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sonal control of the Emperor. The judges and magistrates were appointed by him, on the recommendation of his ministers. He was empowered to suspend sentences in the courts, to dismiss magistrates, and to veto legislative acts of the Chambers. Vacancies for the Senate were filled by the election of three candidates by the people, and the appointment of one of these by the Emperor. The Council of State was appointed for life, and was recruited from members of the Emperor's family and imperial sycophants. To these reasons must be added the personal unpopularity of the Count d'Eu.

t was i. admitted that a republic would be declared upon the Emperor's death; but the declaration was precipitated by the attempt of the Imperial Government to organize a Garde Nationale which should be officered by imperial partisans and in time enable the Government to disband the army and navy. The revolt against the monarchy was in the first instance the result of the coalition between the Military Club, founded by Gen. da Fonseca and the Associated Republican Leagues, of which Quintano Bocayuva was the chief organizer. The Club and Leagues united in a bloodless revolution.

Deodora da Fonseca, Chief of the provisional Government, has been most of his life a soldier. During the war between Brazil and Paraguay he did excellent service and became very popular. After that war he organized the Military Club at Rio de Janeiro, and thus attached himself to many brother officers. Through this club, it is claimed, considerable discontent was spread


authorities thought it wise to send Da Fonseca to a distant province. But their favorite's absence did not diminish their discontent. (See FonsecA, in this volume.) Quintano Bocayuva, Minister of Foreign Affairs, is the best known member of the new Government. He is fifty-three years of age, a native of Rio de Janeiro. He has been a journalist since his youth, and has been in succession editor of the “Republica” (long since defunct), the “Globa,” and the “Paes.” He was ever an uncompromising republican, and held no office under the Im§. Government. He came to the United tates fifteen years ago as emigration commissioner. His son was educated in the United States, and when the revolution broke out was assisting his father in editorial work. Ra #. Minister of Finance, had long been known as an unswerving republican. He is a forcible writer and speaker, and was one of the foremost leaders of the minority under the empire. He is a pronounced anti-clerical, and one of his most famous speeches was delivered on the death of a Freemason who had been excommunicated by the Pope. As a Liberal, he has always been fearless, as shown by his introduction into the Chamber of Deputies of a bill to stop the allowance made to j. German prince who had married one of Dom Pedro's daughters. He has for years represented a city of the province of Bahia in the Chamber of Deputies. Though Bahia is strongly Conservative, there are some Liberal districts in it, and the most Liberal of these had him as its representative. Benjamin Constant Botelho de Magalhaes, Minister of War, is a native of Brazil, born about 1848. He has been an earnest student since his youth, taught for several years, and by his writings became well known as a republican. When the revolution broke out, he was a professor in the Polytechnic School at Rio de Janeiro. Campos Salles, Minister of Justice, is a lawyer by . and but little known. duardo Wandenkolk, Minister of Marine, is a practical seaman, holding the rank of admiral in the Brazilian o He is to the sailors what Da Fonseca is to the soldiers, a representative favorite of their profession, and the embodiment of republicanism. He is a handsome, middleaged man, and wealthy. Demetris Ribiero, Minister of Agriculture, is rhaps the least known member of the provisional Government. He comes from the interior, and is a warm personal friend of Da Fonseca. BROWNING, ROBERT, an English poet, born in the parish of St. Giles, Camberwell, London, May 7, 1812; died in Venice, Italy, Dec. 12, 1889. His father's paternal ancestors were English, of a west-country family, one of whom, Micajah Browning, it is said, raised the siege of Derry in 1689 by springing the boom across Lough Foyle and lost his life in the act. The mother of Robert's father was a Creole. His mother's father, whose name was Weidemann, was a draughtsman and musician from Hamburg, and her mother was of a Scotch family. His father, whose name he bore, was a clerk in the Bank of England and possessed a considerable fortune. He seems to have been a man of strong character and a decided taste for literature; indeed, he had so much ability in verse-making that the son long afterward declared that his father was more of a poet than he himself was. He wrote, after the fashion of his day, in the heroic couplet and in the vein of Pope, but never published his poems. He early saw and encouraged his son's genius, but had little sympathy with the style in which it found expression. The boy's bent toward poetry showed itself in a metrical translation from Horace when he was but eight .." of age. By the time he was twelve he had written enough poems to fill a volume, but none of the publishers to whom they were sent cared to take the risk of putting them into print. Among those who saw the verses were the Misses Flower, one of whom has since become well known as the author of the hymn “Nearer, my God, to Thee.” Her sister was so impressed with the merit of the boy's work that she copied the entire manuscript and gave it to the Rev. W. J. Fox, a distinguished *...i. preacher. Though he saw that the publication of the crude verses would be unwise, Mr. Fox recognized the poetic promise in them and retained the copies, which were returned to Mr. Brownins; in 1864 by Mr. Fox's daughter. The boy's education was conducted mainly by private teachers at home, though he was for a time at a school in Dulwich and was present at the opening term of London University, of which his father was an original shareholder. Some years ago he was appointed a governor for life of this university. When the time came for him to choose his profession in life, his father willingly acquiesced in his desire to prepare himself by travel and experience for the literary


career that he regarded as his vocation, without wasting time on any professional training. His first published book, “Pauline: A Fragment of a Confession,” appeared anonymously in 1833. It purports to be a confession to #. by her lover, a young poet, who accuses himself of various enormities in a vague way, but asserts his steady love for the goods of the imagination and his constant aspirations after God, and consciousness of his presence. It is probably a first attempt in that dramatic monologue which was afterward so favored a form of expression with him, a portrayal of the possible experiences of a young and very self-centered poet, rather than a transcript of his own emotions, though the two would naturally be more or less blended. Five years afterward he wrote on the fly-leaf of a copy of the original edition: “‘Pauline,’ written in pursuance of a foolish plan I forget, or have no wish to remember; involving the assumption of several distinct characters; the world was never to guess that such an opera, such a comedy, such a speech, proceeded from the same notable person. . . . ‘ Only this crab' (I find set down in my copy) remains of the shapely Tree of Life in my Fool's Paradise.” The poem is noticeable for its enthusiastic apostrophe to Shelley, whose works, with those of Keats, had fallen into his hands in 1825, and who had taken the place of his earlier master, Byron. He afterward wrote an essay, as an introduction to a volume of supposed letters of Shelley, in which he speaks of “the signal service it was the dream of boyhood to render to Shelley's fame and memory.” “Pauline” is written in smooth, but not always correct, blank verse, showing little of the character of his later style. It met with small success in the ordinary sense; most of the reviews passed it by with a little contemptuous comment or none at all, though the Rev. W. J. Fox reviewed it very favorably in his “Monthly Repository,” and Allan Cunningham devoted "...P columns to it in the “Athenaeum.” Mr. Gosse tells an incident of John Stuart Mill, who happened to get hold of a copy and was so impressed with it that he wrote to the editor of “Tait's Magazine,” asking for space to review it at length. The editor replied that “nothing would have been more welcome, but that, unfortunately, in the preceding number the poem had been dismissed with one line of contemptuous neglect. Mr. Mill's opportunities extended no further than this one magazine; but at his death Mr. Browning came into possession of this identical copy, the blank pages of which were crowded with Mill's annotations and remarks. The late John Forster took such an interest in the volume that he borrowed it—‘convey, the wise it call’—and when he died it passed with his library into the possession of the South Kensington Museum, where this curious relic of the youth of two eminent men has at last found a resting-place.” After it had gone out of print. Dante Gabriel Rossetti found a copy in the British Museum, and was so impressed with it that he copied it entire for his own use. Detecting some likeness in it to later work of Browning, he wrote to ask him if he were not the author, which was the beginning of Mr. Browning's acquaintance with the then unknown painter and poet. In 1834 Mr. Browning set out on the travels

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