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erly route, since the revolution in Uganda had Albert Edward Nyanza, from 1,500 to half that

closed that country to whites, Emin decided to number. Stanley's latest journey in Africa . extricate himself and the 400 Egyptians who lasted 1,012 days, of which hardly twenty were

chose to follow, Nearly four months were spent devoid of perils or tragic incidents. The cost in the effort to overcome the scruples of Emin of the expedition was $150,000. (See GEOPasha and Capt. Casati about deserting their GRAPHICAL PROGRESS AND Discovery in this people. Stanley, suspecting a plot of the mutin- volume, especially the map on page 349. See ous Arab officers to seize his ammunition, threat- also the title Emin Pasha in the "Annual Cycloened to exterminate them.

pædia " for 1887 and 1888.) Stanley was again taken ill, and was near SWEDEN AND NORWAY, two kingdoms death. When he recovered the march began on in northern Europe, united in a personal and April 10, 1889. Emin said there were 10,000 federal union by the act of Aug. 6, 1815. They people who would have to be extricated; but have a common diplomacy, which is directed by Stanley refused to wait longer for the fugitives a Council of State, composed of Swedes and to assemble, and the governor, who had become Norwegians. The reigning monarch is Oscar II, nearly blind, brought away with him only 514 born Jan. 21, 1829, who succeeded his brother persons. A circuitous southeasterly route to the Carl XV on Sept. 18, 1872. The heir-apparent stations on the shore of Victoria Nyanza was is Prince Gustaf, Duke of Wermland, born June chosen, in order to avoid as far as possible the 16, 1858. country of their enemy Kabrega, King of Unyoro. SWEDEN.-The legislative authority is vested They passed along a range of snow-capped in a Diet of two Chambers, the first consisting mountains that culminated in the Ruwenzori of 145 members, elected by provincial and mupeak, nearly 19,000 feet above the sea. This nicipal bodies, and the second of 222 members, range Mr. Stanley identifies with the Mountains elected directly, or in the smaller towns and of the Moon shown on the old maps. The posi- country districts indirectly, if the majority so tion of Ruwenzori, as shown in the new map, is determines. Of the total number, 76 are chosen less than one degree north of the equator, and in by the people of the towns and 146 by the people 30° of east longitude. The mountain range to of the rural districts, under a property qualifiwhich it belongs, parallel with Semliki river, ex- cation. The qualified voters constitute 5.9 per tends southwest from a point of the Unyoro cent. of the total population. The Council of tableland opposite the south end of Albert Ny- State is composed of the following members: anza, and is about ninety miles long. The Wa- Baron Didric Anders Gillis Brandt, Minister of konju, who till the slopes of the mountains, are State; Count Albert Carl August Lars Ehrensoften compelled to retreat up to the edge of the värd, Minister of Foreign Affairs; Per Axel snow on the approach of Kabrega's Warasura Bergström, Minister of Justice; Baron Nils slave-raiders. From the south the waters of the Axel Hjalmer Palmstjerna, Minister of War; large lake that Stanley named Albert Edward Baron Carl Gustaf von Otter, Minister of MaNyanza, in honor of the Prince of Wales, flow into rine; Julius Edvard von Krusenstjerna, Minister the Albert Nyanza through a considerable river of the Interior; Baron Frederik von Essen, Mincalled the Semliki. The King of Unyoro had ister of Finance; Gunnar Wennerburg, Minister lately conquered this region and held possession of Education and Ecclesiastical Affairs; Johan of a salt basin yielding an inexhaustible supply Henrik Lovén; Gustaf Walter

Leopold Lönegren. of the rare and precious mineral. They fought Area and Population. The area of Sweden their way through the Wanyoro, driving them is 170,979 square miles. The population on away from the salt lake, and thus earning the Dec. 31, 1888, was 4,748,257, of whom 2,301,104 gratitude of the tribes beyond, who received them were males and 2,447,153 females. The number hospitably. On leaving the salt lake of Kative, of marriages in 1887 was 29,517; of births, 144,019; the expedition passed around the northern ex of deaths, 80,077; excess of births over deaths, tremity of Albert Edward Nyanza, through the 63,942. The population of Stockholm, the capicountry of the Wasangora, who have been nearly tal, in 1888 was 234.990. The number of emiexterminated by the Warasura and Waganda, grants in 1887 was 50,786, against 32,889 in 1886, over the populous Ankori plateau, and through 23,493 in 1885, 23,560 in 1884, 31,605 in 1883, Toro, Ruanda, and Karagwe, peopled by fine 50,178 in 1882, and 45,992 in 1881, the average specimens of the negro race showing, in Stan- for the previous ten years having been 15,027. ley's opinion, an admixture of Abyssinian blood, Finance.- About two thirds of the revenue to Uzinja. The course of march from Albert is derived from indirect taxation and one third Edward Nyanza to the Uzinja country on the is the product of direct taxes and national propsouthwest shore of the Victoria Nyanza was erty. The total revenue is set down in the budgnearly a direct line. An arm of the Victoria lake et for 1890 as 92,767,000 kronor, including a extends southwest, reaching within 155 miles of surplus of 5,582,000 kronor carried over from the Lake Tanganyika. The shore line as marked by preceding year. The receipts from the land tax, previous explorers Stanley found to be only å and from domains and forests, railroads and telesuccession of islands, behind which the lake ex- graphs, classed as the ordinary revenue of the tends over a surface of 6,000 square miles. On Government, amount to 19,985,000 kronor, and Aug. 28, 1889, they reached A. M. Mackay's mis- the extraordinary receipts to 65,900,000 kronor, sionary station at Msalala, in the country of the including 37,000,000 kronor from customs, 13,Wanyamwesi. The party passed south of Lake 700,000 kronor from the duty on brandy, 6,900,Victoria, through Uyamwesi, halted on Nov. 10 000 kronor from the post-office, 3,700,000 kronor at Mpwapwa, where the Germans had a garrison, from stamped paper, and 3,700,000 kronor from and finally emerged at Bagamoyo on Dec. 4, the income tax. The amount of the public debt 1889. The caravan had dwindled, since it left on Jan. 1, 1889, was 264,893,336 kronor.

The Army.-The Swedish army in 1889 com Politics and Legislation. - The Rigsdag prised 38,330 troops of the line and 149,016 was opened by the King on Jan. 17. Among militiamen. The enlisted troops, exclusive of the projects announced for legislative action officers and employés, numbered 8,661, and the were workingmen's accident insurance, the creacantoned troops 27,162. The total number of tion of a department of agriculture in the Minofficers was 1,911; the number of guns was 246, istry of the Interior, regulation of the obligation and of horses 6,691.

to build roads, the adoption of an improved inThe Navy.—The fleet of war in 1889 com- fantry weapon, conversion of the militia cavalry prised 63 steam vessels, none of them large. into enlisted troops, arrangements for mobilizaThere were 2 armored gunboats of the first, 4 of tion of the army in case of war, and the continuthe second, and 10 of the third class, 19 small ation of the Northern Trunk Railroad to Lulea. gunboats, 1 school ship, 1 frigate, 3 corvettes, 3 The financial position of the Government and avisos, 1 school torpedo vessel, 18 torpedo boats, the economical condition of the country had imand 6 transports.

proved since the formation of the Bildt Cabinet. Commerce. The imports in 1887 had a total The autumn elections had given the Governvalue of 297,410,000 kronor, of which 88,888,000 ment a Protectionist majority in both Houses; kronor came from Germany, 73,695,000 kronor but the new ministry experienced the same diffifrom Great Britain, 47,471,000 kronor from Den- culty as its predecessors in obtaining the consent mark, 23,435,000 kronor from Norway, 20,980,- of the farmers, who preponderate in the Lower 000 kronor from Russia, 9,547,000 kronor from Chamber, and the nobility, whose influence is Belgium, 6,860,000 kronor from Finland, 6,611, greatest in the other, to the political and mili000 kronor from the United States, and 6,218, tary policy that the King and his advisers have 000 kronor from France, the Netherlands com for many years pursued. The land owners have ing next with 5,518,000 kronor. The total value obtained protective duties on the necessaries of of the exports was 246,678,000 kronor, of which life, and demand that they shall be made higher; 110,051,000 kronor went to Great Britian, 32,- yet, instead of permitting the increase in the 029,000 kronor to Denmark, 27,226,000 kronor to revenue from this source to be used for the benefit France, 24,275,000 kronor to Germany, 12,363,- of the classes injuriously affected by the new 000 kronor to Norway, and smaller amounts to taxes, they insist on applying it to the remission Belgium, Holland, Spain, and other countries, of the taxes on land. They have been relieved the share of the United States being 2,806,000 of a part of the burden of the mediæval indelta, kronor. The imports of cereals were 25,700,000 or cantoned troops, as a preliminary step to the kronor in value, and the exports 28,500,000 introduction of universal obligatory military servkronor; imports of colonial wares, 33,500,000 ice, and press for the abolition of the rest, and kronor; imports of spirits, 5,600,000 kronor, still the farmers are stubbornly opposed to the exports, 2,200,000 kronor; imports of tobacco, modern military system because it would require 8,400,000 kronor; imports of animals and animal their personal service. A proposition to reduce produce, 10,000,000 kronor; exports, 31,400,000 the land tax was negatived by the First Chamkronor; imports of coal, 15,800,000 kronor; of ber after it had passed the other House. The hides and leather, 8,000,000 kronor; of textile people of towns of more than 10,000 inhabitants materials, 16,400,000 kronor; exports of metal, have double the representation in proportion to 32,300,000 kronor; of timber, 78,100,000 kronor; their numbers. The urban population is rapidly imports of metallic objects, 8,400,000 kronor; increasing, being 860,208 in 1888. Still the agof textile manufactures, 38,700,000 kronor; total ricultural population elects two thirds of the exports of manufactured articles, 18,000,000 members of the Second Chamber. The Swedish kronor; imports of all other merchandise, 125,- Government has followed the German in its treat500.000 kronor; all other exports, 37,100,000 ment of the labor question. A commission was kronor. The customs treaty between Sweden appointed in 1884 to consider a scheme of indusand Norway was renewed in 1888. The tariff trial legislation. The first outcome of its labors convention with France will expire in 1892, being was the accident-insurance bill that was introterminable on twelve months' notice from that duced in 1889 and was approved by both Chamyear. The Spanish treaty of commerce, grant- bers. A scheme of old-age insurance was also ing special advantages for the importation of elaborated by the commission. It requires every Swedish spirits, was prolonged by the agreement member of a commune from the age of nineteen of Jan. 18, 1887, till Feb. 1, 1892.

to pay for ten years 25 oere weekly, or the sum Railroads, Posts, and Telegraphs. — The of 104 kronor may be paid at once for the entire length of railroads open to trafic at the close of period. This premium gives the right to an 1888 was 7,527 kilometres, of which 2,531 kilo- annuity of 72 kronor from the age of sixty years. metres belonged to the United States and 4,996 If any person is unable to pay, the commune kilometres to companies.

must discharge the obligation for him. Larger The number of letters sent through the post- contributions will be received up to the maxioffice in 1888 was 54,211,227, inclusive of postal mum of 1 kroner 25 oere per week, which secures cards; the number of circulars and samples, an annuity of 138 kronor from the age of forty, 5,731,013; the number of newspapers, 47,164,882. or of 432 kronor from that of sixty years. SoThe receipts were 6,598,040 kronor, and the ex- cialism has made great strides among the Swedpenses 6,561,924 kronor.

ish working people. After a socialistic congress The Government telegraphs in 1888 had a that was held in April, the Government offered a length of 8,190 kilometres, including 101 kilo- repressive bill, borrowed from the anti-socialist metres of cable. The length of wires was 21,354 legislation of Germany. It prescribed criminal kilometres. The receipts were 1,447,511 kronor, penalties for inciting to disobedience of the laws expenses 1,276,772 kronor.

or resistance to the authorities or to acts threat

ening the existing order of society or involving danger to its continuance. The Second Chamber o not sanction the latter clause, which was stricken from the bill. The Rigsdag rejected a proposition to impose export duties on Swedish iron ore and raw iron. The extreme Protectionists called for the retirement of the remaining Free-Traders in the Cabinet, and even of the moderate Protectionists, like Bergström, Lönegren, and the Prime Minister himself. During the session it was not thought advisable to make changes, but after the separation of the Rigsdag, on May 18, it was high time that the Cabinet should be made homogeneous, in view of the contemplated action in regard to the commercial treaties. . The opinion of the country was in favor of denouncing all the treaties that expire in 1892 and obtaining full liberty to adjust new ones that might be made to the protectionist system. Protection in Sweden is far from effective as long as the Norwegian treaty of 1874 remains in force. To terminate this, notice must be given before the spring of 1890. Count Ehrensvärd, a Free-Trader, who was continued in office when the Themptander ministry retired, resigned in June, and was succeeded by Baron Akerhjerm. A. Ostergren, on June 12, became chief of the Department of Justice. Subsequently Baron Bildt retired, together with Krusenstjerna and Lovén, the remaining Free-traders, and on Oct. 12 the Cabinet was reconstructed as follows: Minister of State, Baron J. G. N. S. Akerhjelm ; Minister of Foreign Affairs, Count C. Lewenhaupt; Councilors : Baron C. G. von Otter, Chief of the Deartment of Marine; W. L. Groll, Chief of the epartment of the Interior; S. H. Wickblad; Dr. G. Wennersberg, Chief of the Department of Ecclesiastical Affairs: Major-General Baron N. A. H. Palmstjerna, Chief of the War Department; E. Bull, {...} of the Department of Finance; A. Ostergren, Chief of the Department of Justice; Baron A. L. E. Akerhjelm. The Swedish Government objected to the new Spanish spirit tax, on the ground that it was an infraction of the commercial treaty of 1883. The question was referred for arbitration to the Portuguese minister in Madrid, who decided that since it was a matter of internal policy the duty did not conflict with the Hispano-Swedish commercial convention. Norway.—The members of the Storthing, the legislative body of the kingdom, are elected for three years by all Norwegian citizens owning land or paying an income tax on an annual income of 500 kronor in the country districts, or 800 kronor in the towns. The method of election is indirect. One fourth of the members of the Storthing form a separate chamber called the Lagthing, to review the bills that passed the main body, which is called the Odelsthing. If the two Houses can not agree regarding a measure, it is considered in a joint session, and can be passed by a two-third majority. Measures can be passed over the King's veto by the votes »f three successive Storthings. The executive power is exercised under the King by a Council of State. The Council of State at Christiania in 1889 was composed as follows: E. Stang, Minister of State and Chief of the Department of Revision; J. A. Bonnevie, Chief of the Departvol. xxix.-50 A

ment of Yo! and Public Instruction; P. Birch-Reichenwald, Chief of the Department of Public Works; J. H. P. Thorne, Chief of the Department of the Interior; E. Rygh, Chief of the Department of Finance and Customs; F. N. Roll, Chief of the Department of Justice and Police; and Colonel H. Hoff, Chief of the Department of Defense. The delegation of the Council of State sitting at Stockholm, near the King, is composed of #. W. W. Gram, Minister of State, and Councilors U. F. C. Arneberg and O. A. Fura. Finances.—The gross receipts of the treasury in the year ending June 30, j were 44,364,400 kronor, of which 20,584,700 kronor were derived from customs, 6,390,800 kronor from railroads, 2,431,900 kronor from the post-office, 2,296,200 kronor from the impost on spirits, 1,911,000 kronor from the ...” duty, 1,434,700 kronor from mines, domains, and forests, and 1,947,300 kronor from invested capital funds. The exnditures were 44,595, kronor. The national ebt on June 30, 1888, amounted to 105,283,300 kronor, and the value of the railroads and other productive assets was 138,281,800 kronor. The o and No. The troops of the line, limited by law to 18,000 men and 800 officers, are drilled for forty-two days in the infantry, and seventy days in the cavalry and artillery the first year, and twenty-four days in the second, third, and fourth years. The landvaern, or miliitia and the landstorm, or final levy, embracing all men so of bearing arms, can only be called out for the defense of the borders of the kingdom. A reorganization of , the military forces was approved by the Storthing in 1887. The naval forces in 1889 consisted of 4 monitors, 2 steam frigates, 2 corvettes, 3 large and 28 gunboats, 9 torpedo boats, and 7 other vessels. Commerce.—The imports in 1888 amounted to 158,397,000 kronor, of which 44,224,000 kronor came from England, 42,591,000 kronor from Germany, 20,552,000 kronor from Russia and Finland, 19,444,000 kronor from Sweden, and 8,977,000 kronor from Denmark, the United States coming next with 6,308,000 kronor. The exports were valued at 122,357,000 kronor, of which 39,768,000 kronor went to England, 17,022,000 kronor to Sweden, 16,328,000 kronor to Germany, 10,499,000 kronor to Spain, 8,886,000 kronor to France, and smaller amounts to Russia, Belgium, Holland, Italy, Austria, and the United States, which received 1,361,000 kronor. The timber export was 27,700,000 kronor, 13 per cent. more than in 1887. Railroads, Posts, and Telegraphs. – The length of the railroad lines open to traffic in 1889 was 1,562 kilometres. The post-office in 1888 forwarded 16,840,800 domestic and 8,588,200 foreign letters and 22,870,200 newspapers. The receipts were 2,471,025 kronor, and the exnses 2,502,856 kronor. The state telegraph ines at the end of 1888 had a total length of 7,486 kilometres, with 14,012 kilometres of wire. The receipts were 948,738 kronor, the expenses 1,061,068 kronor. The railroads had 1,585 kilometres of telegraph lines. Politics and *iation—The dissatisfaction of the Radicals with the ministry of Johan Sverdrup, and their organization into an independent party in 1888 left the Ministerial group the smallest of the three composing the Storthing. There were 51 members of the Constitutional Right, 38 of the Radical Left, 33 of the Ministerial Left, and 2 unattached. The Radical ministers having left the Cabinet, the ministry allied itself with the Conservatives, who had been excluded from the Lagthing and the presidential posts while the Democratic party remained united. On the organization of the Storthing, Feb. 2, 1889, 12 Conservatives, 10 Radicals, and 6 Ministerialists were chosen to compose the Upper House, and Emil Stang, the leader of the Right, was elected President of the Storthing. After the resignation of the Radical Democrats in the Cabinet, the post that had been held by Sörensen remained unfilled till January, 1889, when it was accepted by Thilesen, a member of the Moderate Left. In the recent elections seven of the eight presidents and vice-presidents of the Storthing and its divisions and the leading men in the ical fraction had failed to be reelected to the Storthing. Of the 114 members 42 had never sat before, and only 54 had belonged to the former Storthing. The legislative session was formally opened by the King on Feb. 8. The speech from the throne announced that among new measures to be presented were a bill for the regulation of factory labor, which was intended as the initial step in a series of public measures for the improvement of the economical and social condition of the working classes, a bill relating to military service, and changes in the criminal laws necessitated by the jury law. The Government promised to proceed with reorganization of the military system as fast as the financial resources would permit, and proposed the continuation of existing railroad lines and the construction of a new one in the southwest. The revenue was increasing, and the Storthing was asked to lower the duty on salt, but to raise those on wheat, tea, spices, and fruits. The Right opposed the introduction of trial by jury, although the Storthing had voted for it two years before. Leistöl, one of the Councilors of State, resigned in March, and was succeeded by Liljedahl, an accomplished parliamentary speaker, and Baron Akerhjelm became Minister of Foreign Affairs. In the beginning of June, E. Bull became Minister of Finance. In a convention at Hamar, in June, the advocates of national equality with Sweden formulated their demands as follow: 1, abolition of the Norwegian viceroyalty; 2, abolition of the delegation of the Council of State in Stockholm ; 3, regulation of diplomatic affairs in the manner proposed by Sverdrup in 1885; 4, abolition of the union symbol in the Norwegian flag. The Storthing voted an address to President Carnot, ex!. disapproval of the absence of Count

ewenhaupt, the Swedish and Norwegian minister from the Paris Exposition. The position of the first Parliamentary ministry in Norway, supported by a smaller minority than any previous ministry had commanded for ol decades, was objected to from principle by the Radicals, who proposed a vote of censure in the spring. The Conservatives, who were unwilling to assume the direction of the Government, partly because they feared that the divided Democratic factions would soon unite to upset them, and partly because they wished to leave to the

Democrats the responsibility of carrying out the innovations that they had legislated in the Storthing, expecting that the country would condemn them when put into practice, voted with the Ministerialists. The leaders of the Right refused the proffered fusion with the followers of Sverdrup, who constantly lost ground. Officials resigned, and ministerial posts were filled by subordinates or by ministers irregularly ". like of At length the Prime inister was impelled to make terms with the Radicals, and agreed to dismiss the obnoxious ministers and appoint men from the Left. The Radicals insisted that the entire Cabinet should resign, that it might undergo a thorough reconstruction. On July 2 the ministers sent in their resignations to the King; but he, instead of o; Sverdrup to form a new Cabinet, sent for the leader of the Conservatives. The Storthing closed on July 3. In his letter accepting the resignation of the ministers, King Oscar, who had arrived in Christiania, said soil. considered it his duty to exercise his constitutional R. of choosing himself a Council of orwegian citizens. he new ministry, which was constituted on July 12, was taken from the moderate section of the Constitutional Right. SWITZERLAND, a federal republic in Central Europe. The Federal Legislature is composed of the State Council, in which each of the twenty-two cantons is represented by two members, and the National Council, containing one member to every 20,000 people, elected by direct universal suffage. The executive powers are exercised by the Federal Council, which in 1889 was composed of the following members: President, B. Hammer, of Solothurn ; Vice-President, Louis Ruchonnet, of Vaud; Dr. K. Schenck, of Bern; Dr. E. Welti, of Aargau; Dr. N. Droz, of Neufchâtel; Dr. A. Deucher, of Thurgau; W. Hauser, of Zürich. On Dec. 10, 1889, M. Ruchonnet was elected President, and Dr. Welti Vice-President of the Swiss Confederation for the year 1890, Area and Population.—The area of Switzerland is 41,346 square kilometres, or 15,892 square miles. The population, according to the provisional results of the census of Dec. 1, 1888, is 2,934,057, comprising 1,427,377 males and 1,506,680 females. The ão population was 2,920,723. The number of foreigners was 238,313. The population was divided in respect to religion into 1,724,957 Protestants, 1,190,008 Catholics, 8,386 Israelites, and 10,706 others. Of the 2,934.057 inhabitants, 2,092,530 speak German, 637,972 French. 156,606 Italian, 38,375 Romansch, and 8,572 other languages. The number of emigrants in 1888 was 8,346, of whom 6,764 were destined for the United States. The emigration in 1887 was 7,558 : in 1886, 6,342; in 1885, 7,583; in 1884, 9,608. The city of Zürich, with its suburbs, contained 90,111 inhabitants in 1888; Geneva, 72,254; Basle, 69,814: Bern, 45,966. Finance.—The receipts of the Federal treasury in 1888 were 59,882.864 francs, of which 26.086,144 francs were from customs and 21,591,832 francs from the post-office. The total expenditures were 58,555,088 francs, the largest items being 19.837,573 francs for the post-office and 18,637,214 for military administration. The debt

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