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of debate. The Conservatives interpellated the Government on the subject of the corruption and misgovernment of the civil authorities of Madrid and other cities and their falsification of the electoral lists. Obstruction in the Chamber by the Democrats and the Conservatives, the friends and the enemies of universal suffrage, leagued together, led to violent and disorderly scenes. Martos, who seemed to favor the obstructionists, drew upon himself a vote of censure as the result of his openly taking ground against the ministry on economical questions as the leader of a strong group of dissentient Liberals, including Gamazo, Gen. Cassola, the Duke Tetuan, Gen. Lopez Dominguez, and Romero Robledo, who called for the taxation of capital and incomes. An income-tax of only one per cent. that was Fo by the Minister of Finance had caused an outcry among the commercial and property-owning class, which feared it would soon be followed by greater demands. The majority demanded his resignation when, with his supporters, he declined to vote with the Government against Señor Villaverde's proposition in behalf of the Conservative opposition to raise the duties on cereals, and after a riotous session on May 23 the Queen signed a decree of adjournment. Subsequently the Government declared the session closed, in order to prevent Martos from again taking the chair, and when the Conss was reassembled for a new session on June 4 Alonso Martinez was elected president by the ministerial majority. The Cortes closed their session on July 18 without enacting universal suffrage, or reducing the land and cattle tax, or carrying out other important particulars of the ministerial programme, or even voting the budget for jo and the colonial budget. Later in the year Señor Sagasta came to an understanding with several of the dissident leaders, Señor Martos alone manifesting an irreconcilable disition. The revolution in Brazil produced resh activity among the Spanish Republicans, especially the Federalists. The Cortes met again on Oct. 29 to vote the budget and discuss universal suffrage and other legislative projects that have been deferred to the last session of the legislative period. STANLEY, HENRY MORTON, an American explorer, born near Denbigh, Wales, in 1840. His name was originally John Rowlands. When three years old he became an inmate of the poorhouse at St. Asaph, where he made such progress in the school that he was employed as a teacher of other children at Mold, Flintshire, when he went away at the age of thirteen. Two years later he sailed as cabin-boy on board a vessel bound for New Orleans, and in that city, he found a friend in a merchant, who adopted him and gave him his own name, but died, leaving no will. Young Stanley, left to his own resources, went to California, where he sought his fortune in the gold mines. When the civil war broke out he became a soldier in the Confederate army. He was made a prisoner, and subsequently took service in the United, becoming acting ensign on the ironclad “Ticonderoga.” After the close of the war he became a newspaper correspondent, writing a series of letters from Crete and Asia Minor. When the English expedition was sent against King Theo

dore of Abyssinia in 1867, he accompanied it as commissioner of the New York “Herald.” He made his reputation as a correspondent by sending an account of Lord Napier's victory to London before the official dispatches arrived. In 1868 he went to Spain to report the Carlist war for the same paper. He was called away from there in October, 1869, to in search of Dr. David Livingstone in Africa, from whom no news had been received for more than two ears, and who was reported to have been killed, ut whom James G. Bennett, proprietor of the “Herald,” believed to be still alive. When he arrived in Paris, on a telegraphic summons “on important business,” he was directed by Mr. Bennett to act according to his own plans and to do what he thought i. but to “find Livingstone.” He first went to Egypt and reported the opening of the Suez Canal, then visited Constantinople and Jerusalem, crossed Russian territory into Persia, made his way into India by that route, and on Oct. 12, 1870, set sail from Bombay in one of the steamers plying between that place and Zanzibar, which he reached early in January, 1871. He organized a large expedition of 192 men, which he sent off in five parties, the first of which went inland by one of the Arab trade routes on Feb. 18, 1871. He accompanied the hindmost caravan, leaving the coast on March 21. His objective point was Ujiji. For the first month he could only make his way through the tropical forest at the rate of four miles a day. He experienced innumerable difficulties not only with insubordinate carriers and native followers, but from the English and Scotch assistants that he had engaged. In the middle of April he learned from an Arab trader that he met that Livingstone was indeed alive and was at Ujiji when the Arab left. When he reached Unyamyembe in June he had accomF. half his journey, but was rendered almost elpless by swamp fever. Moreover, a war between the tribes beyond made it dangerous to roceed, and therefore he halted at that place or nearly three months. While there he heard in that Livingstone was at Ujiji, on Lake *... the headquarters in the interior of the Arab slave and ivory trade. Pushing on again at the end of August, he met with fewer natural obstacles in completing the remaining 400 miles of his journey, passing through a fertile and ...]". country, where every local chief extorted tribute for the privilege of passing through his narrow dominions. On Nov. 10, 1871, he came to Ujiji. His people fired a salute with their rifles and marched into the place with the American colors flying. Livingstone's followers came out and conducted the leader of the search expedition to the house of the veteran Scotch missionary and explorer, who advanced to grasp the hand of the young American. Dr. Livingstone would not return to civilization until he had completed the explorations that he had undertaken. The two travelers passed four months together, and then Stanley returned to the coast, being accompanied as far as Unyamyembe, where there were stores waiting for them both. He was impeded on his return journey by inundations, but made the best pro that he could, and arrived at the town of Žio. in May, 1872. There he found the expedition of the British Geographical Society on the point of setting out, in search of Livingstone. This was given up when the members learned of the success of Stanley, who was supposed to have perished; but subsequently Lieutenant Verney 1. Cameron undertook a journey of exploration into the interior of Africa. Before leaving Zanzibar Stanley fitted out a caravan, which brought fresh stores and equipments for Dr. Livingstone's o: exploratory journey. When it arrived at Ujiji at the end of five months the pioneer explorer set out on his last trip, dying of dysentery, which attacked him by reason of the o ful condition of the flooded country, on May 1, 1873, before he had finished his chosen task, Stanley reached England in July, 1872, and gave an account of his travels at the meeting of the British Association in AuÉ. He received marks and testimonials of onor and admiration from every source. In the November following he brought out his book, giving a narrative of his wanderings under the title of “How I found Livingstone.” In 1874 he set out on his second and most famous African expedition in the commission of the New York “Herald" and the London “Daily Telegraph.” He intended to explore the lake region, to seek out Livingstone again, to explore the mysterious river Lualaba that Livingstone supposed to be identical with the Nile, and if, as Cameron and others supposed, it was the Congo, to follow it down to the Atlantic Ocean. He learned at Zanzibar, where he arrived in the autumn of 1874, that Livingstone had died on the shore of Lake Bangweolo. All the other parts of his task he accomplished in the most fruitful and at the same time the most rapid journey that had ever been made by an African explorer. Directing his course to the Victoria Nyanza, he reached it in February, 1875, having met with trying hardships of many kinds and engaged in deadly encounters with the native tribes that attempted to block his progress. Out of 300 followers who set out with him from Zanzibar he lost 104 by death or desertion. He was the first to circumnavigate the Victoria lake, which he found to be a much more important body of water than had ever been supposed, in fact, the largest fresh-water lake on the globe, with an area of 40,000 square miles and a shore line of 1,000 miles. On his way from Ugogo to the lake he discovered the Shimeeyu river, which he took to be the most remote source of the Nile, and on his voyage around the lake he came upon Speke's Kitangulé river, which he rebaptized the Alexandra Nile. The lake he found to be studded with large islands, many of them inhabited. On April 17, 1875, he left the Victoria Nyanza with the intention of exploring the Albert Nyanza. He found that this lake was not connected, as had been assumed, with Tanganyika, plotted the country between the Victoria and Albert lakes, and met with specimens of the fairskinned tribe of which Gessi had heard accounts, but was not able to do for the Albert Nyanza what he had done for the larger lake on account of the hostility of the natives. He therefore returned to Ujiji, exploring Lake Tanganyika and examining the supposed Lukuga outlet, which he found was not at that time an outlet, but thought might be one periodically when the sur

face of the lake rose to a certain level. After his examination of the shores of Tanganyika he was undecided whether to solve the problem of the Lualaba or return home, and determined the matter by the toss of a coin with his assistant Pocock. He embarked on the great river, which he named Livingstone in honor of its discoverer, and descended it in canoes in eight months, reaching the coast in August, 1877. The perils and privations that he passed through exceeded any that he had before endured. Of his attendants 35 died or were killed in battles with the natives on the river. Arriving at a Portuguese settlement on the Atlantic coast, he was conveyed on a war-vessel to San Paul de Loanda, whence the next English steamer that touched carried him and his Zanzibar carriers to Cape Town, and another steamer took them to their homes. The explorer reached England in February, 1878. The French Government, on June 28, 1878, presented him with the cross of the Legion of Honor. The account of his travels, sufferings, and geographical discoveries was published in a book called “Across the Dark Continent” jok Leopold, King of the Belgians, determined to aid with his great private fortune in the commercial development and civilization of the rich regions that the traveler had passed through in his descent of the Congo. Accordingly, the International African Association was formed, and Stanley was intrusted with the task of carrying out its philanthropic objects. He had at his disposal abundant means, King Leopold offering to ive $250,000 a year. Going to the mouth of the ongo in the year after his return, he first built a road along the side of the lower Congo through the hilly section traversed by the rapids. When transportation of bulky objects was thus made o: between Emboma and Stanley Pool, he ad steamers conveyed to the upper river in parts. For four years he stood at the head of the Belgian enterprise, from which was developed the Free State of the Congo with recognized sovereign rights over the Congo basin and an international guarantee of neutrality. During that period he planted trading-stations along the river from the pool to Stanley Falls, a distance of 1,400 miles, and established a beginning of civil government throughout that region. He declined the proffered governorship of the Free State, retiring from its service in 1883, after comleting a new expedition to the equator. While i. directed the operations of the Belgian society in Africa he resisted the pretensions of France, put forward by M. de Brazza, to the sovereignty of both sides of the Congo, which would have deprived the Congo State of access to the upper Congo and its tributaries, and thus defeated all its objects. He described his actions in connection with King Leopold's enterprise in the volume called “The Congo and the Founding of the Free State.” Near the close of 1886 Stanley, under the auspices of the Egyptian Government and of English societies and individuals, undertook an expedition for the relief of Emin Pasha, who had of his own will continued to exercise the functions of Egyptian Governor of the Equatorial Province after the Soudan was abandoned. Emin Pasha, who was Dr. Eduard Schnitzer, a German

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