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hysician, had begged, in his earnest and pathetic etters, not to be rescued personally from his perilous situation, but to be relieved by a small military force that would save to civilization the country he had faithfully protected from the onset of Mohammedan fanaticism. He had implored England to take over the province, and when convinced of her apathy turned to Germany. The British Government was not willing §. to take any political action in respect to the udanese provinces of Egypt, and would not suffer Germany to interfere in that region, and, to avoid the political responsibilities and complications that might result, the weight of English influence was cast against the route from the Indian Ocean that Dr. Junker, the Russian explorer, Dr. Schweinfurth, and other experienced travelers joined with Emin in recommending. Sir William Mackinnon, the millionaire Scottis philanthropist, and other British contributors approved the untried route from the Congo, and the King of the Belgians offered the aid of the resources of the Congo Free State. Leaving England in January, 1887, Stanley went first to Zanzibar, where he recruited 620 Zanzibaris, with whom he sailed for the mouth of the Congo. He was accompanied also by 74 other Africans and by 9 Europeans when he left Stanley Pool, in steamers placed at the disposal of the expedition by the Congo Free State, on April 30, 1887. The furthest settlement of the Free State at Stanley Falls had been abandoned in consequence of the hostility of the Arab slavers. In order to restore tranquillity and insure the safety of the expedition the Free State Government, at Stanley's suggestion, had made the chief slave-trader, Tippoo Tib, the salaried administrator of the Stanley Falls district, in which he promised to preserve order. He also agreed to furnish 600 Manyema warriors from the fierce tribe over which he rules in the neighborhood of Nyangwe on the upper Congo. Stanley approved the route by the Congo and Aruwimi because he accepted the calculations that were made in Brussels that the march to the Equatorial Province from the Aruwimi would be less than half the distance from either Zanzibar or the Somali coast, and that the march from Yambuya, the head of navigation on the Aruwimi, to Wadelai could be made in two months. The white companions of Stanley were Major Bart telot, who | served with distinction under Gen. Wolseley in Egypt; Major Sir Andrew Clarke; Lieut. Stairs, of the Royal Engineers, who had charge of the Maxim mitrailleuse firing 600 balls a minute; Capt. Nelson, of Leeds; Dr. Parke; Rose Troup, an English employé of the Congo State; Mounteney Jephson; William Bonny; and Mr. Jameson. Of these, two returned to England long before the termination of the adventure and three perished during the wanderings of the expedition through 4,500 miles of o less forests, so marshes, rugged mountains, and valleys peopled with enemies. From June, 1887, till December, 1889, the party was lost in the dark continent, and no definite news reached the bounds of civilization. Soon after he entered the gloomy forest on the banks of the Aruwimi word came back to the rear-guard that Stanley had sickened and died : a year later the Mahdists boasted that they held him and Emin
risoners at Khartoum, and at several times beore Capt. Wissmann, the German commander in Usagara, received at Mpwapwa the intelligence of the advent of Stanley safe and sound, Arab slave and ivory merchants brought to the east coast rumors of his death. On April 26, 1887, the expedition left Leopoldville, and in June the leader was at Yambuya on the Aruwimi, where he left Major Barttelot with 257 men in charge of the main part of the stores, to await the coming of the promised re-enforcements from Tippoo Tib. This questionable ally was tardy in sending the Manyema, and when Major Barttelot and Mr. Jameson obtained 400 men by going to Stanley Falls after them, either the mutinous disposition of the savages, who refused to carry full loads of ammunition, or the treachery of their chiefs, who perhaps coveted the stores and compassed the failure of the relief expedition, or possibly the rash and imperious demeanor of Major Barttelot, led to his murder and the breakdown of the rear-guard through desertion and pillage at Banalya after it had set out in the tracks of Stanley's advance. Mr. Jameson collected the remnants of the party at Yambuya, and after his death Mr. Bonn held them together, while Salim bin Möß. with 2,000 men, camped in the neighborhood, ready to exterminate them. Stanley's march met with unforeseen difficulty, owing to the dense undergrowth of the forest through which it was necessary to hew a path. He changed his course northeastward, regained the river above the rapids, and launched his sectional steel boat, which carried a considerable part of the stores and the sick as far as the confluence of the Ihuri and Ituri, whence the parts of the boat and its cargo were again slung on men's backs and carried through the sunless, pathless wood, which extended almost to Kavalli, on the shore of Albert Nyanza. With 389 Zanzibaris he ascended the Aruwimi. When he struck across the country in the direction of Albert Nyanza, he was deflected from his route by hostile tribes and compelled to find his way through almost impenetrable swamps and forests. He was prostrated with sickness, and many of his people perished from fever and hunger. In one of Stanley's letters he describes this part of the journey: From July 5 to the middle of October we o to the river. Sometimes its immense curves and long trend northeast would give me sharp twinges of doubt that it was wise to cling to it; on the other hand, the sufferings of the people, the long continuity of forest, the numerous creeks, the mud, the offensive atmosphere, the o rains, the long-lasting mugginess, pleaded eloquently against the abandonment of the river until north latitude 2° should be attained. North latitude 2° I put down as the limit; I would refer to dare anything than go farther north. . In avor of the river was also the certainty of obtainin food. Such a fine broad stream as this, we argued, would surely have settlements on its banks; the settlements would furnish food by fair means or force.
There were villages on the banks, but the people would only sell food at exorbitant prices or not at all. The explorer in such cases resorted to force, o: and burning the villages, and supplying his party with provisions. On Aug. 13, 1887, at Avi Sibba, they were attacked from the opposite side of the river, and Lieut. Stairs, who tried to cross the stream, was hit by a poisoned arrow. He recovered, although the poison was fatal for five of the Suaheli who were wounded. At the rapids, near the fork of the Ituri and Ihuri, Capt. Nelson, with those who were sick or lamed by thorns, remained in camp, and many of them died of starvation, while Stanley, with the rest, going in search of food, encountered hostile tribes, and was prostrated with fever. When the expedition emerged from the forest through which it had toiled for more than five months, it was harassed by the Majamboni until their chief village was burned and a large number of their people shot. Toward the end of December, 1887, the expedition having reached the Nyanza, and being unable to communicate with Emin Pasha, it was decided to return to the forest, build a strong
came into the camp. Returning to Yambuya for the stores and ammunition, he found that the commander had been murdered, the camp plundered, and the garrison reduced by disease and desertion to 71 men, one third of whom were invalids. Nevertheless, he returned to Emin Pasha. The route from Yambuya to Kavalli was divided into stages, each of which occupied many days of toilsome marching and often cutting a path through the forest, with long delays, so that the average movement of Stanley's advance column was little better than two miles daily. The first stage was 184 English miles, from Yambuya northeast up the Aruwimi to Mugwé's villages, on the north bank of the river. The second stage was 59 miles, from Mugwé's villages to Avi Sibba, villages on the south bank. The third stage was 39 miles, from Avi Sibba to the confluence of
fort, get up the steel boat from Kilunga-Lunga, leave the weakly ones at the fort, and again make a move to the lake. Accordingly, the village of Ibwiri was chosen, and on Jan. 7, 1888, the fort was begun. Some collected long poles, others the boards used by the natives in building their villages, others cut long vines to be used as rope, and others dug the holes in which the uprights were to be placed. The poles having been placed in position, two and two, the boards were inserted lengthwise between these and secured, lashed home with strong vines, and so on until a secure arrow-proof “boma,” 10 feet high, surrounded the whole place. Four towers were placed—two at the east and west angles, and one on the north and one on the south faces—to give efficient flank defense. A ditch, 8 feet wide and 7 feet deep, was dug on the north side, and every means possible o to make the place secure
ainst surprise. They had many fights with the diminutive Wambutti who inhabited the region. At Fort Bodo Stanley left 59 men with Capt. Nelson. On April 29, 1888, Emin and Casati
the Nepoko, a large river from the north, with the Aruwimi. The fourth stage was 93 miles, from the Nepoko confluence, or Avi Jeli, to the temporary Arab settlement of the notorious slavedealer and ivory-hunter, Ugarrowa. The fifth stage was 162 miles, by a new road opened in the following year, on the north bank—not the route of the first advance in 1887—to Fort Bodo, in Ibwiri, the depot station constructed by Stanley in 1888. The sixth stage was 126 miles, Fort Bodo to Kavalli, at the south end of Albert Nyanza. The journey from Yambuya back to the lake was begun in August, and on Dec. 20 the expedition came to the shore of Albert Nyanza. They passed through the country of the Akka dwarfs, nearly o: with hunger, and when they reached the Albert Nyanza Emin's soldiers had mutinied and he was a prisoner. An invasion of the Mahdist dervishes impelled the governor's enemies to liberate him. He was still unwilling to leave the province, but when Stanley and his white companions determined to attempt to reach Zanzibar by an unexplored south
erly route, since the revolution in Uganda had closed that country to whites, Emin decided to extricate himself and the 400 Egyptians who chose to follow. Nearly four months were spent in the effort to overcome the scruples of Emin Pasha and Capt. Casati about deserting their people. Stanley, suspecting a plot of the mutinous Arab officers to seize his ammunition, threatened to exterminate them. Stanley was again taken ill, and was near death. wi. he recovered the march began on April 10, 1889. Emin said there were 10,000 ople who would have to be extricated; but tanley refused to wait longer for the fugitives to assemble, and the governor, who had become nearly blind, brought away with him only 514 persons. A circuitous southeasterly route to the stations on the shore of Victoria Nyanza was chosen, in order to avoid as far as possible the country of their enemy Kabrega, King of Unyoro. They passed along a range of snow-capped mountains that culminated in the Ruwenzori peak, nearly 19,000 feet above the sea. This range Mr. Stanley identifies with the Mountains of the Moon shown on the old maps. The position of Ruwenzori, as shown in the new map, is less than one degree north of the equator, and in 30° of east longitude. The mountain range to which it belongs, parallel with Semliki river, extends southwest from a point of the Unyoro tableland opposite the south end of Albert Nyanza, and is about ninety miles long. The Wakonju, who till the slopes of the mountains, are often compelled to retreat '. to the edge of the snow on the approach of Kabrega's Warasura slave-raiders. [. the south the waters of the large lake that Stanley named Albert Edward Nyanza, in honor of the Prince of Wales, flow into the Albert Nyanza through a considerable river called the Semliki. The King of Unyoro had lately conquered this region and held possession of a salt basin yielding an inexhaustible supply of the rare and precious mineral. They fought their way through the Wanyoro, driving them away from the salt lake, and thus earning the ratitude of the tribes beyond, who received them ospitably. On leaving the salt lake of Kative, the expedition passed around the northern extremity of Albert Edward Nyanza, through the country of the Wasangora, who have been nearly exterminated by the Warasura and Waganda, over the populous Ankori plateau, and through Toro, Ruanda, and Karagwe, peopled by fine specimens of the negro race showing, in Stanley's opinion, an admixture of Abyssinian blood, to Uzinja. The course of march from Albert Edward Nyanza to the Uzinja country on the southwest shore of the Victoria Nyanza was nearly a direct line. An arm of the Victoria lake extends southwest, reaching within 155 miles of Lake Tanganyika. The shore line as marked by previous explorers Stanley found to be only a succession of islands, behind which the lake extends over a surface of 6,000 square miles. On Aug. 28, 1889, they reached A. M. Mackay's missionary station at Msalala, in the country of the Wanyamwesi. The party passed south of Lake Victoria, through Uyamwesi, halted on Nov. 10 at Mpwapwa, where the Germans had a garrison, and finally emerged at Bagamoyo on Dec. 4, 1889. The caravan had dwindled, since it left
Albert Edward Nyanza, from 1,500 to half that number. Stanley's latest journey in Africa lasted 1,012 days, of which hardly twenty were devoid of perils or tragic incidents. The cost of the expedition was $150,000. (See GEogr Aphical PROGRESS AND Discovery in this volume, especially the map on page 349. See also the o PAshA in the “Annual Cyclopaedia” for 1887 and 1888.) SWEDEN AND NORWAY, two kingdoms in northern Europe, united in a personal and federal union by the act of Aug. 6, 1815. They have a common diplomacy, which is directed by a Council of State, composed of Swedes and Norwegians. The reigning monarch is Oscar II, born Jan. 21, 1829, who succeeded his brother Carl XV on Sept. 18, 1872. The heir-apparent is Prince Gustaf, Duke of Wermland, born June 16, 1858. Sweden.—The legislative authority is vested in a Diet of two Chambers, the first consisting of 145 members, elected by provincial and municipal bodies, and the second of 222 members, elected directly, or in the smaller towns and country districts indirectly, if the majority so determines. Of the total number, 76 are chosen by the people of the towns and 146 by the people of the rural districts, under a property qualification. The qualified voters constitute 5.9 per cent. of the total population. The Council of State is composed of the following members: Baron Didric Anders Gillis Brandt, Minister of State; Count Albert Carl August Lars Ehrensvärd, Minister of Foreign Affairs: Per Axel Bergström, Minister of Justice: Baron Nils Axel Hjalmer Palmstjerna, Minister of War; Baron Carl Gustaf von Otter, Minister of Marine; Julius Edvard von Krusenstjerna, Minister of the Interior: Baron Frederik von Essen, Minister of Finance; Gunnar Wennerburg, Minister of Education and Ecclesiastical Affairs: Johan Henrik Lovén; Gustaf Walter Leopold Lönegren. Area and Population.—The area of Sweden is 170,979 square miles. The population on Dec. 31, 1888, was 4,748.257, of whom 2,301,104 were males and 2,447.153 females. The number of marriages in 1887 was 29,517; of births, 144,019; of deaths, 80,077; excess of births over deaths, 63,942. The population of Stockholm, the capital, in 1888 was 234,990. The number of emigrants in 1887 was 50,786, against 32.889 in 1886, 23,493 in 1885, 23,560 in 1884, 31,605 in 1883, 50,178 in 1882, and 45,992 in 1881, the average for the previous ten years having been 15,027. Finance.—About two thirds of the revenue is derived from indirect taxation and one third is the product of direct taxes and national property. The total revenue is set down in the budget for 1890 as 92,767,000 kronor, including a surplus of 5,582,000 kronor carried over from the preceding year. The receipts from the land tax, and from domains and forests, railroads and telegraphs, classed as the ordinary revenue of the Government, amount to 19.985,000 kronor, and the extraordinary receipts to 65,900,000 kronor, including 37,000,000 kronor from customs, 13,700,000 kronor from the duty on brandy, 6,900,000 kronor from the post-office, 3,700,000 kronor from stamped paper, and 3,700,000 kronor from the income tax. The amount of the public debt on Jan. 1, 1889, was 264,893,336 kronor.