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The Army.—The Swedish army in 1889 comprised 38,330 troops of the line and 149,016 militiamen. The enlisted troops, exclusive of officers and employés, numbered 8,661, and the cantoned troops 27,162. The total number of officers was 1,911; the number of guns was 246, and of horses 6,691. The Navy.—The fleet of war in 1889 comrised 63 steam vessels, none of them large. here were 2 armored gunboats of the first, 4 of the second, and 10 of the third class, 19 small gunboats, 1 school ship, 1 frigate, 3 corvettes, 3 avisos, 1 school torpedo vessel, 18 torpedo boats, and 6 transports. Commerce.—The imports in 1887 had a total value of 297,410,000 kronor, of which 88,888,000 kronor came from Germany, 73,695,000 kronor from Great Britain, 47,471,000 kronor from Denmark, 23,435,000 kronor from Norway, 20,980,000 kronor from Russia, 9,547,000 kronor from Belgium, 6,860,000 kronor from Finland, 6,611, 000 kronor from the United States, and 6,218,000 kronor from France, the Netherlands coming next with 5,518,000 kronor. The total value of the exports was 246,678,000 kronor, of which 110,051,000 kronor went to Great Britian, 32,0.29,000 kronor to Denmark, 27,226,000 kronor to France, 24,275,000 kronor to Germany, 12,363,000 kronor to Norway, and smaller amounts to Belgium, Holland, Spain, and other countries, the share of the United States being 2,806,000 kronor. The imports of cereals were 25,700,000 kronor in value, and the exports 28,500,000 kronor; imports of colonial wares, 33,500,000 kronor; imports of spirits, 5,600,000 kronor, exports, 2,200,000 kronor; imports of tobacco, 8,400,000 kronor; imports of animals and animal roduce, 10,000,000 so exports, 31,400,000 [... imports of coal, 15,800,000 kronor; of hides and leather, 8,000,000 kronor; of textile materials, 16,400,000 kronor; exports of metal, 32,300,000 kronor; of timber, 78,100,000 kronor; imports of metallic objects, 8,400,000 kronor; of textile manufactures, 38,700,000 kronor; total exports of manufactured articles, 18,000,000 kronor; imports of all other merchandise, 125,500,000 kronor; all other exports, 37,100,000 kronor. The customs treaty between Sweden and Norway was renewed in 1888. The tariff convention with France will expire in 1892, being terminable on twelve months' notice from that year. The Spanish treaty of commerce, granting special advantages for the importation of Swedish spirits, was prolonged by the agreement of Jan. 18, 1887, till Feb. 1, 1892. Railroads, Posts, and Telegraphs. – The length of railroads open to trafic at the close of 1888 was 7,527 kilometres, of which 2,531 kilometres belonged to the United States and 4,996 kilometres to companies. The number of letters sent through the postoffice in 1888 was 54,211,227, inclusive of postal cards; the number of circulars and samples, 5,731,013; the number of newspapers, 47,164,882. The receipts were 6,598,040 kronor, and the expenses 6,561,924 kronor. The Government telegraphs in 1888 had a length of 8,190 kilometres, including 101 kilometres of cable. The length of wires was 21,354 kilometres. The receipts were 1,447,511 kronor,
Politics and Legislation.—The Rigsdag was opened by the King on Jan.17. Among the projects announced for legislative action . were workingmen's accident insurance, the creation of a department of agriculture in the Ministry of the Interior, regulation of the obligation to build roads, the adoption of an improved infantry weapon, conversion of the militia cavalry into enlisted troops, arrangements for mobilization of the army in case of war, and the continuation of the Northern Trunk Railroad to Lulea. The financial position of the Government and the economical condition of the country had imroved since the formation of the Bildt Cabinet. he autumn elections had given the Government, a Protectionist majority in both Houses; but the new ministry experienced the same diffio as its predecessors in obtaining the consent of the farmers, who preponderate in the Lower Chamber, and the nobility, whose influence is greatest in the other, to the political and military policy that the King and his advisers have for many years pursued. The land owners have obtained protective duties on the necessaries of life, and demand that they shall be made higher; yet, instead of permitting the increase in the revenue from this source to be used for the benefit of the classes injuriously affected by the new taxes, they insist on opolog it to the remission of the taxes on land. They have been relieved of a part of the burden of the mediaeval indelta, or cantoned troops, as a preliminary step to the introduction of universal obligatory military servi ice, and press for the abolition of the rest, and still the farmers are stubbornly opposed to the modern military system because it would require their personal service. A proposition to reduce the land tax was negatived by the First Chamber after it had passed the other House. The |..." of towns of more than 10,000 inhabitants ave double the representation in proportion to their numbers. The urban population is rapidly increasing, being 860,208 in 1888. Still the agricultural population elects two thirds of the members of the Second Chamber. The Swedish Government has followed the German in its treatment of the labor question. A commission was appointed in 1884 to consider a scheme of industrial legislation. The first outcome of its labors was the accident-insurance bill that was introduced in 1889 and was approved by both Chambers. A scheme of old-age insurance was also elaborated by the commission. It requires every member of a commune from the age of nineteen to pay for ten years 25 oere weekly, or the sum of 104 kronor may be paid at once for the entire period. This premium gives the right to an annuity of 72 kronor from the age of sixty years. If any person is unable to pay, the commune must discharge the obligation for him. Larger contributions will be received up to the maximum of 1 kroner 25 oere per week, which secures an annuity of 138 kronor from the age of forty, or of 432 kronor from that of sixty years. cialism has made great strides among the Swedish working people. After a socialistic congress that was j} in April, the Government offered a repressive bill, borrowed from the anti-socialist legislation of Germany. It prescribed criminal penalties for inciting to disobedience of the laws or resistance to the authorities or to acts threat
ening the existing order of society or involving danger to its continuance. The Second Chamber ‘. not sanction the latter clause, which was stricken from the bill. The Rigsdag rejected a proposition to impose export duties on Swedish iron ore and raw iron. The extreme Protectionists called for the retirement of the remaining Free-Traders in the Cabinet, and even of the moderate Protectionists, like Bergström, Lönegren, and the Prime Minister himself. During the session it was not thought advisable to make changes, but after the separation of the Rigsdag, on May 18, it was high time that the Cabinet should be made homogeneous, in view of the contemplated action in regard to the commercial treaties. The opinion of the country was in favor of denouncing all the treaties that expire in 1892 and obtaining full liberty to adjust new ones that might be made to the protectionist system. Protection in Sweden is far from effective as long as the Norwegian treaty of 1874 remains in force. To terminate this, notice must be given before the spring of 1890. Count Ehrensvärd, a Free-Trader, who was continued in office when the Themptander ministry retired, resigned in June, and was succeeded by Baron Akerhjerm. A. Ostergren, on June 12, became chief of the Department of Justice. Subsequently Baron Bildt retired, together with Krusenstjerna and Lovén, the remaining Free-traders, and on Oct. 12 the Cabinet was reconstructed as follows: Minister of State, Baron J. G. N. S. Akerhjelm; Minister of Foreign Affairs, Count C. Lewenhaupt; Councilors : Baron C. G. von Otter, Chief of the Deartment of Marine; W. L. Groll, Chief of the epartment of the Interior; S. H. Wickblad; Dr. G. Wennersberg, Chief of the Department of Ecclesiastical Affairs; Major-General Baron N. A. H. Palmstjerna, Chief of the War o: ment; E. Bull, Chief of the Department of Finance; A. Ostergren, Chief of the Department of Justice; Baron A. L. E. Akerhjelm. The Swedish Government objected to the new Spanish spirit tax, on the ground that it was an infraction of the commercial treaty of 1883. The question was referred for arbitration to the Portuguese minister in Madrid, who decided that since it was a matter of internal policy the duty did not conflict with the Hispano-Swedish commercial convention. Norway.—The members of the Storthing, the legislative body of the kingdom, are elected for three years by all Norwegian citizens owning land or oi. income tax on an annual inconne P 500 kronor in the country districts, or 800 kronor in the towns. The method of election is indirect. One fourth of the members of the Storthing form a separate chamber called the Lagthing, to review the bills that passed the main ...}} which is called the Odelsthing. If the two Houses can not agree regarding a measure, it is considered in a joint session, and can be by a two-third majority. Measures can be passed over the King's veto by the votes »f three successive Storthin The executive power is exercised under **ing by a Council of State. The Council of State at Christiania in 1889 was com as follows: E. Stang, Minister of State and Chief of the Department of Revision; J. A. Bonnevie, Chief of the Departvol. xxix.-50 A
ment of Yolo and Public Instruction; P. Birch-Reichenwald, Chief of the Department of Public Works; J. H. P. Thorne, Chief of the Department of the Interior; E. Rygh, Chief of the Department of Finance and Customs; F. N. Roll, Chief of the Department of Justice and Police; and Colonel E. H. Hoff, Chief of the Department of Defense. The delegation of the Council of State sitting at Stockholm, near the King, is composed of G. W. W. Gram, Minister of State, and Councilors U. F. C. Arneberg and O. A. Fura. Finances.—The gross receipts of the treasury in the year ending June 30, j were 44,364,400 kronor, of which 20,584,700 kronor were derived from customs, 6,390,800 kronor from railroads, 2,431,900 kronor from the post-office, 2,296,200 kronor from the impost on spirits, 1,911,000 kronor from the ...” duty, 1,434,700 kronor from mines, domains, and forests, and 1,947,300 kronor from invested capital funds. The exenditures were 44,595,700 kronor. The national ebt on June 30, 1888, amounted to 105,283,300 kronor, and the value of the railroads and other productive assets was 138,281,800 kronor. The o and Navy. — The troops of the line, limited by law to 18,000 men and 800 officers, are drilled for forty-two days in the infantry, and seventy days in the cavalry and artillery the first year, and twenty-four days in the second, third, and fourth years. The landvaern, or miliitia and the landstorm, or final levy, embracing all men capable of bearing arms, can only be called out }. the defense of the borders of the kingdom. A reorganization of the military forces was approved by the Storthing in 1887. The naval forces in 1889 consisted of 4 monitors, 2 steam frigates, 2 corvettes, 3 large and 28 gunboats, 9 torpedo boats, and 7 other vessels. Commerce.—The imports in 1888 amounted to 158,397,000 kronor, of which 44,224,000 kronor came from England, 42,591,000 kronor from Germany, 20,552,000 kronor from Russia and Finland, 19,444,000 kronor from Sweden, and 8,977,000 kronor from Denmark, the United States coming next with 6,308,000 kronor. The exports were valued at 122,357,000 kronor, of which 39,768,000 kronor went to England, 17,022,000 kronor to Sweden, 16,328,000 kronor to Germany, 10,499,000 kronor to Spain, 8,886,000 kronor to France, and smaller amounts to Russia, Belgium, Holland, Italy, Austria, and the United States, which received 1,361,000 kronor. The timber export was 27,700,000 kronor, 13 per cent. more than in 1887. Railroads, Posts, and Telegraphs.-The length of the railroad lines open to traffic in 1889 was 1,562 kilometres. The post-office in 1888 forwarded 16,840,800 domestic and 8,588,200 foreign letters and 22,870,200 newspapers. The receipts were 2,471,025 kronor, and the exnses 2,502,856 kronor. The state telegraph ines at the end of 1888 had a total length of 7,486 kilometres, with 14,012 kilometres of wire. The receipts were 948,738 kronor, the expenses 1,061,068 kronor. The railroads had 1,585 kilometres of telegraph lines. Politics and *ition—The dissatisfaction of the Radicals with the ministry of Johan Sverdrup, and their organization into an independent party in 1888 left the Ministerial group the smallest of the three composing the Storthing. There were 51 members of the Constitutional Right, 38 of the Radical Left, 33 of the Ministerial Left, and 2 unattached. The Radical ministers having left the Cabinet, the ministry allied itself with the Conservatives, who had been excluded from the Lagthing and the presidential posts while the Democratic party remained united. On the organization of the Storthing, Feb. 2, 1889, 12 Conservatives, 10 Radicals, and 6 Ministerialists were chosen to compose the Upper House, and Emil Stang, the leader of the Right, was elected President of the Storthing. After the resignation of the Radical Democrats in the Cabinet, the post that had been held by Sörensen remained unfilled till January, 1889, when it was accepted by Thilesen, a member of the Moderate Left. In the recent elections seven of the eight presidents and vice-presidents of the Storthing and its divisions and the leading men in the ical fraction had failed to be reelected to the Storthing. Of the 114 members 42 had never sat before, and only 54 had belonged to the former Storthing. The legislative session was formally opened by the King on Feb. 8. The speech from the throne announced that among new measures to be presented were a bill for the regulation of factory labor, which was intended as the initial step in a series of public measures for the improvement of the economical and social condition of the working classes, a bill relating to military service, and changes in the criminal laws necessitated by the jury law. The Government promised to proceed with reorganization of the military system as fast as the financial resources would permit, and proposed the continuation of existing railroad lines and the construction of a new one in the southwest. The revenue was increasing, and the Storthing was asked to lower the duty on salt, but to raise those on wheat, tea, spices, and fruits. The Right opposed the introduction of trial by jury, although the Storthing had voted for it two years before. Leistöl, one of the Councilors of State, resigned in March, and was succeeded by Liljedahl, an accomplished parliamentary speaker, and Baron Akerhjelm became Minister of Foreign Affairs. In the beginning of June, E. Bull became Minister of Finance. In a convention at Hamar, in June, the advocates of national equality with Sweden formulated their demands as follow: 1, abolition of the Norwegian viceroyalty; 2, abolition of the delegation of the Council of State in Stockholm ; 3, regulation of diplomatic affairs in the manner proposed by Sverdrup in 1885; 4, abolition of the union symbol in the Norwegian flag. The Storthing voted an address to President Carnot, ex!. disapproval of the absence of Count
ewenhaupt, the Swedish and Norwegian minister from the Paris Exposition. The position of the first Parliamentary ministry in Norway, supported by a smaller minority than any previous ministry had commanded for ol decades, was objected to from principle by the Radicals, who proposed a vote of censure in the spring. The Conservatives, who were unwilling to assume the direction of the Government, partly because they feared that the divided Democratic factions would soon unite to upset them, and partly because they wished to leave to the
Democrats the responsibility of carrying out the innovations that they had legislated in the Storthing, expecting that the country would condemn them when put into practice, voted with the Ministerialists. The leaders of the Right refused the proffered fusion with the followers of Sverdrup, who constantly lost ground. Officials resigned, and ministerial posts were filled by subordinates or by ministers irregularly ". like of At length the Prime inister was impelled to make terms with the Radicals, and agreed to dismiss the obnoxious ministers and appoint men from the Left. The Radicals insisted that the entire Cabinet should resign, that it might undergo a thorough reconstruction. On July 2 the ministers sent in their resignations to the King; but he, instead of o; Sverdrup to form a new Cabinet, sent for the leader of the Conservatives. The Storthing closed on July 3. In his letter accepting the resignation of the ministers, King Oscar, who had arrived in Christiania, said soil. considered it his duty to exercise his constitutional R. of choosing himself a Council of orwegian citizens. he new ministry, which was constituted on July 12, was taken from the moderate section of the Constitutional Right. SWITZERLAND, a federal republic in Central Europe. The Federal Legislature is composed of the State Council, in which each of the twenty-two cantons is represented by two members, and the National Council, containing one member to every 20,000 people, elected by direct universal suffage. The executive powers are exercised by the Federal Council, which in 1889 was composed of the following members: President, B. Hammer, of Solothurn ; Vice-President, Louis Ruchonnet, of Vaud; Dr. K. Schenck, of Bern; Dr. E. Welti, of Aargau; Dr. N. Droz, of Neufchâtel; Dr. A. Deucher, of Thurgau; W. Hauser, of Zürich. On Dec. 10, 1889, M. Ruchonnet was elected President, and Dr. Welti Vice-President of the Swiss Confederation for the year 1890, Area and Population.—The area of Switzerland is 41,346 square kilometres, or 15,892 square miles. The population, according to the provisional results of the census of Dec. 1, 1888, is 2,934,057, comprising 1,427,377 males and 1,506,680 females. The ão population was 2,920,723. The number of foreigners was 238,313. The population was divided in respect to religion into 1,724,957 Protestants, 1,190,008 Catholics, 8,386 Israelites, and 10,706 others. Of the 2,934.057 inhabitants, 2,092,530 speak German, 637,972 French. 156,606 Italian, 38,375 Romansch, and 8,572 other languages. The number of emigrants in 1888 was 8,346, of whom 6,764 were destined for the United States. The emigration in 1887 was 7,558 : in 1886, 6,342; in 1885, 7,583; in 1884, 9,608. The city of Zürich, with its suburbs, contained 90,111 inhabitants in 1888; Geneva, 72,254; Basle, 69,814: Bern, 45,966. Finance.—The receipts of the Federal treasury in 1888 were 59,882.864 francs, of which 26.086,144 francs were from customs and 21,591,832 francs from the post-office. The total expenditures were 58,555,088 francs, the largest items being 19.837,573 francs for the post-office and 18,637,214 for military administration. The debt of the Federation on Jan. 1, 1889, was 40,492,868 francs, and the assets were 82,577,811 francs. A new loan of 25,000,000 francs was contracted in Jo 1889, for the#. of equipping the army with repeating rifles and other new arms. The Army.--The regular army, composed of men between the ages of twenty and thirty-two, consisted in 1888 of 95,651 infantry, 2,921 cavalry, 17,793 artillery, 5,037 engineers, 1,880 sanitary troops, 1,149 administrative troops, and 382 commissioned and non-commissioned officers in retirement. The Landwehr, comprising all men fit for military service between the ages of thirtytwo and forty-five, consisted of 65,326 infantry, 2,785 cavalry, 9,783 artillery, 1,644 engineers, 741 sanitary troops, and 213 administrative troops, or 80,715 men in all, which, added to the 125,570 men of the active army, make the effective strength of the army 206,285, exclusive of the Landsturm, which embraces all citizens between seventeen and fifty years of age who are not enrolled in the Auszug or Landwehr. Commerce.—The special commerce of 1888 divided according to the countries of origin and destination, was of the following values, infrancs:
Railroads. – The railroads in 1887 had a length of 2,812 kilometres. The cost of construction was 1,048,791,246 francs. The number of passengers was 25,762,822 during the year, the quantity of merchandise transported was 8,333,503 tons of 1,000 kilogrammes. . The receipts were 78,859,089 francs. The working expenses were 44,224,599 francs. The Post-Office and Telegraphs.-The number of internal letters and post cards conveyed in 1888 was 65,001.864; circulars and samples, 17,752,199 : packages, 8,852,055; postal orders, 2,644,089, .P the total amount of 294,137,045 francs. In the international service there were forwarded 30,055,083 letters and cards, 13,829,221 circulars and samples, 69,519,813 journals, and 2,698,111 parcels. The telegraphs in 1888 had a length of 7,115 kilometres; length of wires, 17,341 kilometres. The receipts were 3,729,246 francs and the expenses 3,148,353 francs. Expulsion of Nihilists.-While experimenting with explosives in the neighborhood of Zürich, on March 6, 1889, two Russian students were injured by the accidental discharge of bombs, one of them, Jacob Brynstein, fatally. George Prokosieff and Marie Günzburg, active or. of the Russian Terroristic party, who were associated with the dynamiters, as well as Alexander Dembsky, the one who recovered, and
ten other Russian Nihilists, most of them students in the Zürich University and Polytechnicum, were expelled from Switzerland by order of the Federal Council. Conflict with Germany.—Police-Inspector August Wohlgemuth, of Mülhausen, in February, 1889, entered into correspondence with a German tailor named Lutz, living in Basle, and R. to him to worm himself into the confience of the leading Social Democrats, in order to keep the German police informed of their doings. Lutz was persuaded by two citizens of Basle to play the part of a German police spy for the purpose of discovering the machinations of the Berlin authorities, who have been known for a long time to employ spies and decoys and to instigate revolutionary plots in Switzerland. He was promised and was paid two hundred francs a month, with the expectation of liberal gratuities besides if he would conspire and agitate to good effect among the .."; people of Basle, Elsass-Lothringen, and Baden. ohlgemuth instructed him to call a revolutionary assembly of workingmen at Riehen. After acting his part for two months and receiving a half-dozen letters from Wohlgemuth, he invited the German police officer to meet him at Rheinfelden, informing the police of Aargau of the whole matter. ey were both arrested when they met at the railroad station on Easter Sunday. Wohlgemuth was kept in jail for nine days, and was then sent under guard over the frontier. Lutz was likewise expelled. The decree of expulsion against Wohlgemuth, issued by the Federal Council on April 30, was based on a law for the banishment of foreigners who endanger the security of the Federation. The German Government complained of the international discourtesy of the Swiss authorities, accusing them of enticing an imperial official into Swiss territory in order to subject him to arrest, like a common criminal. His incarceration and punishment by a public decree of expulsion was complained of as illegal because he was arrested before he could have committed any offense on Swiss soil. The Wohlgemuth incident, which indicated the determination of the Federal Government no longer to suffer the proceedings of German police spies and agents provocateurs, who have in recent years caused much trouble in Switzerland, was seized upon by the German Chancellor as an occasion for a vigorous diplomatic attack on the Swiss right of asylum, from which Germany, supported by Russia and Austria, has endeavored for some years to exclude Socialists and Anarchists. In a dispatch to Herr Von Bülow, German minister at Bern, Prince Bismarck said the excessive hospitality given by Switzerland to Anarchists and revolutionary Socialists compelled the German Government to maintain a special police in Switzerland to watch them, and since the Swiss police arrangements did not offer sufficient guarantees for an efficacious surveillance over proceedings threatening the internal peace of Germany, it demanded that no hindrances should be put in the way of the German secret agents. †. Swiss Minister of Foreign Affairs, . Droz, replied that Switzerland could not share the exercise of police control on her own soil with another state, considering it an attribute of sovereignty, and that the right of asylum must be maintained within the limits imposed by the considerations of the security of Switzerland and that of other countries. He pointed out that Germans toward whom Switzerland was accused of being too hospitable had settled in Switzerland by virtue of the treaty of domicile of April 27, 1876, and could not be sent away as a preventive measure, but only after they had committed acts of a nature to compromise public safety. The agents of the German police, he said, far from aiding the Swiss Government in its efforts to combat dangerous elements, had often been the cause of disorders. The German Government replied that if the Swiss Government had enforced Article II of the treaty of settlement of 1876, which requires that Germans establishing themselves in Switzerland must furnish not only a certificate of birth, but an attestation of good character, these difficulties would never have arisen, and asserted that the Swiss Government was bound under the treaty to demand such papers. This interpretation was repelled as contrary to the spirit of the treaty. Switzerland had a right to require a certificate of good conduct, but was under no obligation to refuse admission to persons to whom the authorities of another country refused such a document, since that would subordinate the right of asylum to the dictation of foreign governments. The German Government then signified that it reserved the right to take at the frontier the measures that seemed to it necessary to protect itself against dangers that the insufficiency of the Swiss political police, the indifference or powerlessness of the Federal Government, the connivance of inferior authorities with Anarchists, the refusal to allow it to send secret agents into Swiss territory, and as a consequence of that the audacity of the subversive elements might bring to the internal peace of the empire. At this point of the discussion, when the German Chancellor hinted that, since many essential parts of the treaties on which the neutrality of Switzerland is based have fallen away, the provisions that are favorable to Switzerland can only be maintained on the condition that Switzerland fulfills the obligations that grow out of them, Russia, and subsequently Austria, came to the support of the German position,
pointing out the dangers that menaced them through the too great tolerance that anarchistic and revolutionary elements enjoyed in Swiss territory, and asserting that the neutrality enjoyed } Switzerland under the joint guarantee of the
uropean powers implied the duty to furnish necessary safeguards against activities threatening the peace between the countries; otherwise, they would have to consider whether that neutrality, is in their interest. The Swiss reply pointed out that the surveillance and repression of anarchistic and revolutionary acts was a common international obligation, and not a special duty resting on Switzerland and resulting from her neutrality, and declared that the measures to be taken concerned the internal order of the country and were not a subject for diplomatic discussion. As a sovereign state Switzerland could not allow a foreign government to prescribe police regulations.
The German custom-house authorities began to impose annoying restrictions on the passage of persons and goods across the frontier. The Federal Government decided to strengthen the political police so as to enable them better to watch foreigners and to create a Federal public prosecutor whose duty should be to direct their investigations and the actions growing out of them. On July 20 the German minister notified the termination of the treaty at the end of the stipulated period of twelve months. In a later note, Prince Bismarck dwelt on the necessity for a vigorous police supervision over foreigners, for those who now take advantage of the right of asylum to conspire against their mother-country are undeserving of its benefits. The termination of the treaty of settlement will absolve Germany of the obligation to receive back Germans who are expelled from Switzerland. Failing to intimidate Switzerland into accepting its views, the German Government expressed itself contented with the new police arrangements. A circular attacking the Federal Council for instituting political police gave the police their first occupation, and resulted in the expulsion of several German Anarchists. A number of Frenchmen long resident in Switzerland were likewise expelled on account of their political activity.
TENNESSEE, a Southern State, admitted to the Union in 1796; area, 42,050 square miles; population, according to the last decennial census (1880), 1,542,359; capital, Nashville.
Government.—The following were the State officers during the year: Governor, Robert L. Taylor, Democrat; Secretary of State, John Allison, succeeded by Charles A. Miller: Treasurer and Insurance Commissioner, Atha Thomas, succeeded by M. F. House; Comptroller, P. P. Pickard, succeeded by J. W. Allen: Attorney-General, B. J. Lea, succeeded by G. W. Pickle: Superintendent of Public Instruction, Frank M. Smith; Commissioner of Agriculture, Statistics, and Mines, B. M. Hord: Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Peter Turney; Associate Justices:
W. C. Folkes, W. C. Caldwell, B. L. Snodgrass, and W. H. Lurton. Finances.—The receipts for the fiscal year ending Dec. 20 were $1,615,204.62, and the disbursements $1,845,137.31. Of the disbursements $476,000 was paid on account of loans, makin the actual expenses of the State $1.369,137.3i. In June the funding board negotiated a loan of $250,000 to meet the July payment of interest on the State debt. For the past six years the State has expended over o for retiring its floating debt, for new public institutions, and for other P. oses, and has thereby incurred an additional debt of $600,000. The tax rate for State purposes was 30 cents, and for education 15 cents, on each $100.