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of debate. The Conservatives interpellated the Government on the subject of the corruption and misgovernment of the civil authorities of Madrid and other cities and their falsification of the electoral lists. Obstruction in the Chamber by the Democrats and the Conservatives, the friends and the enemies of universal suffrage, leagued together, led to violent and disorderly scenes. Martos, who seemed to favor the obstructionists, drew upon himself a vote of censure as the result of his openly taking ground against the ministry on economical questions as the leader of a strong group of dissentient Liberals, including Gamazo, Gen. Cassola, the Duke Tetuan, Gen. Lopez Dominguez, and Romero Robledo, who called for the taxation of capital and incomes. An income-tax of only one per cent. that was proposed by the Minister of Finance had o an outcry among the commercial and property-owning class, which feared it would soon be followed by greater demands. The majority demanded his resignation when, with his supporters, he declined to vote with the Government against Señor Villaverde's proposition in behalf of the Conservative opposition to raise the duties on cereals, and after a riotous session on May 23 the Queen signed a decree of adjournment. Subsequently the Government declared the session closed, in order to prevent Martos from again taking the chair, and when the Congress was reassembled for a new session on June 14 Alonso Martinez was elected president by the ministerial majority. The Cortes closed their session on July 18 without enacting universal suffrage, or reducing the land and cattle tax, or carrying out other important particulars of the ministerial programme, or even voting the budget for 1889–90 and the colonial budget. Later in the year Señor Sagasta came to an understanding with several of the dissident leaders, Señor Martos alone manifesting an irreconcilable disposition. The revolution in Brazil produced fresh activity among the Spanish Republicans, especially the Federalists. |. Cortes met again on Oct. 29 to vote the budget and discuss universal suffrage and other legislative projects that have been deferred to the last session of the legislative period. STANLEY, HENRY MORTON, an American explorer, born near Denbigh, Wales, in 1840. His name was originally John Rowlands. When three years old he became an inmate of the poorhouse at St. Asaph, where he made such progress in the school that he was employed as a teacher of other children at Mold, Flintshire, when he went away at the age of thirteen. Two years later he sailed as cabin-boy on board a vessel bound for New Orleans, and in that city he found a friend in a merchant, who adopted him and gave him his own name, but | leaving no will. Young Stanley, left to his own resources, went to California, where he sought his fortune in the gold mines. When the civil war broke out he became a soldier in the Confederate army. He was made a prisoner, and subsequently took service in the United States navy, becoming acting ensign on the ironclad “Ticonderoga.” After the close of the war he became a newspaper correspondent, writing a series of letters from Crete and Asia Minor. When the English expedition was sent against King Theo

dore of Abyssinia in 1867, he accompanied it as commissioner of the New York |, He made his reputation as a correspondent by sending an account of Lord Napier's victory to London before the official dispatches arrived. In 1868 he went to Spain to report the Carlist war for the same paper. He was called away from there in October, 1869, to go in search of Dr. David Livingstone in Africa, from whom no news had been received for more than two years, and who was reported to have been killed, but whom James G. Bennett, proprietor of the “Herald,” believed to be still alive. When he arrived in Paris, on a telegraphic summons “on important business,” he was directed by Mr. Bennett to act according to his own plans and to do what he thought best, but to “find Livingstone.” He first went to Egypt and reported the opening of the Suez Canal, then visited Constantinople and Jerusalem, crossed Russian territory into Persia, made his way into India by that route, and on Oct. 12, 1870, set sail from Bombay in one of the steamers plying between that place and Zanzibar, which he reached early in January, 1871. He organized a large expedition of 192 men, which he sent off in five parties, the first of which went inland by one of the Arab trade routes on Feb. 18, 1871. He accompanied the hindmost caravan, leaving the coast on March 21. His objective point was Ujiji. For the first month he could only make his way through the tropical forest at the rate of four miles a day. He experienced innumerable difficulties not only with insubordinate carriers and native followers, but from the English and Scotch assistants that he had engaged. In the middle of April he learned from an Arab trader that he met that Livingstone was indeed alive and was at Ujiji when the Arab left. When he reached Unyamyembe in June he had accom|..." half his journey, but was rendered almost

elpless by o fever. Moreover, a war between the tribes beyond made it dangerous to proceed, and therefore he halted at that place for nearly three months. While there he heard again that Livingstone was at Ujiji, on Lake Tangayika, the headquarters in the interior of the Arab slave and ivory trade. Pushing on again at the end of August, he met with fewer natural obstacles in completing the remaining 400 miles of his journey, passing through a sertile and well-peopled country, where every local chief 'o tribute for the privilege of R. ing through his narrow dominions. On Nov. 10, 1871, he came to Ujiji. His people fired a salute with their rifles and marched into the place with the American colors flying. Livingstone's followers came out and conducted the leader of the search expedition to the house of the veteran Scotch missionary and explorer, who advanced to grasp the hand of the young American. Dr. Livingstone would not return to civilization until he had completed the explorations that he had undertaken. The two travelers passed four months together, and then Stanley returned to the coast, being accompanied as far as Unyamyembe, where there were stores waiting for them both. He was impeded on his return journey by inundations, but made the best progress that he could, and arrived at the town of Zanzibar in May, 1872. There he found the expedition of the British Geographical Society on the point of setting out, in search of Livingstone. This was given up when the members learned of the success of Stanley, who was supposed to have perished; but subsequently Lieutenant Verney 1. Cameron undertook a journey of exploration into the interior of Africa. Before leaving Zanzibar Stanley fitted out a caravan, which brought fresh stores and equipments for Dr. Livingstone's o: exploratory journey. When it arrived at Ujiji at the end of five months the pioneer explorer set out on his last trip, dying of dysentery, which attacked him by reason of the o ful condition of the flooded country, on May 1, 1873, before he had finished his chosen task, Stanley reached England in July, 1872, and gave an account of his travels at the meeting of the British Association in AuÉ. He received marks and testimonials of onor and admiration from every source. In the November following he brought out his book, giving a narrative of his wanderings under the title of “How I found Livingstone.” In 1874 he set out on his second and most famous African expedition in the commission of the New York “Herald" and the London “Daily Telegraph.” He intended to explore the lake region, to seek out Livingstone again, to explore the mysterious river Lualaba that Livingstone supposed to be identical with the Nile, and if, as Cameron and others supposed, it was the Congo, to follow it down to the Atlantic Ocean. He learned at Zanzibar, where he arrived in the autumn of 1874, that Livingstone had died on the shore of Lake Bangweolo. All the other parts of his task he accomplished in the most fruitful and at the same time the most rapid journey that had ever been made by an African explorer. Directing his course to the Victoria Nyanza, he reached it in February, 1875, having met with trying hardships of many kinds and engaged in deadly encounters with the native tribes that attempted to block his progress. Out of 300 followers who set out with him from Zanzibar he lost 104 by death or desertion. He was the first to circumnavigate the Victoria lake, which he found to be a much more important body of water than had ever been supposed, in fact, the largest fresh-water lake on the globe, with an area of 40,000 square miles and a shore line of 1,000 miles. On his way from Ugogo to the lake he discovered the Shimeeyu river, which he took to be the most remote source of the Nile, and on his voyage around the lake he came upon Speke's Kitangulé river, which he rebaptized the Alexandra Nile. The lake he found to be studded with large islands, many of them inhabited. On April 17, 1875, he left the Victoria Nyanza with the intention of exploring the Albert Nyanza. He found that this lake was not connected, as had been assumed, with Tanganyika, plotted the country between the Victoria and Albert lakes, and met with specimens of the fairskinned tribe of which Gessi had heard accounts, but was not able to do for the Albert Nyanza what he had done for the larger lake on account of the hostility of the natives. He therefore returned to Ujiji, exploring Lake Tanganyika and examining the supposed Lukuga outlet, which he found was not at that time an outlet, but thought might be one periodically when the sur

face of the lake rose to a certain level. After his examination of the shores of Tanganyika he was undecided whether to solve the problem of the Lualaba or return home, and determined the matter by the toss of a coin with his assistant Pocock. He embarked on the great river, which he named Livingstone in honor of its discoverer, and descended it in canoes in eight months, reaching the coast in August, 1877. The perils and privations that he passed through exceeded any that he had before endured. Of his attendants 35 died or were killed in battles with the natives on the river. Arriving at a Portuguese settlement on the Atlantic coast, he was conveyed on a war-vessel to San Paul de Loanda, whence the next English steamer that touched carried him and his Zanzibar carriers to Cape Town, and another steamer took them to their homes. The explorer reached England in February, 1878. The French Government, on June 28, 1878, presented him with the cross of the Legion of Honor. The account of his travels, sufferings, and geographical discoveries was published in a book called “Across the Dark Continent” jok Leopold, King of the Belgians, determined to aid with his great private fortune in the commercial development and civilization of the rich regions that the traveler had passed through in his descent of the Congo. Accordingly, the International African Association was formed, and Stanley was intrusted with the task of carrying out its philanthropic objects. He had at his disposal abundant means, King Leopold offering to ive $250,000 a year. Going to the mouth of the ongo in the year after his return, he first built a road along the side of the lower Congo through the hilly section traversed by the rapids. When transportation of bulky objects was thus made o: between Emboma and Stanley Pool, he ad steamers conveyed to the upper river in parts. For four years he stood at the head of the Belgian enterprise, from which was developed the Free State of the Congo with recognized sovereign rights over the Congo basin and an international guarantee of neutrality. During that period he planted trading-stations along the river from the pool to Stanley Falls, a distance of 1,400 miles, and established a beginning of civil government throughout that region. He declined the proffered governorship of the Free State, retiring from its service in 1883, after comleting a new expedition to the equator. While i. directed the operations of the Belgian society in Africa he resisted the pretensions of France, put forward by M. de Brazza, to the sovereignty of both sides of the Congo, which would have deprived the Congo State of access to the upper Congo and its tributaries, and thus defeated all its objects. He described his actions in connection with King Leopold's enterprise in the volume called “The Congo and the Founding of the Free State.” Near the close of 1886 Stanley, under the auspices of the Egyptian Government and of English societies and individuals, undertook an expedition for the relief of Emin Pasha, who had of his own will continued to exercise the functions of Egyptian Governor of the Equatorial Province after the Soudan was abandoned. Emin Pasha, who was Dr. Eduard Schnitzer, a German


hysician, had begged, in his earnest and pathetic etters, not to be rescued personally from his perilous situation, but to be relieved by a small military force that would save to civilization the country he had faithfully protected from the onset of Mohammedan fanaticism. He had implored England to take over the province, and when convinced of her apathy turned to Germany. The British Government was not willing §. to take any political action in respect to the udanese provinces of Egypt, and would not suffer Germany to interfere in that region, and, to avoid the political responsibilities and complications that might result, the weight of English influence was cast against the route from the Indian Ocean that Dr. Junker, the Russian explorer, Dr. Schweinfurth, and other experienced travelers joined with Emin in recommending. Sir William Mackinnon, the millionaire Scottis philanthropist, and other British contributors approved the untried route from the Congo, and the King of the Belgians offered the aid of the resources of the Congo Free State. Leaving England in January, 1887, Stanley went first to Zanzibar, where he recruited 620 Zanzibaris, with whom he sailed for the mouth of the Congo. He was accompanied also by 74 other Africans and by 9 Europeans when he left Stanley Pool, in steamers placed at the disposal of the expedition by the Congo Free State, on April 30, 1887. The furthest settlement of the Free State at Stanley Falls had been abandoned in consequence of the hostility of the Arab slavers. In order to restore tranquillity and insure the safety of the expedition the Free State Government, at Stanley's suggestion, had made the chief slave-trader, Tippoo Tib, the salaried administrator of the Stanley Falls district, in which he promised to preserve order. He also agreed to furnish 600 Manyema warriors from the fierce tribe over which he rules in the neighborhood of Nyangwe on the upper Congo. Stanley approved the route by the Congo and Aruwimi because he accepted the calculations that were made in Brussels that the march to the Equatorial Province from the Aruwimi would be less than half the distance from either Zanzibar or the Somali coast, and that the march from Yambuya, the head of navigation on the Aruwimi, to Wadelai could be made in two months. The white companions of Stanley were Major Bart telot, who | served with distinction under Gen. Wolseley in Egypt; Major Sir Andrew Clarke; Lieut. Stairs, of the Royal Engineers, who had charge of the Maxim mitrailleuse firing 600 balls a minute; Capt. Nelson, of Leeds; Dr. Parke; Rose Troup, an English employé of the Congo State; Mounteney Jephson; William Bonny; and Mr. Jameson. Of these, two returned to England long before the termination of the adventure and three perished during the wanderings of the expedition through 4,500 miles of o less forests, so marshes, rugged mountains, and valleys peopled with enemies. From June, 1887, till December, 1889, the party was lost in the dark continent, and no definite news reached the bounds of civilization. Soon after he entered the gloomy forest on the banks of the Aruwimi word came back to the rear-guard that Stanley had sickened and died : a year later the Mahdists boasted that they held him and Emin

risoners at Khartoum, and at several times beore Capt. Wissmann, the German commander in Usagara, received at Mpwapwa the intelligence of the advent of Stanley safe and sound, Arab slave and ivory merchants brought to the east coast rumors of his death. On April 26, 1887, the expedition left Leopoldville, and in June the leader was at Yambuya on the Aruwimi, where he left Major Barttelot with 257 men in charge of the main part of the stores, to await the coming of the promised re-enforcements from Tippoo Tib. This questionable ally was tardy in sending the Manyema, and when Major Barttelot and Mr. Jameson obtained 400 men by going to Stanley Falls after them, either the mutinous disposition of the savages, who refused to carry full loads of ammunition, or the treachery of their chiefs, who perhaps coveted the stores and compassed the failure of the relief expedition, or possibly the rash and imperious demeanor of Major Barttelot, led to his murder and the breakdown of the rear-guard through desertion and pillage at Banalya after it had set out in the tracks of Stanley's advance. Mr. Jameson collected the remnants of the party at Yambuya, and after his death Mr. Bonn held them together, while Salim bin Möß. with 2,000 men, camped in the neighborhood, ready to exterminate them. Stanley's march met with unforeseen difficulty, owing to the dense undergrowth of the forest through which it was necessary to hew a path. He changed his course northeastward, regained the river above the rapids, and launched his sectional steel boat, which carried a considerable part of the stores and the sick as far as the confluence of the Ihuri and Ituri, whence the parts of the boat and its cargo were again slung on men's backs and carried through the sunless, pathless wood, which extended almost to Kavalli, on the shore of Albert Nyanza. With 389 Zanzibaris he ascended the Aruwimi. When he struck across the country in the direction of Albert Nyanza, he was deflected from his route by hostile tribes and compelled to find his way through almost impenetrable swamps and forests. He was prostrated with sickness, and many of his people perished from fever and hunger. In one of Stanley's letters he describes this part of the journey: From July 5 to the middle of October we o to the river. Sometimes its immense curves and long trend northeast would give me sharp twinges of doubt that it was wise to cling to it; on the other hand, the sufferings of the people, the long continuity of forest, the numerous creeks, the mud, the offensive atmosphere, the o rains, the long-lasting mugginess, pleaded eloquently against the abandonment of the river until north latitude 2° should be attained. North latitude 2° I put down as the limit; I would refer to dare anything than go farther north. . In avor of the river was also the certainty of obtainin food. Such a fine broad stream as this, we argued, would surely have settlements on its banks; the settlements would furnish food by fair means or force.

There were villages on the banks, but the people would only sell food at exorbitant prices or not at all. The explorer in such cases resorted to force, o: and burning the villages, and supplying his party with provisions. On Aug. 13, 1887, at Avi Sibba, they were attacked from the opposite side of the river, and Lieut. Stairs, who tried to cross the stream, was hit by a poisoned arrow. He recovered, although the poison was fatal for five of the Suaheli who were wounded. At the rapids, near the fork of the Ituri and Ihuri, Capt. Nelson, with those who were sick or lamed by thorns, remained in camp, and many of them died of starvation, while Stanley, with the rest, going in search of food, encountered hostile tribes, and was prostrated with fever. When the expedition emerged from the forest through which it had toiled for more than five months, it was harassed by the Majamboni until their chief village was burned and a large number of their people shot. Toward the end of December, 1887, the expedition having reached the Nyanza, and being unable to communicate with }. Pasha, it was decided to return to the forest, build a strong

came into the camp. Returning to Yambuya for the stores and ammunition, he found that the commander had been murdered, the camp plundered, and the garrison reduced by disease and desertion to 71 men, one third of whom were invalids. Nevertheless, he returned to Emin Pasha. The route from Yambuya to Kavalli was divided into stages, each of which occupied many days of toilsome marching and often cutting a path through the forest, with long delays, so that the average movement of Stanley's advance column was little better than two miles daily. The first stage was 184 English miles, from Yambuya northeast up the Aruwimi to Mugwé's villages, on the north bank of the river. The second stage was 59 miles, from Mugwé's villages to Avi Sibba, villages on the south bank. The third stage was 39 miles, from Avi Sibba to the confluence of

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fort, get up the steel boat from Kilunga-Lunga, leave the weakly ones at the fort, and again make a move to the lake. Accordingly, the village of Ibwiri was chosen, and on Jan. 7, 1888, the fort was begun. Some collected long poles, others the boards used by the natives in building their villages, others cut long vines to be used as rope, and others dug the holes in which the uprights were to be placed. The poles having been placed in position, two and two, the boards were inserted lengthwise between these and secured, lashed home with strong vines, and so on until a secure arrow-proof “boma,” 10 feet high, surrounded the whole place. Four towers were placed—two at the east and west angles, and one on the north and one on the south faces—to give efficient flank defense. A ditch, 8 feet wide and 7 feet deep, was dug on the north side, and every means possible adopted to make the place secure against surprise. #. had many fights with the diminutive Wambutti who inhabited the region. At Fort Bodo Stanley left 59 men with Capt. Nelson. On April 29, 1888, Emin and Casati

the Nepoko, a large river from the north, with the Aruwimi. The fourth stage was 93 miles, from the Nepoko confluence, or Avi Jeli, to the temporary Arab settlement of the notorious slavedealer and ivory-hunter, Ugarrowa. The fifth stage was 162 miles, by a new road opened in the following year, on the north bank—not the route of the first advance in 1887—to Fort Bodo, in Ibwiri, the depot station constructed by Stanley in 1888. The sixth stage was 126 miles, Fort Bodo to Kavalli, at the south end of Albert Nyanza. The journey from Yambuya back to the lake was begun in August, and on Dec. 20 the expedition came to the shore of Albert Nyanza. They passed through the country of the Akka dwarfs, nearly o: with hunger, and when they reached the Albert Nyanza Emin's soldiers had mutinied and he was a prisoner. An invasion of the Mahdist dervishes impelled the governor's enemies to liberate him. He was still unwilling to leave the province, but when Stanley and his white companions determined to attempt to reach Zanzibar by an unexplored south

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