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such goods paid a lower rate of duty than at able for exportation. Only a few parcels of Arica. The duty collected at the Bolivian Cus- Bolivian coca arrived at Hamburg via New tom House at Mollendo did not exceed $155,731 York, and the general tendency was upward in 1886; in 1888, the revenue derived from that on both sides of the Atlantic. The coca shrub source reached $744,180.
resembles the tea plant, attaining a height of Silver Mines.-Bolivia, next to the United about six feet. The seeding is done early in States and Mexico, is the most important silver- the rainy season; a little later the plant is transproducing country, the average annual product planted to the slopes of the Cordillera, and at being $20,000,000. The celebrated Huanchaca the end of eighteen months the first leaves are mine is the most productive in the country. It gathered. The shrub continues in bearing for usually declares a dividend of £4 per share every thirty years. The chief producing districts are month, and in June, 1889, the company declared the provinces of Mapiri and Yungas in Bolivia, an extra dividend of £40 per share, in conse- and Carabaya in Peru, the trade centering at quence of the exceptionally large output since Cuzco, Peru. The native Indians consume anthe beginning of the year. Chilian capitalists nually 15,000 tons of coca leaves. are largely interested in this mine, but the larg BRAZIL, an empire in South America. (For est shareholder of the company is the President details relating to area, territorial divisions, popuof the Bolivian republic himself. The company lation, etc., see ** Annual Cyclopædia," for 1884.) has nearly finished the railroad from Antofa Government.—The Emperor was Dom Pedro gasta to its mine; its completion will do away II, born Dec. 2, 1825. His Cabinet was composed with the transport of ore and silver on mules' of the following ministers: President of the backs. The Londres mine was first worked by Council of Ministers and Minister of Finance, the Spaniards three hundred years ago. About Senator Affonso Celso, Visconde de Ouro Preto; thirty years ago it came into the possession of Minister of the Interior, Franklin Daria, Baron English capitalists, who made large sums from de Soreto; Minister of Justice, Senator Cándido it. But the officers of the English company de Oliveira; Minister of Foreign Affairs, Dr. began to steal the ore, and after a while the Diana; Army, Visconde de Maralajú; Navy, stockholders refused to continue the work. Fi- Baron de Ladoris; Agriculture, Laurenço de nally the English capitalists abandoned it alto- Albuquerque. The Brazilian Minister at Washgether, and the mine became flooded. W. H. ington is Dom J. G. do Amaral Valente. The Christy, of Boston, secured the mine of the Bo- Consul-General of Brazil at New York is Dr. Sallivian Government, freed it of water by means vador Mendonça. The American Minister at Rio of a tunnel, and began digging. The product de Janeiro is Thomas J. Jarvis; the Consul-Gencomprises 25 per cent. copper and 75 per cent. eral, H. Clay Armstrong, silver, the latter averaging from 200 to 2,000 Finances.—On May 15, 1889, the foreign debt ounces to the ton. Mr. Christy has also come of Brazil amounted to £28,190,000, and the ininto possession of eight lead mines and the only ternal debt to 598,800,000 milreis. As the Govknown coal mine in Bolivia. The Bolivian ernment has withdrawn its treasury notes, the Government, in consideration of what Mr. Christy floating debt arising therefrom had been obliterhas done, has given him the exclusive privilege ated. The Government still had to its credit of smelting in the republic for fifteen years. with its financial agents in London the sum of
Cinchona Bark. --Calisaya bark from Bo- £2,000,000, balance due the Government out livia, a species of cinchona, in 1889 was chiefly of its last loan. The paper money then in circushipped to Hamburg. The cultivated flat cali- lation was 188,861,000 milreis. The budget for saya bark is highly appreciated abroad, nota- 1889 estimated the income at 147,200,000 milreis, bly in France, where it has been introduced into and the outlay at 173,415,408, including 20,266,the army and navy hospitals. Shipments of cin- 966 milreis extraordinary expenses; that for chona bark from Ceylon to London have fallen 1890 estimates the revenue at 150,769,500 miloff considerably of late years ; thus, from Oct. 1, reis and the expenditure-including 19,748,208 1885, to June 13, 1886, they were 11,995,310 of extraordinary outlays, chiefly on railroads--at pounds; in 1886–87, 10,979,218; in 1887–88, 170,967,928 misreis. In 1888 the revenue ex8,553,756, and in 1888-'89, 8,091,404; the total ceeded the first estimate by 9,000,000 milreis, shipments from Ceylon were, 1886–87, 14.389,184 while the expenditure remained 3,200,000 milreis pounds; 1887–88, 11,704,932, and 1888–289, 10,- below the estimate. 209,481. Planters in the British East India The subscriptions to the 100,000,000 milreis colonies and Java have gradually abandoned European 4-per-cent. loan of the Brazilian Govcinchona culture and substituted that of tea, be- ernment amounted, in September, 1889, to nearly cause overproduction brought about such a fall four times what was wanted; the loan, equaling in prices that the industry became unremunera- £11,250,000, was negotiated at 90, and immeditive. As consumption had meanwhile been ately after it had been taken it commanded 14 stimulated all over the world by the low prices, per cent. premium in London. it began to outrun the supply in the autumn of Army and Navy:- The actual strength of the 1889, and in October the price of quinine ad- army is 18,164 men, including commissioned offivanced in London from 11d. an ounce to 141d., cers and enlisted men. and in New York from 22 cents to 30 cents. The navy is composed of 52 vessels doing
Coca.--Coca leaves from Bolivia and Peru active service, 9 of them being armored, 5 cruishave also been in scanty supply in Europe anders, 16 gunboats, 2 steam transports, 5 school the United States in 1889, the shipments being ships, 13 torpedo boats, and 2 steam tugs; mountquite light, and there being a total absence of ing together 254 guns, and having a collective handsome green leaves. Inundations in the horse-power of 19,329, and a tonnage of 40,252. producing districts diminished the amount avail. It is manned by 5,272 sailors.
Postal Service.-In 1888 there were 1,983 145,055 tons; in 1888, 177,818 tons; in 1889, post-offices, which handled during the year 688,- 117,185 tons. 169 Government messages, 12,942,098 private let The export of India-rubber from Pará in 1888 ters, 501,041 printed circulars, 16,149,092 news was 15,032 tons, of which 8,890 went to the papers, and 783,404 samples. The receipts were United States and 6,142 to Europe. 2,050,000 milreis, and the expenses 2,310,000. The foreign trade movement of Rio de Janerio
Telegraphs. In 1888 the 170 telegraph of- in 1888 was as follows: Imports, 133,471,925 fices forwarded 528,161 messages, over a length milreis; exports, 95,752,919. The imports were of line of 10,630 kilometres, the length of wire chiefly from the following countries, with the being 18,364. The receipts were 1,482,102, and amount set against each: United States, 7,322,the expenses 2,421,769 milreis. Early in May, 074 milreis ; England, 47,061,810; France, 16,1889, was published the call for tenders for the 969,942; Germany, 13,254,683; Uruguay, 19,670,telegraph-cable concessions between the United 636; Argentine Republic, 11.069,193 ; Belgium, States and Brazil, to be received till Oct. 30 in 5.361,136 ; Portugal, 7,593,343. The exports were London, Paris, Washington, and Rio de Janeiro. distributed as follows: To the United States,
Commerce.—The development of Brazil's for- 58,488,132 milreis ; England, 4,523,178; France, eign commerce during the years 1882–’83 to 7,182,531 ; Germany, 10,485,739; Uruguay, 887,1887–88 is shown in the ensuing table, reduced 259 ; Argentine Republic, 2,202,431 ; Belgium, to contos, or thousands of milreis:
2,457,429 ; Portugal, 337,126. The American
trade with Brazil exhibits these figures : YEARS.
Import. Export. 1882-'93
Import into the
Domestic export 190,264 197,083
United States. 1883-84
194,482 216,014 410,446 1884-'85
178,431 226,270 404,701 1885-'86 197,502 194,962 392,464
$55,259,228 $8,160,528 1886-'87 209,407 263,520 472,927
56,877,719 7,103,845 1887–88 260,999 212,592 473,591
Flour exportation from the United States The coffee shipments from the ports of Rio de to Brazil amounted during the quinquennium Janeiro and Santos were as follows, during the 1874–78 to 2,765,732 barrels. In the next five twelve months from July 1 to June 30:
years, 1879-'83, it reached 3,291,342, and in the
last five years, 1884-'88, it was 3,199,353, the total DESTINATION. 1888-'89. 1887-88. during the fifteen years being 9,266,427 barrels,
or 617,762 on an average. The largest shipEurope...
8,320,008 1,812,784 ments were in 1887, 748.937 barrels. The United States.
2,865,818 1,764,581 Complaints have reached the State DepartOther countries
147,473 117,778 ment at Washington from American Consuls in Total ...
6,882,789 3,195,188 southern Brazil of the practice, which has be
come quite prevalent, of falsifying American The sugar exportations from Pernambuco have trade-marks." Austro-Hungarian manufacturers been as follows: In 1886, 106,797 tons; in 1887, have made similar complaints.
VOL. XXIX.–6 A
New Extra Duty.--In order to protect do- ceded on the remaining 1,000,000 milreis, by the mestic manufacturers against the competition Imperial and provincial governments jointly. of imported goods, now that the exchange on New Steamer Lines. During the summer London has risen so much under the improve- of 1889 the Government made a contract with ment in Brazilian finances, the Chambers passed two steamer lines, granting them a subsidy una bill on Nov. 24, 1888, authorizing the Govern- der provision of the budget law for 1889. One ment to levy an additional import of 6 per cent. will ply between Santos and Hamburg, via Lison such goods as are also manufactured in Bra- bon and Havre; the other, between Santos and zil, whenever the exchange ranges between 224 Genoa, via Marseilles. The concession is to exand 25d., 15 per cent. when it fluctuates between tend over fifteen years and involve a subsidy of 26 and 274d., and 20 per cent, whenever it com- $12,500, American gold per round trip which mands over 274d. the milreis. This changeable amount will be doubled whenever one of the tariff constitutes an extra rate applied to the steamers brings a load of immigrants. The lines tariff of 1887, the one still in force. The 5 per have the option of touching at any European cent, additional duty decreed July 1, 1886, in fa- port, the Azores, Madeira, and the Canary Islvor of the emancipation fund is still levied in ands, for the purpose of taking on immigrants spite of the abolition of slavery.
for any Brazilian port. The Government agrees Railroads,—The total length of railroads in to pay $25,000, American gold, annually for five operation in Brazil on Dec. 31, 1888, was 8,930 years, toward defraying the passage of such imkilometres, and there were 1,574 kilometres in migrants. The number of immigrants landed course of construction. The increase during the in 1888 was 131,271. year was respectively 444 and 177 kilometres. Sugar.-The Brazilian Government, in June, Some of the lines are the property of the state, a 1889, informed the nations represented at the Longreater number are subsidized with an interest don Sugar Conference that it was unable to join guarantee either on the part of the imperial ex- the league having for itsobject the discontinuance chequer or the provincial governments. The rail- of bounties to sugar-producers, inasmuch as in roads belonging to the state comprise ten lines, this matter it is tied at home by the necessities which, up to the date named, had involved a total of the sugar-planting interest. The Government outlay of 195,636,000 milreis. Sixteen lines enjoy guarantees 6 per cent. interest per annum for the state's guarantee, three of them being domi- several years to thirty-five central sugar-houses, ciled at Rio de Janeiro, eleven of the lines pos- on a total capital of 30,000,000 milreis, distribsess a charter in perpetuity, while the remaining uted throughout the sugar-producing provinces. five have a ninety-year charter. The guarantee The Provincial Government and Legislature of runs for thirty years with nearly all of them. Pernambuco have now resolved to imitate the The capital guaranteed amounts to £16,125,352, Imperial Government and tender to eleven new of which £973,121 bear 6 per cent. interest, and sugar-houses an interest guarantee. £15,152,231 7 per cent.
Sugar and Wine Exhibition.—The Centro The net earnings of all the state lines did not da Industria e Commercio de Assucar opened on exceed 4,724,727 milreis, being less than 24 per Jan. 5, 1889, its exhibit of domestic sugar and cent. on the capital invested, only two lines hav- wine industries. The number of exhibitors exing earned any money.
ceeded two hundred, and thatof samples two thouRiver Navigation.-A syndicate of Ameri- sand. About eighty samples of wines were shown. can and Canadian capitalists proposes to establish In viticulture the province of São Paulo holds steamboat and railway communication between the first rank; its dark wine has become popular Pará, a seaport town at the mouth of the Ama- at home. The wines of Rio Grande do Sul, Sanzon, and the headwaters of the Tocantins and ta Catharina, Minas-Geraes, and Paraná are lightAraguaya rivers, tributaries of the Amazon. A er. It was found that most of these wines, especialline of steamers will ply between Park and a ly samples from Minas Geraes, possess a certain point on the Rio Tocantins, three hundred miles sour taste like common cider. It has so far been from the coast. Dangerous rapids will here be impossible to classify Brazilian wines, the methovercome by a railway sixty-five miles long. od of manufacture being too primitive. The From the western terminus of this projected rail Imperial Government has procured an expert way steamers will run fifteen hundred miles into from Vienna, Austria, who is to give his adthe interior. In connection with this project, a vice after visiting the São Paulo vineyards. In steamship line is to be established between Pará, São Paulo a nursery experiment station, and New York, and Montreal.
cnological school are to be established under his A company was incorporated in the summer of superintendence. 1889 under the title Viação Central do Brazil Attempt on Dom Pedro's Life.-On the Company, which intends establishing river navi- evening of July 16, when the Emperor was leavgation from Sabara, the terminus of the Pedro ing the theatre, a Portuguese fired a shot from a II Railway on the Rio das Velhas, to Jabota, the revolver at him, but missed him. terminus of the Paulo Affonso Railway, on the The Empire changed to a Republic.-On São Francisco and its tributaries. In connec- the morning of Nov. 15, as Dom Pedro II was tion therewith, the company is to build a rail- leaving the imperial chapel at his summer resiroad from a convenient point on the Rio das dence at Petropolis, after the performance of Velhas to Diamantina with a branch line to Serro. mass, he was handed a telegram from Viscount The capital is to be 4,000,000 milreis, of which De Ouro Preto, the Imperial Prime Minister, 3,000,000 will receive a 7-per-cent.-interest guar- requesting that he immediately come to Rio de antee from the province of Minas-Geraes, the Janeiro, as since dawn insurgents had placed the concession to be in force for fifty years. More- city under siege, and artillery commanded the over an annual subsidy of 90,000 milreis is con- streets. Dom Pedro at once returned to Rio de
Janeiro. On his arrival at the palace, it was im This manifesto was signed by Marechal Deomediately surrounded by troops, and an officer doro da Fonseca, chief of the provisional Govof the army read to him a manifesto proclaiming ernment; Aristides Da Silveira Lobo, Minister the republic. This was as follows:
of the Interior; Ruy Barboza, Minister of the
Treasury and of Justice; Benjamin Constant Fellow-citizens: The people of the army and navy, Botelho De Magalhaes, Minister of War; Eduare in perfect accord with the sentiments of our fellow- ardo Wandenkolk, Minister of Marine; Quintano citizens residing in the provinces. The fall of the Bocayuva, Minister of Foreign Affairs. imperial dynasty has just been decreed, and the consequent destruction of the monarchical system. As
After the reading of the decree, Dom Pedro an immediate result of this national revolution, essen held a meeting of his ministers and councilors tially patriotic in its character, there has just been of state. He endeavored to form a new ministry, established a provisional Government, whose princi- with Señor Sarawa at its head, but to this Gen. pal mission is to guarantee the maintenance of public da Fonseca objected, and sent the following note order and the protection of the liberty and rights of to the Emperor: citizens. To carry on the government until the sovereign nation can, through its constitutional organiza The democratic sentiments of the nation, combined tion, select a definite government, the undersigned with resentment at the systematic repressive measures citizens were appointed as the chief executive power of the Government against the army and navy, and the of the nation.
spoliation of their rights, have brought about the revFellow-citizens : The provisional Government-sim- olution. In the face of this situation, the presence of ply the temporary agent of the national sovereignty- the imperial family is impossible. Yielding, therefore, is the government of peace, liberty, fraternity, and to the exigencies of the national voice, the provisional order. It will use the attributes and extraordinaryGovernment is compelled to request you to depart
powers with which it is vested for the defense of the from Brazilian territory with your family within subjects of the country and of public order. The pro- twenty-four hours. The Government will provide at visional government by all the means at its command, its own expense the proper means for transport, and promises to guarantee to all the inhabitants of Brazil, will afford protection for the imperial family during native and foreign, security of life and property, and their
embarkation. The Government will also conto respect their rights, both individual and political, tinue the imperial dowry fixed by law until the conexcept when they require to be limited for the good stituted Assembly decides thereon. The country exof the country and for the legitimate defense of the pects that you will know how to imitate the example government proclaimed by the people, by the army, set by the first Emperor of Brazil on April 7, 1831. and by the navy.
The ordinary functions of justice, as well as those Dom Pedro's answer to this communication, of civil and military administration, will continue to which was promptly sent to Fonseca on the be exercised by those bodies heretofore existing. In regard to those holding office, the rights required by
same day, was as follows: each functionary will be respected. The abolition of Yielding, to the imperiousness of circumstances, the Senate is decreed, and also of the Council of State. I have resolved to set out with my family to-morrow, The Chamber of Deputies is declared dissolved. for Europe, leaving this country, so dear to us all,
Fellow-Citizens: the provisional Government recog- and to which I have endeavored to give constant nizes and acknowledges all the national engagements proofs of deep love during the nearly half a century contracted by the former Government-the treaties in which I have discharged the office of chief of state. with foreign powers; the public debt, both internal While thus leaving with my whole family, I shall and foreign; the contracts now in force, and the obli- ever retain for Brazil the most heartfelt affection and gations legally established.
ardent good wishes for her prosperity.
On the same day the Comtesse d’Eu, eldest daughter of Dom Pedro, who acted as regent during his previous absence, issued the following manifesto: With a broken heart I part from my friends, from the whole people of Brazil, and from my country, which I have so loved and still do love, toward whose happiness I have done my best to contribute, and for which I shall ever entertain the most ardent good wishes. Her husband, the Count d'Eu, also wrote to the Minister of War, resigning command of the artillery and requesting leave to go abroad, adding that he had loyally served Brazil, and that, but for the circumstances which obliged him to quit the country, he would be ready to serve it under any form of government. At two o'clock on the following morning, Major Tompofsci, with a detachment of soldiers, went to the palace and placed the members of the imperial family under arrest while they were still in bed. He bore written orders from Gen. da Fonseca that the Emperor and his family should embark forthwith. The Government would not allow them to wait until daylight, fearful lest any demonstration in the streets might result in bloodshed. Count d'Eu and his wife, the Princess Isabel, and their children, were compelled to leave the palace at three o'clock in the morning and walk to the quay. Dom Pedro and the Empress followed them immediately in a carriage guarded by troops. The imperial party embarked on a steam launch, and were taken to a man-of-war, which immediately went to Ilha Grande, an island sixty-eight miles from Rio de Janeiro, where the party were kept as prisoners until the afternoon, when they were transferred in small boats to the steamship “Algoas,” with two lieutenants of the navy, whose duty was to see that the vessel went direct to Lisbon. She was also convoyed for a great part of the distance by the Brazilian ironclad “Riachuelo.” The embarkation of the imperial family on the “Algoas " was so hurried that in the confusion a part of their baggage was left behind, and, the sea being very rough, the hands and wrists of the Empress were hurt as she was being hauled aboard. The “Algoas " touched at Teneriffe and arrived, after a stormy voyage, in the Tagus on the morning of Dec. 7. Many inquiries were, made of Dom Pedro, touching his future and his attitude toward the Government of Brazil. In answer to all these he confined himself to the declaration that if summoned to return to Brazil, he would go. A manifesto issued on Dec. 18, by the Viscount Ouro Preto, late President of the Imperial Brazilian Ministry, concluded with these words: “Should the entire nation sanction the criminal attempt at establishing the republic it will be the duty of every Brazilian to respect the supreme verdict.” On Nov. 21 the provisional Government decreed universal suffrage to all Brazilians who could read and write, and o to respect the pensions conceded to the poor by the ex-Emperor, and the matrimonial contract of the ex-Princess. A commission was appointed, consisting of Dr. Saldanha Marinho, president, and Santos Werneck, Americo Brazilieuse, and Rangel Pestana, to prepare a draft of a federal constitution. On Dec. 21 the provisional Government issued a de
cree naming Sept. 15, 1890, as the time for holding a general election for delegates to the Constituent Assembly, and Nov. 15 following (the anniversary of the revolution) as the time, and Rio de Janeiro as the place, of holding the first session of the Assembly. A few days afterward a decree was issued canceling the annual allowance to the ex-Emperor in the the civil list and the subsidy of $2,500,000 guaranteed to him by the provisional Government, prompted, it was alleged, by hostile sentiments of reactionaries in Lisbon. Another decree, on Jan. 10, 1890, announced a separation of the Church from the state, and the extinction of the patronage and resources of all religious institutions; but guaranteed to furnish ecclesiastical revenue and support for the actual personnel of the Catholic Church, and to subsidize the seminary professorships in other institutions for one year. On Dec. 19, 1889, Mr. McMillan, of Tennessee, offered in the United States House of Representatives a resolution recognizing the Brazilian Republic ; and on the same day Senator Morgan roposed in the Senate a similar recognition. Some of the senators and representatives preferred to await the meeting of the Constituent Assembly. Before definite action on these bills was taken, the President formally recognized the provisional Government by accepting, on Jan. 29, 1890, the credentials of J. G. do Amaral Valente as Minister to the United States, and of Salvador Mendoca as minister on a special mission to the United States. The new Brazilian flag floated by the people on the declaration of the republic displayed three diagonal stripes, the two outside ones being of red, and the middle one white with a blue star in the center. But it is said by the newspapers, however, that the future flag of the Brazilian Republic will be designed like that of the United States, except that the stripes will be yellow and green alternating, and there will be fourteen stars in the jack. The revolution was accomplished with but little bloodshed. The Imperial Minister of Marine, Ladario, received three pistol wounds while resisting arrest, and there was a riot at Maranham, in which six negroes and one soldier were killed. With these exceptions, the country seems to have accepted the revolution very quietly. The banks were closed and business suspended for only twenty-four hours. The principal cause that led to the revolution was a universal dislike of the centralizing system of the empire. There are in Brazil twenty provinces or states; each was allowed to have a legislature, but the governors were appointed by the Emperor. One of the standing evils against which the provinces have ineffectually protested was the appointment either of adventurers, or of worthless political partisans. In the later years of the Emperor's reign, it has been an unfailing Source of irritation and complaint that the provinces have been governed, not for their own interests but for those of the Imperial Administration. The main object seemed to be to get as much money out of them as possible for the central treasury and to leave as little as might be for local improvements and requirements. Illustrations of the same centralized system are furnished by the text of the Imperial Constitution,