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le or blackberry pie, bread, butter, coffee. Supper: iscuit, bread, rolled oats or hominy, syrup, butter,

Friday.—Breakfast: mackerel, potatoes, bread, butter, coffee. Dinner: stewed codfish with egg sauce, or fresh lake trout, fried, mashed, or boiled potatoes, bread, butter, coffee. Supper: stewed apples or currants or prunes, cinnamon cake, bread, cheese, tea. Saturday.—Breakfast: corned-beef hash, bread, butter, coffee. Dinner: boiled pork loins, or pickled shoulders, stewed beans, cabbage or sauerkraut, potatoes, tomato catsup, bread, butter, coffee. Supper: boiled rice or hominy, syrup, biscuit, butter, tea. Changes are made in the general dining-hall once in three months. The hospital bill of fare is prescribed by the surgeon. rinted forms for application for admission to the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, or any of its branches, may be obtained from the secretary of the board of managers, or from the governor of any of the branches. The first branch of the National Home that was ready to receive disabled soldiers was the Eastern branch, at Togus, near Augusta, Me., which was opened Nov. 10, 1866. Although the formation of most of the branches necessitated the purchase of land and building thereupon, that at Togus was founded on a summer resort which contained about 1,100 acres of land and good buildings. The property was in fine condition, having had expended upon it not less than $200,000, and was purchased by the United States Government at an expense of $50,000. In

are spacious, a large portion in farming-land, while there is also a great number of ornamental trees, shrubbery, cultivated lawns, clean and broad and good avenues, and fine flower-gardens. A reservoir, supplied from springs, with a running stream, a rustic bridge, and the residence of the chief official and minor buildings, give variety to the scene. A battery of guns is an appropriate adjunct. The main buildings have upright or French roofs and are ornamented with towers on which are flag-staffs. Piazzas traverse their sides. The interior of these buildings show lofty rooms, comprising administrative apartments, dormitories, post office, telegraph of fice, library and reading-room, smoking-room, etc. . All the buildings are well supplied with heating apparatus, water, gas, improved ventilation, and bath-rooms, being heated by steam. State Homes.—There are other homes in the different States, known as “State Homes for Disabled Soldiers and Sailors of the United States,” existing under State enactment, but having a certain relation to the United States Government through the National Home and the War Department, which annually reports to Congress upon all the soldiers' homes. New Jersey, Kearny.—The first of the State homes to be established was that of New Jersey, the act in regard to it having been approved March 23, 1. appointing a commission with authority to purchase or lease a site and erect a soldiers' home. Pursuant to this a home was

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river and 75 feet above high-water mark. There are nine buildings, those used for dormitories being but one story high. The other buildings are an old men's ward, a hospital, a large structure containing the kitchen and the dining-hall,

their children, and widows and children under the age of fifteen of soldiers who died in the service, are admitted. The number of members present at the last inspection was 89 and one Wonnail.

ILLINois soldiers' AND sailors' Home, NEAR QUINCY.

a chapel, a laundry, an administrative building, and a barn. A smoking-room and recreationroom and large piazzas give ample space for rest or amusement of the inmates. The amount of appropriations made by the State up to March 6, 1888, was $300,000. Number of members present at annual inspection. Jan. 2, 1889, 276. California, Yountville.—This Home is 54 miles north of San Francisco, at Yountville, Napa County, 9 miles from Napa. The buildings are mostly of wood, with verandas, and include a large central barrack or dormitory, library, messhall, and quarters for the members. It is called the Veteran's Home. There are also two cottages, built at private expense, and two other buildings. The capacity of the buildings for quarters is 230. The Home possesses 912 acres of land, 200 of which are arable. A large crop of grapes is cultivated. At the date of the last inspection the number of members present was 211. This, Home was organized by the Grand Army of the Republic and the veterans of the Mexican War, and incorporated March 10, 1882. The limit of maintenance is $30,000, the sum of $150 per annum being allowed for each veteran admitted. Nebraska, Grand Island.—This Home consists of one large building, 100 x 50 feet, and comprises 640 acres of prairie land, two miles from the city of Grand Island. Its capacity is for 125 members. It was established by act approved March 4, 1887. Wives of soldiers with vol. xxix.-49 A

Iowa, Marshalltown.—This Home occupies one building, on an estate of 128 acres, given by the citizens of Marshalltown, from which it is distant about a mile and a half. The building has four stories, with wings and a central tower. It has a capacity for 350 beds. The grounds are handsomely embellished, and include a pond 350 feet in circumference, with a large fountain in its center. At the last inspection there were 259 members. The average cost for each inmate is $120 per annum.

Illinois, Quincy.—The Illinois Soldiers' and Sailors' Home is two miles from the city hall of Quincy, and comprises a park covering 142 acres of land, containing balconied buildings of brick and stone, including 17 cottages, an administrative building in the Norman style, turreted, 85 x 60, of limestone, a hospital, superintendent's residence, boiler house, laundry, kitchen, bakery, and storehouse. The capacity of the Home is 900 men, and at the last annual report 595 were present. The product of the farm at the last report amounted to $6,000; expenses for the year, $76,983.50. The annual appropriations for the Home (which was organized in 1885) for maintenance average about $125,000.

Wisconsin, Waupaca.-The Wisconsin Veterans' Home is three miles east of the village of Waupaca, on the Wisconsin Central Railway, and 127 miles northwest of Milwaukee. It was incorporated March 10, 1887, the act appropriating $3 a week for each inmate. There are 78 acres, 40 of which are wooded and 30 under cultivation. The buildings include 15 cottages, and others are being built. At the last annual inspection reported there were present 50 members, 16 wives, and 7 widows. Minnesota, Minnehaha Falls.-The Minnesota Soldiers' Home had its origin through the Grand Army of the Republic, and a general act was passed in 1887 providing for the construction of the Home and for its maintenance, the appropriation amounting to $100,000. The buildings include cottages, superintendent's residence, administrative building, etc., of stone and brick. The grounds have been beautifully laid out. The land includes 51 acres on a high plateau between the deep cañon of the Mississippi and the precipitous gorge of the Minnehaha valley, below the falls. Members present at last report, 68. Michigan, Grand }...". Michigan Soldiers' Home is one of the largest and most elaborate examples of the single-building style. Its dimensions are 250 feet front, 98 feet deep, with two wings, each 120 feet deep, there being three stories of brick above the basement of stone, and the front and ends surrounded by verandas: a tower surmounts the central portion. The building stands on the Home farm of 132 acres, near the banks of Grand river, three miles from Grand Rapids. It has a capacity for 400 members. The Home farm was given to the State by the citizens of Grand Rapids. The act creating the Home was passed in 1885. At the last reported inspection the number of persons present was 395. Ohio, Sandusky.—The Home for Disabled Soldiers of Ohio is reached by a drive over a new avenue 100 feet wide, running three miles southward from Sandusky. It comprises 18 buildings, arranged about an ellipse, the major axis of which lies east and west, and is 800 feet long, and the minor axis about 400 feet. The buildings are of stone and brick, with brown and white sandstone trimmings. The present capacity is about 700 members. This Home was created by act dated April 30, 1886. The number of members present at the last report was 477. The area owned by the Home is 90 acres, given by the subscriptions of Sandusky and Erie counties. Pennsylvania, Erie.—The Pennsylvania Home is on the bluffs 55 feet above Lake Erie, one mile from the city of Erie. The main building, covering an area of 370 × 370 feet, is the largest single-building Home in the United States. It has three stories above its basement, contains 163 rooms, and has a capacity for 600 members. The land covers 107 acres, 6 of which are cultiwated, 30 devoted to pasture, and 60 on the bluffs. A mess-hall, 44 x 100 feet, with seats for 500, a library of nearly 600 volumes, a reading-room, and a chapel, are important features. The building is of brick, with stone trimmings, having brick partition-walls, with fire-escapes. At the last inspection reported, 247 members were present. This Home originated in an act approved June 3, 1885, making appropriations therefor; and it was opened for inmates Feb. 22, 1886. New York, Bath.—The New York State Soldiers' and Sailors' Home is the largest and one of the oldest in the country. It is, in fact, a village of 30 attractive buildings, gracefully disposed along two sides of a park, within two miles of the valley of the Cohocton, which flows through

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its grounds. The land comprising the Home consists of 360 acres of valley and upland, with 100 acres of woodland. There are nine separate buildings for dormitories, having a capacity for 1,200 men. These are of stone and ornamental brick, with extensive verandas, the central building being surmounted with towers, and the entire combination of structures showing Gothic gables, with barbacan turrets on the principal angles. This Home was incorporated in 1863, but no apo: were made, and nothing further was one toward it until 1872, in which year, and o in 1876, other acts were passed, out of which in the latter year the Soldiers' Home at Bath eventually came into existence. The first movement was founded on gifts by the town of Bath, Steuben County, with subscriptions taken under the auspices of the Grand Army of the Republic, under which construction began in 1877. In the following year an act was transferring the Home to the State and appropriating money for the cost of land and buildings and for maintenance. The appropriations of the State from 1879 to 1889 amount to $1,130,861. The average number of members was 873. From the farm there is an income of about $10,000. . The number of members present at the last annual inspection was 1,043. Connecticut, Noroton.—Fitch's Home for Soldiers, as it is called, had its origin in the philanthropic efforts of Benjamin É. a citizen of Connecticut, who established it by charter in 1863, the charter being amended and acts passed in 1882, 1884, and 1886, under which the Home finally came under the control of the State. The Home is on a tract of 14 acres near Noroton station, on the New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad, 35 miles east of New York city. It comprises 6 buildings, the main building being 170 × 40 feet in dimensions. At the last report, Jan. 3, 1889, 169 members were present. Vermont, Bennington.—This Soldiers' Home is of the summer hotel type, and was originally the ..". of the incorporators of the Trenor W. Park Home for Diseased Women and Children. This property was given Feb. 5, 1887, to the trustees of the Soldiers' Home. It is half a mile north of Bennington, and comprises 170 acres of woodland and 10 under cultivation, the remainder of the 200 acres being in lawn and grass. There are 5 buildings, of wood with slate roofs. On Jan. 4, 1889, there were 41 members; in September, 55. Massachusetts, Chelsea.—This Home is also of the summer hotel type, being a single building 20 x 60 feet, on a tract of 4 acres, 200 feet above the sea, and 4 miles north of the State House in Boston. It is a large building of three stories, with spacious verandas and porches. The library consists of 2,500 volumes with files of 93 newsors. On Jan. 7, 1889, there were 147 mempers. The Massachusetts Home was incorporated May 11, 1877, but no appropriations were made until 1883, since which time it has cost the State $105,000. Dakota, Hot Springs.-During the past year legislative action was taken with a view to establishing a soldiers' home at Hot Springs, Fall River county, Dakota. The annual inspection of the State homes for disabled soldiers and sailors of the United States is made by the assistant inspector-general of the National Home, a report of which is made to the speaker of the House of Representatives. The latest of these reports, published by Gen. William W. Averill, U. S. A., includes, besides a mass of valuable information concerning the homes, a list of all members, their names, company and regiment, rank, length of service, nationality, occupation, etc., present at the last inspection in each of the State homes. It also includes plans and elevations of the buildings comprised in many of the homes, and the by-laws, rules and regulations, and act of incorporation of each of them.Charities.—The number of patients at the State Lunatic Asylum increased during the fiscal year ending in November from 680 to 722, the largest number at one time being 732. There has been a remarkable increase in the number of colored insane patients in recent years. In November, 1878, there were 101 colored patients in the asylum and in November, 1889, 313, while for the white population the increase was slightly over 75 per cent. Penitentiary.—On Oct. 31 there were in confinement at the State Penitentiary 884 prisoners—59 white and 825 colored. Of this number 150 were employed in shoe and hosiery contracts inside the prison, 265 were at work on the Columbia Canal, and there was a daily average of 285 employed on the agricultural contracts. The year began with an indebtedness of $14,162.49, and the disbursements amounted to $73,298.32. The earnings amounted to $88,565.33 in cash, leaving a balance of $1,104.52. Phosphate.—During the year ending Aug. 31, 212,101 tons of phosphate rock were removed from the navigable streams of the State, against 190,224 tons in the year preceding. The royalty id into the treasury was $212,101.96, against §§ in 1888. Railroads.-There are thirty-four railroads in the State, having a total mileage on June 30 of 2,084 miles, against 1,914 miles on June 30, 1888. The increase is greater than in any previous year. There was an increase over 1888 of $407,657.45 in total income, and $821,327.32 in expenses. The railroads paid during the year in taxes $221,793 to South Carolina, $88,111 to Georgia, and $17,981 to North Carolina. Confederate Pensions.—Under the pension act of 1888, $50,000 was appropriated annually for pensions to Confederate soldiers and their widows, and provision was made that pension claims should be passed upon by a county board and a State board of pensions. During the year these boards passed upon 2,276 claims, of which 1,949 were approved—515 being soldiers' claims, and 1,434 widows'. The amount paid out in pensions was $45,613.80, and for examining board expenses, etc., $3,986.40. The average amount for each pensioner was slightly over $23. Decision.— The constitutionality of the act of December, 1888, validating the township bonds issued in aid of railroads, which the State Supreme Court had declared unconstitutional, was before the same court this year, and a decision was rendered in favor of validity. Legislative Session. — The regular annual session of the Legislature began on Nov. 26, and was adjourned on Dec. 24. The most important act of legislation was a repeal of the law protecting the civil rights of the colored race, which prohibited common carriers, inn and restaurant keepers, and managers of theatres or other places of amusement from discriminating against persons of color in the accommodations or otherwise. This law had been on the statute books more than twenty years. An act relating to State convicts forbids their employment in phosphate mining, and provides that a farm or farms shall be purchased out of the surplus earnings of the State Penitentiary, on which such convicts shall be worked. Provision was made for refunding at par that part of the State

Homes for Ex-Confederate Soldiers.-After the civil war the impoverished condition of the South naturally prevented the appropriation of money or the taking of efficient steps toward the amelioration of the condition of its veteran soldiers; but, as the South began to recuperate, the sentiment in this direction began to crystallize in some degree, and efforts were made toward the foundation of soldiers' homes. There are four of these now in the Southern States: R. E. Lee Camp, No. 1, C. V., at Richmond, Va.; one in New Orleans containing 30 inmates, supported by a State appropriation of $50,000 a year; one in Austin, Texas, supported by private contributions; and one at Pikesville, Md. Individual States have made appropriations for pensions to their disabled soldiers. The only ex-Confederate home of which any particulars have been obtained is that first mentioned, the Lee Camp Soldiers' Home, at Richmond. Lee Camp was organized April 18, 1883, by 38 veteran Confederate soldiers, who, after perfecting their organization, appointed a committee to petition the Legislature of Virginia for a charter, in the preamble of which, after stating the purposes of the organization, they said:

It is Wood not to prolong the animosities engendered by the war, but to extend to our adversaries on all fitting occasions the courtesies which are always proper between soldiers, and which in this case a common citizenship demands at our hands. We propose to avoid anything which partakes of partisanship in religion and politics; but at the same time we will render our aid to the maintenance of law and the preservation of order.

Mainly by the efforts of the ladies of Richmond this Camp collected, by means of a bazaar, $23,000 for the purpose they had in view, which was approved by Phil. Kearny Post, G. A. R., and $8,000 for the same purpose was raised in the North and West, while the late Hon. William W. Corcoran sent to Lee Camp his check for $5,000. Altogether $52,000 was collected, and the Soldiers' Home was founded, which undoubtedly became the model for the other Confederate homes mentioned above. The Richmond Home comprises attractive cottages two miles from the city, on Grove road, in the western suburbs. This Home generally contains 125 inmates, with many applicants for vacancies.

SOUTH CAROLINA, a Southern State, one of the original thirteen; ratified the Constitution May 23, 1788; area, 30,570 square miles; population, according to the last decennial census (1880), 995,577; capital, Columbia.

Government.—The following were the State officers during the year: Governor, John P. Rich

ardson, Democrat; Lieutenant-Governor, William L. Mauldin; Secretary of State, J. F. Marshall; Treasurer, Isaac S. Bamberg, who died in June and was succeeded by E. R. McIver; Comptroller-General, J. S. Verner; Attorney-General. Joseph H. Earle ; Superintendent of Education, James H. Rice; Commissioner of Agriculture, A. P. Butler ; Railroad Commissioners, Milledge L. Bonham, D'Arcy P. Duncan, Eugene P. Jervey; Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, W. D. Simpson: Associate Justices, Henry McIver and Samuel McGowan. Finances.—The following is a statement of the State debt remaing unpaid on Oct. 31. Bonds and stocks fundable by law at 50 per cent. of the face value, principal $441,629.22, fundable value $220,814.61; blue bonds and stocks and deficiency bonds and stocks, $401,882.45; brown consol bonds and stocks, $5,973,226.96 ; total debt, $6,595,924.02. The receipts for the year ending Oct. 31, including $77,120.63 on hand at the beginning of the year, were $1,236,816.60; the expenditures were $1,176,673.78, and there remained on Oct. 31 a balance of $60,142.82. The receipts from the State tax levy were $689,399.23; from the phosphate royalty, $212,101.96: from the Agricultural Department for fertilizer, fees, etc., $45,542.49; i from the United States, for rent and damages to the citadel, 77.250. Among the expenditures were $65,137.17 for the judicial de§"; $44,500 for the State University, $75,83.26 for the citadel academy, $6,266.66 for the State Penitentiary, $104,360.74 for the Lunatic Asylum; $14,885 for the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind Asylum, $51,001.75 for completion of State House, $48,127.80 for pensions; $31,169.95 for Agricultural Department, $365,910.04 for interest due. The assessed valuation of propert taxation in 1889 was as follows: o 621; personal, $43,632,022 ; railroad property, $17,243,373; total, $145,420,016. The State tax thereon was 5+ mills. For 1888 the total valuation was $141,986,154. Education.—For the school year ending Aug. 31, the statistics were as follow ; School districts, 605; public schools, 3,948; white pupils enrolled, 89,761; colored pupils enrolled, 104.503; average attendance—white pupils 59,357, colored pupils 69.892, pupils not classified 7,109, total 136,358; teachers employed—white 2,528, colored 1,622; average monthly salary—male teachers, $26.61; female teachers $23.50; number of school-houses, 2,962; total expenditures, $460,434.24; of which $396.332.86 were paid for teachers' salaries, and $19,291.19 for new buildings. In comparison with the previous year there was a slight decrease in the number of white pupils enrolled and a slight increase in the number of colored pupils. At the State University the total attendance for the school year 1888–89 was 235. At the Claflin Agricultural College 947 pupils were enrolled, of whom 21 were in the ...!!!. department. The total cost of maintaining these two institutions for the year was $65,543.96. The attendance at the South Carolina Military Academy for the year 1889 reached the unusual number of 153 pupils, of whom 68 were State beneficiaries.

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debt known as the “brown consol bonds and stocks,” which bear interest at 6 per cent., and become due in July, 1893. The refunded debt shall bear 4 per cent. interest, instead of 6 per cent., and shall not become payable till 1940. Persons wishing to exchange their bonds and stocks for the new issue, may present them to the State Treasurer at any time before July, 1893, and in addition to the new bonds or stocks, shall receive in cash the difference of 2 per cent. in interest from the date of surrender to July, 1893. After June, 1892, the treasurer may advertise and sell such of the new bonds and stocks as have not been issued in exchange for old ones, as above provided, and from the proceeds shall in July, 1893, redeem the old bonds and stocks then due. For the payment of interest on the new issue, the State binds itself to levy annually a tax of three mills, or so much thereof as is necessary for the purpose. The Legislature of 1888 late in the session passed a bill accepting a devise under the will of Thomas G. Clemson of 814 acres in Oconee County, and of certain other property, on condition that the State should erect and maintain an agricultural and mechanical college; but the Governor did not sign and return the bill till the opening of the present session. An act was thereupon passed to provide for building and maintaining the proposed college. Half of the land script fund heretofore vested in the State University was given to the new college as a permanent fund: the annual grant of $15,000 from the United States for maintaining an agricultural experiment station was taken from the State University and given to the new college; for building and maintenance, $40,000 was appropriated — $15,000 from the general funds, $10,000 from the fertilizer tax of 1889, and $15,000 from the same tax in 1890. The trustees of the new college were authorized to use fifty State convicts on the new buildings, paying only for their transportation and maintenance. An amendment to Article IV of the Constitution to abolish the office of county commissioners was proposed, and its submission to the people in 1890 was provided for. The State tax for the year beginning in November was fixed at 54 mills. Other acts of the session were as follow :

Reducing the maximum rate of interest that may be legally agreed upon and collected from 10 to 8 per cent.

To authorize incorporated towns of 300 inhabitants or more to substitute hard labor in their streets for fine and imprisonment in cases of misdemeanor. To prevent the killing and destruction of fish in the fresh waters of this State by the use of dynamite, giant powder, or other explosive material. Providing a mode of ascertaining the names of registered voters convicted of disqualifying crimes, and requiring their names to be erased from the registration books. To prohibit the sale, furnishing, giving, or providing to minors under eighteen years, of cigarettes, tobacco or cigarette paper, or any substitute therefor. Changing the names and location of voting precincts in the State. Requiring the polls at all voting places to be kept open from seven o’clock in the forenoon till four o'clock in the afternoon. . [The hour for closing had previously been six o'clock. Changing the time for meeting of presidential electors from the first Wednesday in December to the second Monday in January next after their election.

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