« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »
of the Federation on Jan. 1, 1889, was 40,492,868 ten other Russian Nihilists, most of them stufrancs, and the assets were 82,577,811 francs. A dents in the Zürich University and Polytechninew loan of 25,000,000 francs was contracted in cum, were expelled from Switzerland by order of July, 1889, for the purpose of equipping the army the Federal Council. with repeating rifles and other new arms.
Conflict with Germany.-Police-Inspector The Army.–The regular army, composed of August Wohlgemuth, of Mülhausen, in Februmen between the ages of twenty and thirty-two, ary, 1889, entered into correspondence with a consisted in 1888 of 95,651 infantry, 2,921 caval- German tailor named Lutz, living in Basle, and ry, 17,793 artillery, 5,037 engineers, 1,880 sani- proposed to him to worm himself into the confitary troops, 1,149 administrative troops, and 382 dence of the leading Social Democrats, in order commissioned and non-commissioned officers in to keep the German police informed of their doretirement. The Landwehr, comprising all men ings. "Lutz was persuaded by two citizens of fit for military service between the ages of thirty- Basle to play the part of a German police spy two and forty-five, consisted of 65,326 infantry, for the purpose of discovering the machinations 2,785 cavalry, 9,783 artillery, 1,644 engineers, 741 of the Berlin authorities, who have been known sanitary troops, and 213 administrative troops, for a long time to employ spies and decoys and to or 80,715 men in all, which, added to the 125,- instigate revolutionary plots in Switzerland. He 570 men of the active army, make the effective was promised and was paid two hundred francs & strength of the army 206,285, exclusive of the month, with the expectation of liberal gratuities Landsturm, which embraces all citizens between besides if he would conspire and agitate to good seventeen and fifty years of age who are not en- effect among the working people of Basle, Elrolled in the Auszug or Landwehr.
sass-Lothringen, and Baden. Wohlgemuth inCommerce.—The special commerce of 1888 structed him to call a revolutionary assembly of divided according to the countries of origin and workingmen at Riehen. After acting his part destination, was of the following values, in francs: for two months and receiving a half-dozen let
ters from Wohlgemuth, he invited the German Importa. Exports. police officer to meet him at Rheinfelden, in
forining the police of Aargau of the whole matGermany
259.771,000 164,487,000 France
ter. They were both arrested when they met at Italy
115,841,000 51,436,000 the railroad station on Easter Sunday. WohlgeGreat Britain
43,861,000 104,785,000 muth was kept in jail for nine days, and was Austria-Hungary
33,165,000 then sent under guard over the frontier. Lutz Belgium..
25,044,000 10.992,000 was likewise expelled. The decree of expulsion Netherlands
8,082,000 4,299,000 against Wohlgemuth, issued by the Federal Rest of Europe
21,876,000 Council on April 30, was based on a law for the United States
21,949,000 87,086,000 Rest of America
4,467,000 11,861,000 banishment of foreigners who endanger the seAsia..
6952,000 24,246.000 curity of the Federation. The German GovernAfrica
18,065,000 Australia and Polynesia
8,457,000 ment complained of the international discourtesy 1,470,000
2,527,000 of the Swiss authorities, accusing them of enTotal
827,079,000 673,060,000 ticing an imperial official into Swiss territory in
order to subject him to arrest like a common Railroads. — The railroads in 1887 had a criminal. His incarceration and punishment by length of 2,812 kilometres. The cost of con- a public decree of expulsion was complained of struction was 1,048,791,246 francs. The number as illegal because he was arrested before he could of passengers was 25,762,822 during the year, the have committed any offense on Swiss soil. The quantity of merchandise transported was 8,333,- Wohlgemuth incident, which indicated the de503 tons of 1,000 kilogrammes. The receipts termination of the Federal Government no longer were 78,859,089 francs. The working expenses to suffer the proceedings of German police spies were 44,224,599 francs.
and agents provocateurs, who have in recent The Post-Office and Telegraphs. The num- years caused much trouble in Switzerland, was ber of internal letters and post cards conveyed seized upon by the German Chancellor as an ocin 1888 was 65,001,864 ; circulars and samples, casion for a vigorous diplomatic attack on the 17,752,199 ; packages, 8,852,055; postal orders, Swiss right of asylum, from which Germany, 2,644,089, of the total amount of 294,137,045 supported by Russia and Austria, has endeavored francs. In the international service there were for some years to exclude Socialists and Anarchforwarded 30,055,083 letters and cards, 13,829,- ists. In a dispatch to Herr Von Bülow, German 221 circulars and samples, 69,519,813 journals, minister at Bern, Prince Bismarck said the exand 2,698,111 parcels.
cessive hospitality given by Switzerland to AnThe telegraphs in 1888 had a length of 7,115 archists and revolutionary Socialists compelled kilometres; length of wires, 17,341 kilometres. the German Government to maintain a special The receipts were 3,729,246 francs and the ex- police in Switzerland to watch them, and since penses 3,148,353 francs.
the Swiss police arrangements did not offer sufExpulsion of Nihilists.—While experiment- ficient guarantees for an efficacious surveillance ing with explosives in the neighborhood of Zů- over proceedings threatening the internal peace rich, on March 6, 1889, two Russian students of Germany, it demanded that no hindrances were injured by the accidental discharge of should be put in the way of the German secret bombs, one of them, Jacob Brynstein, fatally. agents. The Swiss Minister of Foreign Affairs, George Prokosieff and Marie Günzburg, active M. Droz, replied that Switzerland could not share members of the Russian Terroristic party, who the exercise of police control on her own soil with were associated with the dynamiters, as well as another state, considering it an attribute of sovAlexander Dembsky, the one who recovered, and ereignty, and that the right of asylum must be
maintained within the limits imposed by the considerations of the security of Switzerland and that of other countries. He pointed out that Germans toward whom Switzerland was accused of being too hospitable had settled in Switzerland by virtue of the treaty of domicile of April 27, 1876, and could not be sent away as a preventive measure, but only after they had committed acts of a nature to compromise public safety. The agents of the German police, he said, far from aiding the Swiss Government in its efforts to combat dangerous elements, had often been the cause of disorders. The German Government replied that if the Swiss Government had enforced Article II of the treaty of settlement of 1876, which requires that Germans establishing themselves in Switzerland must furnish not only a certificate of birth, but an attestation of good character, these difficulties would never have arisen, and asserted that the Swiss Government was bound under the treaty to demand such papers. This interpretation was repelled as contrary to the spirit of the treaty. Switzerland had a right to require a certificate of good conduct, but was under no obligation to refuse admission to persons to whom the authorities of another country refused such a document, since that would subordinate the right of asylum to the dictation of foreign governments. The German Government then signified that it reserved the right to take at the frontier the measures that seemed to it necessary to protect itself against dangers that the insufficiency of the Swiss political police, the indifference or powerlessness of the Federal Government, the connivance of inferior authorities with Anarchists, the refusal to allow it to send secret agents into Swiss territory, and as a consequence of that the audacity of the subversive elements might bring to the internal peace of the empire. At this point of the discussion, when the German Chancellor hinted that, since many essential parts of the treaties on which the neutrality of Switzerland is based have fallen away, the provisions that are favorable to Switzerland can only be maintained on the condition that Switzerland fulfills the obligations that grow out of them, Russia, and subsequently Austria, came to the support of the German position,
pointing out the dangers that menaced them through the too great tolerance that anarchistic and revolutionary elements enjoyed in Swiss territory, and asserting that the neutrality enjoyed } Switzerland under the joint guarantee of the
uropean powers implied the duty to furnish necessary safeguards against activities threatening the peace between the countries; otherwise, they would have to consider whether that neutrality, is in their interest. The Swiss reply pointed out that the surveillance and repression of anarchistic and revolutionary acts was a common international obligation, and not a special duty resting on Switzerland and resulting from her neutrality, and declared that the measures to be taken concerned the internal order of the country and were not a subject for diplomatic discussion. As a sovereign state Switzerland could not allow a foreign government to prescribe police regulations.
The German custom-house authorities began to impose annoying restrictions on the passage of persons and goods across the frontier. The Federal Government decided to strengthen the political police so as to enable them better to watch foreigners and to create a Federal public prosecutor whose duty should be to direct their investigations and the actions growing out of them. On July 20 the German minister notified the termination of the treaty at the end of the stipulated period of twelve months. In a later note, Prince Bismarck dwelt on the necessity for a vigorous police supervision over foreigners, for those who now take advantage of the right of asylum to conspire against their mother-country are undeserving of its benefits. The termination of the treaty of settlement will absolve Germany of the obligation to receive back Germans who are expelled from Switzerland. Failing to intimidate Switzerland into accepting its views, the German Government expressed itself contented with the new police arrangements. A circular attacking the Federal Council for instituting political police gave the police their first occupation, and resulted in the expulsion of several German Anarchists. A number of Frenchmen long resident in Switzerland were likewise expelled on account of their political activity.
TENNESSEE, a Southern State, admitted to the Union in 1796; area, 42,050 square miles; population, according to the last decennial census (1880), 1,542,359; capital, Nashville.
Government.—The following were the State officers during the year: Governor, Robert L. Taylor, Democrat; Secretary of State, John Allison, succeeded by Charles A. Miller: Treasurer and Insurance Commissioner, Atha Thomas, succeeded by M. F. House; Comptroller, P. P. Pickard, succeeded by J. W. Allen: Attorney-General, B. J. Lea, succeeded by G. W. Pickle: Superintendent of Public Instruction, Frank M. Smith; Commissioner of Agriculture, Statistics, and Mines, B. M. Hord: Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Peter Turney; Associate Justices:
W. C. Folkes, W. C. Caldwell, B. L. Snodgrass, and W. H. Lurton. Finances.—The receipts for the fiscal year ending Dec. 20 were $1,615,204.62, and the disbursements $1,845,137.31. Of the disbursements $476,000 was paid on account of loans, makin the actual expenses of the State $1.369,137.3i. In June the funding board negotiated a loan of $250,000 to meet the July payment of interest on the State debt. For the past six years the State has expended over o for retiring its floating debt, for new public institutions, and for other P. oses, and has thereby incurred an additional debt of $600,000. The tax rate for State purposes was 30 cents, and for education 15 cents, on each $100.
islative Session.—The forty-sixth General Assembly began its regular biennial session on Jan. 7, adjourning on April 8 to May 7, when it again met and at once dissolved. On Jan. 15 United States Senator Isham G. Harris was reelected for the term of six years by the following vote: Senate—Harris 23, Leonidas C. Houk (Republican nominee) 10; House—Harris 73, Houk 26. In the Democratic caucus, Senator Harris was nominated on the fourth ballot, his strongest opponent being John D. C. Atkins. The following new incumbents of administrative State offices were elected: Secretary of State, Charles A. Miller; Treasurer, M. F. House ; §"W"; J. W. Allen ; Attorney-General, G. W. Pickle. Two noteworthy results of the session were a registration act and a ballot-reform law. The former requires that in all towns, cities, and civil districts having 500 polls, every voter must secure registration at least twenty days before an election. The Governor is directed to appoint three commissioners of registration for each county, each member holding office for two years. This board shall appoint two registrars for each civil district or ward, who shall examine and register such applicants as are by law qualified to vote. The ballot-reform act is applicable to all counties having a population of over 70,000 people and to cities of over 9,000 according to the census of 1880. All ballots for national, State, county, and district offices are to be printed at the expense of the counties, and for municipal elections at the expense of the cities. The chairman of the county board of commissioners of registration, who is given charge of printing and distributing the ballots, is required to print thereon the names of all regular caucus candidates nominated at least ten days before the election, and of all independent candidates, recommended by at least fifteen voters, who present their application ten days before the election. Any one who was not nominated, or did not intend to be a candidate, till within ten days of the election may print a ticket and exhibit it at the polls, in order that voters may copy the names therefrom into the blank spaces left after the names of the candidate in the official ballots; but such ticket can not be voted. The names of candidates for the same office are to be printed together, and upon the back is to be stamped the words “official ballot for,” together with the name of the precinct and the fac-simile of the signature of the officer charged with the printing. The elections in each voting precinct are to be conducted by the registrars, created by the registration act, who are for this purpose called registrars of elections. At every polling place three voting compartments for each 100 voters shall be constructed ; the space containing these and the ballot-box shall be railed off, and no voter shall be allowed within 50 feet of the railing, except when admitted to prepare and cast his ballot. The voter shall then enter one of the compartments, first receiving a ballot from the registrar, who stands 10 feet within the railing, shall place a cross opposite the name of the person voted for, shall fold his ballot before leaving the compartment, so that no one can see his choice, and shall at once deposit it in the ballot-box. A penalty not less
than $10, and not over $100, is imposed on any one who shows his ballot or interferes in any way with another while he is preparing or casting his ballot. A subsequent act provides that at all November elections there shall be two ballot-boxes for each voting precinct, one for State and one for national officers, to be kept in separate rooms or houses not more than 200 feet apart. Another important act of the session codifies and revises the laws relative to taxation. The features of the former law providing for assessment of a poll tax of one dollar, of a tax on real and personal estate, and of licenses on various occupations were retained, but more stringent duties were imposed on county assessors, in order to secure a full valuation of realty and a more complete assessment of personalty. The county assessors, holding office for four years, are made ineligible for re-election. The convict lease system is continued by an act authorizing the Governor to lease the Penitentiary and prisoners for six years from January, 1890, at not less than $100,000 per annum, free of expense to the State, for the support of prisoners. The convicts may be worked anywhere in the State, subject to the supervision of the warden and of the State Board of Inspectors. Convicts under eighteen years, and those confined for the less degrading offenses, are to be kept separate from the others. An act was passed for the suppression of “trusts.” The Sunday laws were amended so as to prohibit the sale of liquor on Sundays, except by druggists upon prescriptions. The homestead of Andrew Jackson and 25 acres of land around it were conveyed to trustees for the benefit of the Ladies' Hermitage Association, to be held by them so long as the association shall keep them improved and preserved in a state of beauty. The remainder of the Hermitage farm of about 500 acres was conveyed to trustees for twenty-five years, to provide self-supporting homes for disabled Union and Confederate soldiers. The sum of $10,000 was appropriated to keep the farm in order for this purpose. A State tax of 45 cents on each $100 was imposed for 1889 and each year thereafter, one third of which is to be used for school purposes. A tax of $200 on wholesale liquor dealers and of $150 to $200 on retail dealers is imposed in addition to the regular ad valorem tax on their stock. The Western Hospital for the Insane received an appropriation of $65,000 for its comletion. Other acts of the session were as folOW :
Punishing by imprisonment from one to five years any person that shoots into or at any railroad train. Åli. to the list of legal holidays the 22d of February, Good Friday, Decoration Day, Memorial Day, and all days designated for holding county, State, or national elections throughout the State, and providing that business paper falling due on such days shall be deemed to be due on the last business day preceding. Punishing with a fine any liquor dealer who, after being forbidden by the wife, furnishes to her husi. who is an habitual drunkard, any intoxicating ld uor. odding the consolidation of street-railway companies or of gas or electric-light companies, or of comanies formed to supply water to a city or town, except § permission of .# under the limitations imposed by the municipal government of the city or town where such companies do business. The penalty for violation of this act is forfeiture of charter. Compiling and revising the law relating to public ads
Prohibiting the deduction of two pounds, known as scalage, from the weight of a bale of cotton. Making women eligible to the office of county superintendent of education. To provide for the organization of corporations for raising and dealing in poultry and eggs; also of corporations for building and conducting hospitals or sanitariums. Authorizing railroad corporations to amend their charters so as to enable them to build branch roads. Authorizing the formation of live-stock insurance companies. Allowing insurance companies to insure against disabilities by disease or sickness. Permitting a jury trial in all civil cases when either party desires it. Giving the county courts power to permit and regulate the construction and operation of railroads on the public roads. Declaring that Tennessee river extends from its junction with Ohio river at Paducah, Ky., to the junction of the north fork of Holston river with the Holston, at Kingsport, Tenn. Confirming the consolidation of the Mississippi and Tennessee Railroad Company with the Chicago, St. Louis and New Orleans Railroad Company. To prevent interference of any employer with his employés in the selection of their family physician. roviding for a commission to fix, '. agreement with the authorities of the State of Georgia, the boundary line between Dade County, Ga., and Marion and Hamilton Counties, Tenn. onling and simplifying the tobacco-inspection W
8. Rearranging the boundaries of the Third, Fourth, and Fifth Congressional Districts, to equalize the population therein. Creating a State Board of Medical Examiners, and ão's all practitioners of medicine to obtain a certificate therefrom.
Penitentiary.—In June, of this year, there were 1,445 prisoners in the Penitentiary—a larger number than ever before appeared on the State prison rolls at one time. Of this number, 583 were at the main prison, in Nashville, 99 at the farm, 123 at Coal creek, 350 at Tracy City, and 290 at Inman. There were 375 white prisoners and 1,070 colored, including 49 women, 5 of whom were white and 44 colored. In September the proposed lease of convicts for a term of six years from Jan. 1, 1890, was ut up at auction, and was bidden in by the Tennessee Coal, Iron, and Railroad Company for $100,000 per annum, the State being relieved from expense of maintenance. This company was the only bidder, and the sum named was the lowest for which the lease could be made under the act. Militia.-The National Guard of the State consists of 2,507 officers and men. Agriculture. — The State Commissioner of Agriculture estimates the acreage of wheat for the year to be 1,280,815 acres, producing a crop of 9,076,356 bushels. The corn crop is estimated at 79,451,730 bushels—nearly 5,000,000 bushels less than in 1888. The cotton crop is mostly grown in the southwestern counties. The total [..."; for the State is estimated at 159,371 ales of 465 pounds net lint each.
Cumberland River Improvement.—A mass meeting of citizens of Tennessee was held in Nashville on Oct. 21 to take such action as might best promote the improvement of Cumj river by locks and dams. With the object of uniting the efforts of the people of Tennessee and Kentucky, an interstate convention was deemed advisable, and a convention of delegates was called to convene in Nashville on Nov. 20, to which delegates from Kentucky were invited. At this joint convention about 200 delegates were present, representing twelve counties in Tennessee and eight in Kentucky. It organized the Cumberland River Improvement Association, whose executive officers are directed to present to Congress the demands of the convention and to use all proper means to secure legislation for the improvement of navigation in the river. The development of the coal and iron deposits of the Cumberland valley is considered to be dependent upon this improvement. TEXAS, a Southern State, admitted to the Union in 1845; area, 265,780 square miles; population, according to the last decennial census (1880), 1,591,745; capital, Austin. Government.—The following were the State officers during the year: Governor, Lawrence S. Ross, Democrat ; Lieutenant-Governor, T. B. Wheeler ; ś, of State, J. M. Moore : Treasurer, Frank R. Lubbock; Comptroller, John D. McCall: Attorney-General, James S. oft Superintendent of Public Instruction, Oscar H. Cooper: Commissioner of the General LandOffice, R. M. Hall; Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, John W. Stayton ; Associate Justices, Reuben R. Gaines and John L. Henry; Commissioners of Appeals, Presiding Judge, Walter Acker, Judges, W. E. Collard, Edwin M. Hobby. Finances.—The following is a statement of the receipts and disbursements of the State treasury for the year ending Aug. 31: Balance on hand, $1,259,126.71 ; receipts, $1,519,774.90; total, $2,778,901.61; disbursements, $2,272,347.27; transfers o accounts, $78,143.76: total, $2,350,491.03; balance on hand, $428,410.58. From this balance there was a further transfer of $31,506.90 to available school fund after Sept. 1, leaving as the actual balance to the credit of “general revenue,” $396,903.68. The occupation taxes yielded an increase of $42,012.39 over that of the previous year. The reduction of the tax rate on property for 1888 from 25 to 10 cents, thereby greatly diminishing the revenue, has produced the large decrease in the surplus. The valuation of taxable o: erty in the State increased from $681,084,904 in 1888 to $729,175,564 in 1889. The State tax rate for 1889 was 20 cents on each $100. Legislative Session.—The biennial session of the Legislature began on Jan. 8 and adjourned on April 6. On Jan. 22 United States Senator Richard Coke was re-elected by the unanimous vote of both Houses. The Commission of appeals, established for the relief of the Supreme Court, which would expire on March 31, was made permanent, its members to be appointed by the Governor every two years. Provision was made for retiring such of the State bonds of Aug. 5, 1870, known as the 7-per-cent. frontier defense bonds, as are held by private individuals as soon as they become redeemable
in 1890, the money therefor to be raised by the 207,926.96 ; operating expenses and repairs, $24,issue of new 5-per-cent. bonds payable in thirty 834,533.24; net earnings, $3,373,393.72. years. These new bonds shall be sold to the per Pensions.-For several years the State has manent school fund. The Governor is author- paid annually a pension of $150 to indigent vetized to issue such other bonds as he may see erans of the war for Texan independence and fit, and to sell them to the permanent school to the indigent widows of veterans. About 400 fund, whenever there is a balance of $5,000 in names were on the pension list, making the ancash in such fund. The irrigation and mining nual outlay about $60,000. The Legislature this laws were revised. Railroads were authorized to year amended the act so as to permit oral eviprovide separate accommodations for passengers dence to establish pension claims, and this
change of different colors. A branch insane asylum was resulted in the admission of about 100 addiestablished in southwest Texas, west of Colorado tional claimants, and in an additional outlay of river, and $150,000 was appropriated for land about $15,000. and buildings. Later in the year this asylum The Colored Race.—The following is an exwas located at San Antonio, on a large tract tract from an address issued by a State convengiven to the State for that purpose. Two tion of colored men, held at Waco on Aug. 20: amendments to the Constitution were proposed,
In some counties we are denied the free exercise of one authorizing the establishment of a railroad the elective franchise. commission, the other extending the limit of In many counties colored men are denied the right county and local taxation. A bill establishing a of serving on juries, though possessing the legal qualrailroad commission was vetoed. Other acts of ifications for jurors. the session were as follow:
We are also unjustly discriminated against by some Admitting companies or associations from other of the railroad companies and other public carriers of
the State. States to carry on lite or casualty insurance business on the assessment plan.
We condemn mob violence in all its forms, and we To provide for the speedy and efficient enforcement forbearance ceases to be a virtue, and while we do not
remind our white fellow-citizens there is a point where of liens of mechanics, contractors, sub-contractors, advise retaliation, we feel that the continuation of builders, laborers, and material men. Regulating the practice of pharmacy.
lynch law will eventually lead to this. Defining " trusts,” and providing for the punish
The negroes of Texas have made commendeble ment of corporations or persons connected with them. progress since emancipation. We now own about Rechartering the cities of Dallas and of El Paso, million dollars' worth of property. We have two
million acres of land, and we pay taxes on twenty and repealing the charter of East Dallas. Incorporating the cities of Fort Worth, Paris, and two thousand benevolent associations, ten high
thousand churches, two thousand Sunday-schools, Waco. Authorizing Jewish rabbis to perform the marriage thousand teachers, one hundred and twenty-five thou
schools, twenty-five hundred common schools, three ceremony.
sand pupils attending schools, twenty-five lawyers, Revising the militia law. Increasing the taxes on occupations, sports, and
one hundred merchants, five thousand mechanics, tif
teen newspapers, and hundreds of farmers and stockamusements.
Designating the Agricultural and Mechanical College as the beneficiary under the act of Congress Labor Convention.-On July 3 a State conestablishing agricultural experiment stations.
vention was held at Dallas "for the purpose of Designating Feb. 22 as "Arbor Day." Requiring all butchers and slaughterers to file a bond perfecting a State organization to further the conditioned to keep a true record of all cattle pur- eight-hour movement, and to do whatever else chased or slaughtered, with the marks, brands, age, the convention may in its wisdom deem to be weight, date of purchase, and the person from whom for the best interest of the wage-workers of purchased, and also conditioned that he will have the Texas." An organization, called the “ Texas Fedhide and ears of such animal inspected, within five eration of Labor," was formed, and provision county magistrate, and that he will not purchase any was made for holding annual conventions. The slaughtered cattle, unless the hide and ears accom- following resolutions embody the demands of pany the animal, with the ears, marks, or brands the convention : thereon unchanged. Creating Coke County und Irion County out of mand the passage of a law so declaring.
We favor eight hours as a working day, and deTom Green County.
We favor a single tax, or a tax upon land values, Regulating the practice of dentistry. Providing for the creation of a board of arbitration and the repeal of all other taxes
whatsoever. to settle the controversy between the United States all other class laws.
We favor the repeal of the national bank law, and and Texas, regarding Green County.
The only equitable solution of the transportation Education.-The number of children of school question is in the Government ownership of the railage in 1888–'89 was as follows: In the counties- ways, telegraphs, and telephones. white children 334,926, colored children 115,- and all State senates, because of the corruption prac.
We favor the abolition of the United States Senate 192; in cities and towns (independent districts)white children 70,751, colored children 24,747; is used by designing men to crush, ostracize, and perse
ticed; the abolition of the grand jury system, because it total—white children 405,677, colored children cute in some instances those who oppose existing sys139,939.
tems, and the supremacy of either the Democratic or Railroads. The following report for 1889 is Republican factions, and to the end that our votes made by the State Comptroller: Total mileage, may be counted when cast and all corruption and the 8,151.70; capital stock,' $177,454.284 ; cost of damnable boodle system be obliterated. construction, $346,659,473 ; bonds outstanding, tions ; the election of all officers by the direct vote of
We favor the Australian system of holding elec$233,869.422 ; coupons overdue, $10.854,564.98; the people. other indebtedness, $18,515,226.93 ; total in We favor all that will secure a lien on the products debtedness, $263,239,213.91 ; total earnings, $28,- of labor.