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New Extra Duty.—In order to protect domestic manufacturers against the competition of imported goods, now that the exchange on London has risen so much under the improvement in Brazilian finances, the Chambers passed a bill on Nov. 24, 1888, authorizing the Government to levy an additional import of 6 per cent. on such goods as are also manufactured in Brazil, whenever the exchange ranges between 22} and 25d., 15 per cent. when it fluctuates between 26 and 27}d., and 20 per cent. whenever it commands over 27#d. the milreis. This changeable tariff constitutes an extra rate applied to the tariff of 1887, the one still in force. The 5 per cent. additional duty decreed July 1, 1886, in favor of the emancipation fund is still levied in spite of the abolition of slavery. Railroads,--The total length of railroads in operation in Brazil on Dec. 31, 1888, was 8,930 kilometres, and there were 1,574 kilometres in course of construction. The increase during the ear was respectively,444 and 177 kilometres. me of the lines are the property of the state, a greater number are subsidized with an interest guarantee either on the part of the imperial exchequer or the provincial governments. The rail. belonging to the state comprise ten lines, which, up to the date named, had involved a total outlay of 195,636,000 milreis. Sixteen lines enjoy the state's guarantee, three of them being domiciled at Rio de Janeiro, eleven of the lines possess a charter in perpetuity, while the remaining five have a ninety-year charter. The guarantee runs for thirty years with nearly all of them. The capital guaranteed amounts to £16,125,352, of which £973,121 bear 6 per cent. interest, and £15,152,231 7 per cent. The net earnings of all the state lines did not exceed 4,724,727 milreis, being less than 23 per cent. on the capital invested, only two lines having earned any money. iver Navigation.—A syndicate of American and Canadian capitalists proposes to establish steamboat and railway communication between Pará, a seaport town at the mouth of the Amazon, and the headwaters of the Tocantins and Araguaya rivers, tributaries of the Amazon. . A line of steamers will ply between Pará and a o on the Rio Tocantins, three hundred miles rom the coast. Dangerous rapids will here be overcome by a railway sixty-five miles long. From the western terminus of this projected railway steamers will run fifteen hundred miles into the interior. In connection with this project, a steamship line is to be established between Pará, New York, and Montreal. A company was incorporated in the summer of 1889 under the title Viação Central do Brazil Company, which intends establishing river navigation from Sabara, the terminus of the Pedro II Railway on the Rio das Velhas, to Jabota, the terminus of the Paulo Affonso Railway, on the São Francisco and its tributaries. In connection there with, the company is to build a railroad from a convenient point on the Rio das Velhas to Diamantina with a branch line to Serro. The capital is to be 4,000,000 milreis, of which 3,000,000 will receive a 7-per-cent.-interest guarantee from the province of Minas-Geraes, the concession to be in force for fifty years. Moreover an annual subsidy of 90,000 milreis is con
ceded on the remaining 1,000,000 milreis, by the Imperial and provincial governments jointly. ew Steamer Lines.—During the summer of 1889 the Government made a contract with two steamer lines, granting them a subsidy under provision of the budget law for 1889. One will ply between Santos and Hamburg, via Lisbon and Havre; the other, between Santos and Genoa, via Marseilles. The concession is to extend over fifteen years and involve a subsidy of $12,500, American gold per round trip which amount will be doubled whenever one of the steamers brings a load of immigrants. The lines have the option of touching at any European port, the Azores, Madeira, and the Canary Islands, for the purpose of taking on immigrants for any Brazilian port. The Government agrees to pay $25,000, American gold, annually for five years, toward defraying the passage of such immigrants. The number of immigrants landed in 1888 was 131,271. Sugar.—The Brazilian Government, in June, 1889, informed the nations represented at the London Sugar Conference that it was unable to join the league having for its object the discontinuance of bounties to sugar-producers, inasmuch as in this matter it is tied at home by the necessities of the sugar-planting interest. The Government guarantees 6 per cent. interest per annum for several years to thirty-five central sugar-houses, on a total capital of 30,000,000 milreis, distributed throughout the sugar-producing provinces. The Provincial Government and Legislature of Pernambuco have now resolved to imitate the Imperial Government and tender to eleven new sugar-houses an interest guarantee. ugar and Wine Exhibition.—The Centro da Industria e Commercio de Assucar opened on Jan. 5, 1889, its exhibit of domestic sugar and wine industries. The number of exhibitors exceeded two hundred, and that of samples twothousand. About eighty samples of wines were shown. In viticulture the province of São Paulo holds the first rank; its dark wine has become popular at home. The wines of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catharina, Minas-Geraes, and Paraná are lighter. It was found that most of these wines,especially samples from Minas-Geraes, possess a certain sour taste like common cider. It has so far been impossible to classify Brazilian wines, the method of manufacture being too primitive. The Imperial Government has procured an expert from Vienna, Austria, who is to give his advice after visiting the São Paulo vineyards. In São Paulo a nursery experiment station, and oenological school are to be established under his superintendence. Attempt on Dom Pedro's Life.—On the evening of July 16, when the Emperor was leaving the theatre, a Portuguese fired a shot from a revolver at him, but missed him. The Empire changed to a Republic.—On the morning of Nov. 15, as Dom Pedro II was leaving the imperial chapel at his summer reso dence at Petropolis, after the performance of mass, he was handed a telegram from Viscount De Ouro Preto, the Imperial Prime Minister,
requesting that he immediately come to Rio de”
Janeiro, as since dawn insurgents had placed the city under siege, and artillery commanded the streets. Dom Pedro at once returned to Rio de
Janeiro. On his arrival at the palace, it was immediately surrounded by troops, and an officer of the army read to him a manifesto proclaiming the republic. This was as follows:
Fellow-citizens: The people of the army and navy, are in perfect accord with the sentiments of our fellowcitizens residing in the provinces. The fall of the imperial dynasty has just been decreed, and the consequent destruction of the monarchical system. As an immediate result of this national revolution, essentially patriotic in its character, there has just been established a provisional Government, whose princimission is to guarantee the maintenance of public order and the protection of the liberty and rights of citizens. To carry on the government until the sovereign nation can, through its constitutional organization, select a definite government, the undersigned citizens were appointed as the chief executive power of the nation. Fellow-citizens: The provisional Government—simply the temporary agent of the national sovereignty— is the government of peace, liberty, fraternity, and order. "it will use the attributes and extraordinary
This manifesto was signed by Marechal Deodoro da Fonseca, chief of the provisional Government; Aristides Da Silveira Lobo, Minister of the Interior; Ruy Barboza, Minister of the Treasury and of Justice; Benjamin Constant Botelho De Magalhaes, Minister of War; Eduardo Wandenkolk, Minister of Marine; Quintano Bocayuva, Minister of Foreign Affairs.
After the reading of the decree, Dom Pedro held a meeting of his ministers and councilors of state. He endeavored to form a new ministry, with Señor Sarawa at its head, but to this Gen. da Fonseca objected, and sent the following note to the Emperor:
The democratic sentiments of the nation, combined with resentment at the systematic repressive measures of the Government against the army and navy, and the spoliation of their rights, have brought about the revolution." In the face of this situation, the presence of the imperial family is impossible. Yielding, therefore to the exigencies of the national voice, the provisional Government is compelled to request you to depart
powers with which it is vested for the defense of the subjects of the country and of public order. The provisional government by all the means at its command, promises to guarantee to all the inhabitants of Brazil native and foreign, security of life and |". , an to respect their rights, both individual and political except when they require to be limited for the ood of the country and for the legitimate defense of the government proclaimed by the people, by the army, and by the navy.
The ordinary functions of justice, as well as those of civil and military administration, will continue to be exercised by those bodies heretofore existing. In regard to those holding office, the rights required by each functionary will be respected. The abolition of the Senate is decreed, and also of the Council of State. The Chamber of Deputies is declared dissolved.
Fellow-Citizens: the provisional Government recognizes and acknowledges all the national engagements contracted by the former Government—the treaties with foreign powers; the public debt, both internal and foreign; the contracts now in force, and the obligations legally established.
from Brazilian territory with your family within twenty-four hours. The Government will provide at its own expense the proper, means for transport, and . will afford protection for the imperial family during their embarkation. The Government will also continue the imperial dowry fixed by law until the constituted Assembly, decides thereon. The country expects that you will know how to imitate the example set by the first Emperor of Brazil on April 7, 1881.
Dom Pedro's answer to this communication, which was so sent to Fonseca on the same day, was as follows:
Yielding to the imperiousness of circumstances, I have resolved to set out with my family to-morrow, for Europe, leaving this country, so dear to us all, and to which I have endeavored to give constant roofs of deep love during the nearly half a century in which I have discharged the office of chief of state. While thus leaving with my whole family, I shall ever retain for Brazil the most heartfelt affection and ardent good wishes for her prosperity.
On the same day the Comtesse d’Eu, eldest daughter of Dom Pedro, who acted as regent during his previous absence, issued the following manifesto: With a broken heart I part from my friends, from the whole people of Brazil, and from my country, which I have so loved and still do love, toward whose happiness I have done my best to contribute, and for which I shall ever entertain the most ardent good wishes. Her husband, the Count d'Eu, also wrote to the Minister of War, resigning command of the artillery and requesting leave to go abroad, adding that he had loyally served Brazil, and that, but for the circumstances which obliged him to quit the country, he would be ready to serve it under any form of government. At two o'clock on the following morning, Major Tompofsci, with a detachment of soldiers, went to the palace and placed the members of the imperial family under arrest while they were still in bed. He bore written orders from Gen. da Fonseca that the Emperor and his family should embark forthwith. The Government would not allow them to wait until daylight, fearful lest any demonstration in the streets might result in bloodshed. Count d'Eu and his wife, the Princess Isabel, and their children, were compelled to leave the palace at three o'clock in the morning and walk to the quay. Dom Pedro and the Empress followed them immediately in a carriage guarded by troops. The imperial party embarked on a steam launch, and were taken to a man-of-war, which immediately went to Ilha Grande, an island sixty-eight miles from Rio de Janeiro, where the party were kept as prisoners until the afternoon, when they were transferred in small boats to the steamship “Algoas,” with two lieutenants of the navy, whose duty was to see that the vessel went direct to Lisbon. She was also convoyed for a great part of the distance by the Brazilian ironclad “Riachuelo.” The embarkation of the imperial family on the “Algoas " was so hurried that in the confusion a part of their baggage was left behind, and, the sea being very rough, the hands and wrists of the Empress were hurt as she was being hauled aboard. The “Algoas " touched at Teneriffe and arrived, after a stormy voyage, in the Tagus on the morning of Dec. 7. Many inquiries were, made of Dom Pedro, touching his future and his attitude toward the Government of Brazil. In answer to all these he confined himself to the declaration that if summoned to return to Brazil, he would go. A manifesto issued on Dec. 18, by the Viscount Ouro Preto, late President of the Imperial Brazilian Ministry, concluded with these words: “Should the entire nation sanction the criminal attempt at establishing the republic it will be the duty of every Brazilian to respect the supreme verdict.” On Nov. 21 the provisional Government decreed universal suffrage to all Brazilians who could read and write, and o to respect the pensions conceded to the poor by the ex-Emperor, and the matrimonial contract of the ex-Princess. A commission was appointed, consisting of Dr. Saldanha Marinho, president, and Santos Werneck, Americo Brazilieuse, and Rangel Pestana, to prepare a draft of a federal constitution. On Dec. 21 the provisional Government issued a de
cree naming Sept. 15, 1890, as the time for holding a general election for delegates to the Constituent Assembly, and Nov. 15 following (the anniversary of the revolution) as the time, and Rio de Janeiro as the place, of holding the first session of the Assembly. A few days afterward a decree was issued canceling the annual allowance to the ex-Emperor in the the civil list and the subsidy of $2,500,000 guaranteed to him by the provisional Government, prompted, it was alleged, by hostile sentiments of reactionaries in Lisbon. Another decree, on Jan. 10, 1890, announced a separation of the Church from the state, and the extinction of the patronage and resources of all religious institutions; but guaranteed to furnish ecclesiastical revenue and support for the actual personnel of the Catholic Church, and to subsidize the seminary professorships in other institutions for one year. On Dec. 19, 1889, Mr. McMillan, of Tennessee, offered in the United States House of Representatives a resolution recognizing the Brazilian Republic ; and on the same day Senator Morgan roposed in the Senate a similar recognition. Some of the senators and representatives preferred to await the meeting of the Constituent Assembly. Before definite action on these bills was taken, the President formally recognized the provisional Government by accepting, on Jan. 29, 1890, the credentials of J. G. do Amaral Valente as Minister to the United States, and of Salvador Mendoca as minister on a special mission to the United States. The new Brazilian flag floated by the people on the declaration of the republic displayed three diagonal stripes, the two outside ones being of red, and the middle one white with a blue star in the center. But it is said by the newspapers, however, that the future flag of the Brazilian Republic will be designed like that of the United States, except that the stripes will be yellow and green alternating, and there will be fourteen stars in the jack. The revolution was accomplished with but little bloodshed. The Imperial Minister of Marine, Ladario, received three pistol wounds while resisting arrest, and there was a riot at Maranham, in which six negroes and one soldier were killed. With these exceptions, the country seems to have accepted the revolution very quietly. The banks were closed and business suspended for only twenty-four hours. The principal cause that led to the revolution was a universal dislike of the centralizing system of the empire. There are in Brazil twenty provinces or states; each was allowed to have a legislature, but the governors were appointed by the Emperor. One of the standing evils against which the provinces have ineffectually protested was the appointment either of adventurers, or of worthless political partisans. In the later years of the Emperor's reign, it has been an unfailing Source of irritation and complaint that the provinces have been governed, not for their own interests but for those of the Imperial Administration. The main object seemed to be to get as much money out of them as possible for the central treasury and to leave as little as might be for local improvements and requirements. Illustrations of the same centralized system are furnished by the text of the Imperial Constitution,
sonal control of the Emperor. The judges and magistrates were appointed by him, on the recommendation of his ministers. He was empowered to suspend sentences in the courts, to dismiss magistrates, and to veto legislative acts of the Chambers. Vacancies for the Senate were filled by the election of three candidates by the people, and the appointment of one of these by the Emperor. The Council of State was appointed for life, and was recruited from members of the Emperor's family and imperial sycophants. To these reasons must be added the personal unpopularity of the Count d'Eu.
t was i. admitted that a republic would be declared upon the Emperor's death; but the declaration was precipitated by the attempt of the Imperial Government to organize a Garde Nationale which should be officered by imperial partisans and in time enable the Government to disband the army and navy. The revolt against the monarchy was in the first instance the result of the coalition between the Military Club, founded by Gen. da Fonseca and the Associated Republican Leagues, of which Quintano Bocayuva was the chief organizer. The Club and Leagues united in a bloodless revolution.
Deodora da Fonseca, Chief of the provisional Government, has been most of his life a soldier. During the war between Brazil and Paraguay he did excellent service and became very popular. After that war he organized the Military Club at Rio de Janeiro, and thus attached himself to many brother officers. Through this club, it is claimed, considerable discontent was spread
authorities thought it wise to send Da Fonseca to a distant province. But their favorite's absence did not diminish their discontent. (See FonsecA, in this volume.) Quintano Bocayuva, Minister of Foreign Affairs, is the best known member of the new Government. He is fifty-three years of age, a native of Rio de Janeiro. He has been a journalist since his youth, and has been in succession editor of the “Republica” (long since defunct), the “Globa,” and the “Paes.” He was ever an uncompromising republican, and held no office under the Im§. Government. He came to the United tates fifteen years ago as emigration commissioner. His son was educated in the United States, and when the revolution broke out was assisting his father in editorial work. Ra #. Minister of Finance, had long been known as an unswerving republican. He is a forcible writer and speaker, and was one of the foremost leaders of the minority under the empire. He is a pronounced anti-clerical, and one of his most famous speeches was delivered on the death of a Freemason who had been excommunicated by the Pope. As a Liberal, he has always been fearless, as shown by his introduction into the Chamber of Deputies of a bill to stop the allowance made to j. German prince who had married one of Dom Pedro's daughters. He has for years represented a city of the province of Bahia in the Chamber of Deputies. Though Bahia is strongly Conservative, there are some Liberal districts in it, and the most Liberal of these had him as its representative. Benjamin Constant Botelho de Magalhaes, Minister of War, is a native of Brazil, born about 1848. He has been an earnest student since his youth, taught for several years, and by his writings became well known as a republican. When the revolution broke out, he was a professor in the Polytechnic School at Rio de Janeiro. Campos Salles, Minister of Justice, is a lawyer by . and but little known. duardo Wandenkolk, Minister of Marine, is a practical seaman, holding the rank of admiral in the Brazilian o He is to the sailors what Da Fonseca is to the soldiers, a representative favorite of their profession, and the embodiment of republicanism. He is a handsome, middleaged man, and wealthy. Demetris Ribiero, Minister of Agriculture, is rhaps the least known member of the provisional Government. He comes from the interior, and is a warm personal friend of Da Fonseca. BROWNING, ROBERT, an English poet, born in the parish of St. Giles, Camberwell, London, May 7, 1812; died in Venice, Italy, Dec. 12, 1889. His father's paternal ancestors were English, of a west-country family, one of whom, Micajah Browning, it is said, raised the siege of Derry in 1689 by springing the boom across Lough Foyle and lost his life in the act. The mother of Robert's father was a Creole. His mother's father, whose name was Weidemann, was a draughtsman and musician from Hamburg, and her mother was of a Scotch family. His father, whose name he bore, was a clerk in the Bank of England and possessed a considerable fortune. He seems to have been a man of strong character and a decided taste for literature; indeed, he had so much ability in verse-making that the son long afterward declared that his father was more of a poet than he himself was. He wrote, after the fashion of his day, in the heroic couplet and in the vein of Pope, but never published his poems. He early saw and encouraged his son's genius, but had little sympathy with the style in which it found expression. The boy's bent toward poetry showed itself in a metrical translation from Horace when he was but eight .." of age. By the time he was twelve he had written enough poems to fill a volume, but none of the publishers to whom they were sent cared to take the risk of putting them into print. Among those who saw the verses were the Misses Flower, one of whom has since become well known as the author of the hymn “Nearer, my God, to Thee.” Her sister was so impressed with the merit of the boy's work that she copied the entire manuscript and gave it to the Rev. W. J. Fox, a distinguished *...i. preacher. Though he saw that the publication of the crude verses would be unwise, Mr. Fox recognized the poetic promise in them and retained the copies, which were returned to Mr. Brownins; in 1864 by Mr. Fox's daughter. The boy's education was conducted mainly by private teachers at home, though he was for a time at a school in Dulwich and was present at the opening term of London University, of which his father was an original shareholder. Some years ago he was appointed a governor for life of this university. When the time came for him to choose his profession in life, his father willingly acquiesced in his desire to prepare himself by travel and experience for the literary
career that he regarded as his vocation, without wasting time on any professional training. His first published book, “Pauline: A Fragment of a Confession,” appeared anonymously in 1833. It purports to be a confession to #. by her lover, a young poet, who accuses himself of various enormities in a vague way, but asserts his steady love for the goods of the imagination and his constant aspirations after God, and consciousness of his presence. It is probably a first attempt in that dramatic monologue which was afterward so favored a form of expression with him, a portrayal of the possible experiences of a young and very self-centered poet, rather than a transcript of his own emotions, though the two would naturally be more or less blended. Five years afterward he wrote on the fly-leaf of a copy of the original edition: “‘Pauline,’ written in pursuance of a foolish plan I forget, or have no wish to remember; involving the assumption of several distinct characters; the world was never to guess that such an opera, such a comedy, such a speech, proceeded from the same notable person. . . . ‘ Only this crab' (I find set down in my copy) remains of the shapely Tree of Life in my Fool's Paradise.” The poem is noticeable for its enthusiastic apostrophe to Shelley, whose works, with those of Keats, had fallen into his hands in 1825, and who had taken the place of his earlier master, Byron. He afterward wrote an essay, as an introduction to a volume of supposed letters of Shelley, in which he speaks of “the signal service it was the dream of boyhood to render to Shelley's fame and memory.” “Pauline” is written in smooth, but not always correct, blank verse, showing little of the character of his later style. It met with small success in the ordinary sense; most of the reviews passed it by with a little contemptuous comment or none at all, though the Rev. W. J. Fox reviewed it very favorably in his “Monthly Repository,” and Allan Cunningham devoted "...P columns to it in the “Athenaeum.” Mr. Gosse tells an incident of John Stuart Mill, who happened to get hold of a copy and was so impressed with it that he wrote to the editor of “Tait's Magazine,” asking for space to review it at length. The editor replied that “nothing would have been more welcome, but that, unfortunately, in the preceding number the poem had been dismissed with one line of contemptuous neglect. Mr. Mill's opportunities extended no further than this one magazine; but at his death Mr. Browning came into possession of this identical copy, the blank pages of which were crowded with Mill's annotations and remarks. The late John Forster took such an interest in the volume that he borrowed it—‘convey, the wise it call’—and when he died it passed with his library into the possession of the South Kensington Museum, where this curious relic of the youth of two eminent men has at last found a resting-place.” After it had gone out of print. Dante Gabriel Rossetti found a copy in the British Museum, and was so impressed with it that he copied it entire for his own use. Detecting some likeness in it to later work of Browning, he wrote to ask him if he were not the author, which was the beginning of Mr. Browning's acquaintance with the then unknown painter and poet. In 1834 Mr. Browning set out on the travels