ports was $3,192,997, while the ors of foreign goods reached only $153,862. ANGLICAN CHURCHES. Statistics of the Church of England.—The Church of England has no systematic means, officially sanctioned, for registering statistical records of church work. The projectors of the “Official YearBook " are able, therefore, only to publish such facts respecting the concerns and growth of the Church as are voluntarily furnished them, whether in answer to inquiry or without it. The information and tables contained in that work are to a considerable extent fragmentary, and largely local. The reports contained in the

“Year-Book " for 1888 show that the Church is growing in several directions faster than the population is increasing. According to these reports, £1,101,000 was spent in church extension in 1887: 217,000 persons were confirmed in 1888, against 138,000 in 1875, showing an increase of nearly 58 per cent., or almost four times the growth of the population, in thirteen years. Since 1811 the Church has spent for educational purposes £32,000,000, of which £16,750,000 have been expended in the past eighteen years, or since Mr. Forster's Education Act was assed in 1870. In 1878 the established churches in London gave £17,333 out of a total of £23,681 contributed to the “Hospital Sunday” fund, or 73 per cent. of the whole. In 1888 they gave £29,686, out of a total of £37,235, or within a fraction of 80 per cent. The “Year-Book" contains much special information concerning the growth of the Church in Wales, where the question of disestablishment is actively agitated. In three out of the four dioceses in the principality, there are flourishing diocesan Church Extension Societies, which in 1888 contributed and disbursed between three and four thousand pounds for that object; and in 1887 the amount of money raised locally throughout Wales for church inion. endowments, parsonages, etc., in the four dioceses was nearly £80,000. In the ten years ending with 1887, 89 churches were built or rebuilt, and 146 restored or enlarged; and within a very recent period accommodation has been provided in the form of mission churches and rooms for nearly 80,000 worshipers. The records of all the dioceses show a rapidly growing rate of increase from year to year in the number of persons confirmed, amounting in Bangor to 74, and in St. David's to 45 per cent., in the triennial totals, in nine years. Church Missionary Society.—The meeting of the Church Missionary Society was held in London, April 30. Sir J. H. Kennaway, M. P., resided. The income of the general fund had een £211,378, or £16,821 more than in the previous year, and £3,602 more than the highest in any former year. The expenditures had been £214,383, of which £8,651 had come out of the extension and other similar funds; so that the regular income account showed a surplus of £5,666, and a contingency fund of E.; had been accumulated. The contributions to special funds had been £40,638, making the aggregate receipts for the year £262,016. The missions returned, so far as reports had been received, 299 stations, 356 European missionaries, 286 native and Eurasian clergy, 4,556 lay teachers, 186956 native Christians, 48,194 communicants, and 1,759 mission schools, with 75,125 pupils. A prominent feature of the year's history of the society at home had been the unusually large number of persons who had been accepted as missionaries without preparation under the society's auspices, they being fully qualified by reason of their previous training. Of then the University of Cambridge had sent nine, that of Oxford two, Dublin two, London one, and Edinburgh one. Nearly half of the fifty candidates that were accepted were women, and one third of them were to go out to the mission-fields at their own charge.

Society for the Propagation of the GosF. annual meeting of the Society for the gation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, was held in London, June 6. The Archbishop of Canterbury presided. The gross income for the year had been £138,366, a larger amount by several thousand pounds than had been returned in any previous year in the existence of the society. The larger part of the increase of funds was the result of two gifts of £25,000 and £2,268, the former sum being five sixths of a property that had been left to an unnamed clergyman. The society employed 637 ordained missionaries, including 10 bishops, of whom 144 were Africans and Asiatics. It had in the various missions about 2,300 lay teachers, 2,600 students in colleges, and 38,000 children in the mission schools of Africa and Asia. Universities' Mission. — The anniversary meetings of the Universities' Mission to Central Africa were held in London, May 21. Canon Scott Holland presided. The report referred to the troubles that had arisen in the society's field of operations (the Zanzibar coast and backlying region) from foreign aggression and the erman and English blockade of the coast. Evidences of the progress of the mission could, however, be shown in the completion of the Suaheli Bible, and the consecration of the new chapel at Kinngawi College. On the mainland no station had been given up, and no work abandoned. Twelve new members had joined the mission during the year, while two had been lost by death, and two had resigned. Sunday-School Institute.—The Church of England Sunday-School Institute had received during the year ending May 1, 1889, £13,440. The report, reviewing the progress of Sundayschools, mentioned the deliverances on religious teaching in the encyclical letter of the bishops at the Lambeth Conference in passages on |. need of definite religious teaching and those in which Sunday schools were referred to. The Convocation of Canterbury had appointed a committee to inquire how Sunday schools could be improved, and the subject had been taken up at the Manchester Church Congress. The subject had received attention in the reports of the Commission on National Education. A “Service to be used at the Admission of Sunday-School Teachers” had been issued by the Institute, with the sanction of both the archbishops. Convocation of Canterbury.—The Convocation of Canterbury met for the dispatch of business, Feb. 28. In the upper house, a communication was received from the Archbishop of York asking that copies of resolutions concurred in by both houses of the Southern Province be transmitted to the Convocation of York. The house resolved that such transcripts should be furnished. A resolution of the lower house concerning parochial guilds was concurred in. A committee was appointed to consider and report upon the expediency of sanctioning the appointment of lay readers, with commissions to be recognized in all the dioceses: what should be the order and nature of their services; and the rules and precautions needed to secure their fitness for their office. A proposed scheme for the joint action of the two convocations was approved “as likely to be useful in the present, and to lead to

closer co-operation in the future.” In the House of Laymen a letter was read from the archbishop advising against the agitation of measures for the taxation of larger benefices for the benefit of poor ones, and inviting the opinions of the laity on the state of the law as to the solemnization of marriages in mother-churches, in district churches, etc., with reference to the existing acts, and the recent discussions upon those acts: upon the report of the Commission on Elementary Education; and on the duty of the Church. as a church, in respect of slavery. A draft of a bill to provide for the foundation of new bishoprics in England was approved. A committee was appointed to consider the archbishop's question about marriage. A resolution was passed in favor of the provision of additional church services, and of revision from time to time of the rubrics and directions contained in the Book of Common Prayer. The house also approved clauses in the draft bill authorizing | presidents and clergy of the convocations to lay before Her Majesty from time to time schemes for making alterations in and additions to the rubrics and directions, and declared it important that provision should be made to enable the service of the Church to be adapted to special circumstances. Respecting the report of the Educational Commission, the house resolved that it was important that all children should receive religious and moral training, that the teachers who are charged with such training should continue to take part in it; that registers should be marked before as well as after the religious instructions and observance begin ; that any reasonable precaution that might tend to remove any suspicion of unfairness in the administration of the conscience clause should be adopted; and that continuation schools should be generally established in sequence to the elementary system of education, and that these schools should be adapted to the needs of working boys and girls. “so as to attract and interest tired children, and prepare them for the actual duties of life.” Exemption of public elementary schools, for which no rent is paid from local rates, and payment of the fees of indigent children attending voluntary schools by guardians of the poor direct to the managers, were also recommended. A minute was passed by the house with reference to slavery. to the effect—

That although domestic slavery is incompatible with the full recognition of the equality of all men before God, and its continued existence must act as a direct encouragement to the slave trade, yet, inasmuch as it has the sanction of religious teaching and legalized custom in Mohammedan and pagan countries, the house recognizes that its abolition can not be compelled by external force, but confidently hopes that the advance of Christianity and civilization will in the near future bring about its entire supersession by tree institutions; that the slave trade as now carried on by the Arabs in Equatorial Africa, being horrible in its cruelty and waste of human life, and one of the great obstacles to the rising hopes and encouraging prospects of Christianity and civilization in the interior of that country, it is the duty of the Church to make its voice heard on that subject; that in pursuance of the policy consistently maintained by Great Britain for the last eighty years in the suppression of the sea-going slave trade, and the signal success which attended the vigorous execution of that policy on the west coast of Africa, Her Majesty's Government should be supported in such measures as may be possible to the same end on the east coast; that although the inland slave trade of Central Africa is at present beyond the reach of Government interference, every effort should be made to impress its horrors on the minds of Englishmen, and that the Church should encourage such peaceful enterprises, commercial or religious, as may, lead, to its diminution; that His Grace the archbishop be respectfully requested to consider the propriety of inviting the Church and other religious bodies to special prayer in connection with this subject. A motion was adopted in the upper house favoring such legislation respecting marriage fees as will tend to remove the temptation to avoid the offices of the Church in marriage. The lower house adopted a gravamen commending the recommendations of the Royal Commission on Education respecting the support of voluntary schools to a larger extent than at present, out of the public funds. The Houses of Convocation reassembled May 14, and discussed questions relating to the Marriage Act and clergy discipline. The upper house had proposed a o for a draft bill by "... the law should be so amended that instead of the man proposing to marry, being required to have dwelt fifteen days in the parish of the church in which he desired to be married by banns, he might, upon producing a certificate that the banns had been duly published in the parish where he was an ordinary and permanent resident, be married in any other church in the same diocese. While the lower house had approved the main features of this proposition, a report adverse to it was adopted in the House of Laymen. The lower house adopted a report on the increase of the Episcopate favorable to the constitution of four new dioceses. On the subject of clergy discipline this house expressed the opinion that suspension or deprivation, substituted for imprisonment as a penalty for contumacy, would not be satisfactory if inflicted by the same courts that now have the power of procuring the imprisonment of clerks. A report was adopted on betting and gambling, recommending that measures of moral suasion, instruction, and admonition be applied with a view to mitigating the evils arising #. their prevalence. The House of Laymen expressed its opinion that what is called “free education ” would, if granted, seriously interfere with parental responsibility; weaken the position of religious education and of voluntary schools; and involve an unnecessary tax upon the public funds; and declared itself therefore satisfied that the report of the royal commissioners did not support any proposal for the abolition of school ence. p The Convocation of York met for the transaction of business Feb. 26. The President said in his opening address that the two houses would for the future sit separately, but would be liable to be called to sit together for special purposes. A resolution was passed declaring, that “a satisfactory church-discipline bill should provide a court of first instance with a judge learned in the law, with a |". and at least one appeal on the facts as well as the law ; and, further, that to take away the appeal to the crown of any beneficed person for lack of justice would be a dangerous innovation.” The lower house approved

the action which had been taken by the upper house in defining the conditions of a satisfactory clergy discipline bill, with amendments designed to make the same more definite. Trial of the Bishop of Lincoln.--The case of Read and others against the Lord Bishop of Lincoln for irregularities in ritual, came for a hearing before the court of the Archbishop of Canterbury, Feb. 12. The archiepiscopal court, which was called for the trial is a tribunal which had long been out of use, and whose functions were nearly forgotten till it was revived for this case. Its origin and history are somewhat obscure, or at least lie outside the line of ordinary legal precedent. Certain cases are known to have been tried by the archbishop sitting as metropolitan in the middle ages, but only one clear instance could be found of the exercise of such a jurisdiction in Great Britain since the Reformation. This was the case of Bishop Watson, of St. Davids, who was tried for simony b Archbishop Tenison, in the reign of William III, when the archbishop's authority was upheld by the courts of appeal, and Bishop Watson was derived and excommunicated. The present Archishop of Canterbury, when urged upon the strength of this precedent to entertain and try the charges against the Bishop of Lincoln, hesitated to do so until he was assured that his jurisdiction would be recognized as valid under existing laws. The promotors of the suit therefore applied to the Privy Council, and obtained from it, on the 5th of August, 1888, a unanimous decision from the five lay judges and the five bishops constituting that tribunal, that the archbishop's jurisdiction remained valid. Pursuant to this decision, the o! decided to hear the case in person and to follow in every relevant detail the precedent in Bishop Watson's case. The court was constituted of the archbishop, with the bishops of London, Winchester, Oxford, and Salisbury as assessors. The charges against the defendant recited that he had, within two years past, offended against the ecclesisastical laws in the diocese of Lincoln and province of Canterbury, by having in the Church of St. Peter at Gonts, in the city of Lincoln, Dec. 4, 1887, while officiating as bishop and the principal celebrant in the communion service, used, or permitted to be used, lighted candles when they were not required for the purpose of giving light; in having, at the same time and service, taken part in mixing water with the wine, and afterward consecrated and administered the mixture: in having, during the prayer of consecration, stood with his back to the people; in having permitted the singing of the “Agnus Dei " after the prayer of consecration, and before the reception of the elements; in having made the sign of the cross while pronouncin the prayer of absolution; in having ...i in the ceremony of ablution; and in having performed similar acts, again recited in detail, during a service in the cathedral church of Lincoln, on the 18th of December. The defendant pleaded to the jurisdiction of the archbishop's court, holding that the authority in proceedings against a bishop lay in the Convocation. Several sittings of the court were occupied with the hearing of the argument on this question. The archbishop announced his

« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »