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States is made by the assistant inspector-general ardson, Democrat; Lieutenant-Governor, Willof the National Home, a report of which is made iam L. Mauldin; Secretary of State, J. F. Marto the speaker of the House of Representatives. shall; Treasurer, Isaac S. Bamberg, who died in The latest of these reports, published by Gen. June and was succeeded by E. R. McIver; CompWilliam W. Averill, U. S. A., includes, besides a troller-General, J. S. Verner; Attorney-General, mass of valuable inforination concerning the Joseph H. Earle ; Superintendent of Educahomes, a list of all members, their names, com- tion, James H. Rice; Commissioner of Agricultpany and regiment, rank, length of service, na- ure, A.P. Butler ; Railroad Commissioners, Miltionality, occupation, etc., present at the last in- ledge L. Bonham, D'Arcy P. Duncan, Eugene P. spection in each of the State homes. It also in- Jervey;. Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, cludes plans and elevations of the buildings com- W. D. Simpson; Associate Justices, Henry Mcprised in many of the homes, and the by-laws, Iver and Samuel McGowan. rules and regulations, and act of incorporation Finances.—The following is a statement of of each of them.

the State debt remaing unpaid on Oct. 31. Bonds Homes for Ex-Confederate Soldiers.-Af- and stocks fundable by law at 50 per cent. of ter the civil war the impoverished condition of the face value, principal $441,629.22, fundable the South naturally prevented the appropriation value $220,814.61 ; blue bonds and stocks and of money or the taking of efficient steps toward deficiency bonds and stocks, $401,882.45; brown the amelioration of the condition of its veteran consol bonds and stocks, $5,973,226.96 ; total soldiers; but, as the South began to recuperate, debt, $6,595,924.02. the sentiment in this direction began to crystal The receipts for the year ending Oct. 31, inlize in some degree, and efforts were made toward cluding $77,120.63 on hand at the beginning of the foundation of soldiers' homes. There are the year, were $1,236,816.60; the expenditures four of these now in the Southern States: R. E. were $1,176,673.78, and there remained on Oct. Lee Camp, No. 1, C. V., at Richmond, Va.; one in 31 a balance of $60,142.82. The receipts from New Orleans containing 30 inmates, supported the State tax levy were $689,399.23; from the by a State appropriation of $50,000 a year; one phosphate royalty, $212,101.96; from the Agriin Austin, Texas, supported by private contribu-cultural Department for fertilizer, fees, etc., $45,tions; and one at Pikesville, Md. Individual States 542.49; and from the United States, for rent and have made appropriations for pensions to their damages to the citadel, 77.250. Among the exdisabled soldiers. The only ex-Confederate home penditures were $65,137.17 for the judicial deof which any particulars have been obtained is partment, $44,500 for the State University, $75,that first mentioned, the Lee Camp Soldiers' 983.26 for the citadel academy, $6,266.66 for Home, at Richmond. Lee Camp was organized the State Penitentiary, $104,360.74 for the LuApril 18, 1883, by 38 veteran Confederate sol- natic Asylum; $14,885 for the Deaf, Dumb, and diers, who, after 'perfecting their organization, Blind Asylum, $51,001.75 for completion of appointed a committee to petition the Legisla- State House, $48,127.80 for pensions ; $31,169.95 ture of Virginia for a charter, in the preamble for Agricultural Department, $365,910.04 for inof which, after stating the purposes of the organi- terest due. zation, they said :

The assessed valuation of property liable to It is proposed not to prolong the animosities en- taxation in 1889 was as follows: Real, $84,544,gendered by the war, but to extend to our adversaries 621; personal, $43,632,022 ; railroad property, on all fitting occasions the courtesies which are always $17,243,373 ; total, $145,420,016. The State tax proper between soldiers, and which in this case a com- thereon was 57 mills. For 1888 the total valuamon citizenship demands at our hands. We propose tion was $141,986,154. to avoid anything which partakes of partisanship in re Education.

For the school year ending Aug. ligion and politics; but at the same time we will ren- 31, the statistics were as follow; School districts, der our aid to the maintenance of law and the preser- 605; public schools, 3,948; white pupils enrolled, vation of order.

89,761; colored pupils enrolled, 104.503; averMainly by the efforts of the ladies of Rich- age attendance-white pupils 59,357, colored mond this Camp collected, by means of a ba- pupils 69,892, pupils not classified 7,109, total zaar, $23,000 for the purpose they had in view, 136,358 ; teachers employed—white 2,528, colwhich was approved by Phil. Kearny Post, G. A. ored 1,622; average monthly salary-male teachR., and $8,000 for the same purpose was raised ers, $26.61; female teachers $23.50; number of in the North and West, while the late Hon. Will- school-houses, 2,962; total expenditures, $460,iam W. Corcoran sent to Lee Camp his check for 434.24; of which $396,332.86 were paid for teach$5,000. Altogether $52,000 was collected, and ers' salaries, and $19,291.19 for new buildings. the Soldiers' Home was founded, which undoubt- In comparison with the previous year there was edly became the model for the other Confeder- a slight decrease in the number of white pupils ate homes mentioned above. The Richmond enrolled and a slight increase in the number of Home comprises attractive cottages two miles colored pupils. from the city, on Grove road, in the western sub At the State University the total attendance urbs. This Home generally contains 125 inmates, for the school year 1888–89 was 235. At the with many applicants for vacancies.

Claflin Agricultural College 947 pupils were enSOUTH CAROLINA, a Southern State, one rolled, of whom 21 were in the collegiate departof the original thirteen; ratified the Constitution ment. The total cost of maintaining these two May 23, 1788; area, 30,570 square miles; popu- institutions for the year was $65,543.96. lation, according to the last decennial census The attendance at the South Carolina Mili(1880), 995,577 ; capital, Columbia.

tary Academy for the year 1889 reached the unGovernment. The following were the State usual number of 153 pupils, of whom 68 were officers during the year: Governor, John P. Rich- State beneficiaries.

Charities.—The number of patients at the State Lunatic Asylum increased during the fiscal year ending in November from 680 to 722, the largest number at one time being 732. There has been a remarkable increase in the number of colored insane patients in recent years. In November, 1878, there were 101 colored patients in the asylum and in November, 1889, 313, while for the white population the increase was slightly over 75 per cent. Penitentiary.—On Oct. 31 there were in confinement at the State Penitentiary 884 prisoners—59 white and 825 colored. Of this number 150 were employed in shoe and hosiery contracts inside the prison, 265 were at work on the Columbia Canal, and there was a daily average of 285 employed on the agricultural contracts. The year began with an indebtedness of $14,162.49, and the disbursements amounted to $73,298.32. The earnings amounted to $88,565.33 in cash, leaving a balance of $1,104.52. Phosphate.—During the year ending Aug. 31, 212,101 tons of phosphate rock were removed from the navigable streams of the State, against 190,224 tons in the year preceding. The royalty id into the treasury was $212,101.96, against §§ in 1888. Railroads.-There are thirty-four railroads in the State, having a total mileage on June 30 of 2,084 miles, against 1,914 miles on June 30, 1888. The increase is greater than in any previous year. There was an increase over 1888 of $407,657.45 in total income, and $821,327.32 in expenses. The railroads paid during the year in taxes $221,793 to South Carolina, $88,111 to Georgia, and $17,981 to North Carolina. Confederate Pensions.—Under the pension act of 1888, $50,000 was appropriated annually for pensions to Confederate soldiers and their widows, and provision was made that pension claims should be passed upon by a county board and a State board of pensions. During the year these boards passed upon 2,276 claims, of which 1,949 were approved—515 being soldiers' claims, and 1,434 widows'. The amount paid out in pensions was $45,613.80, and for examining board expenses, etc., $3,986.40. The average amount for each pensioner was slightly over $23. Decision.— The constitutionality of the act of December, 1888, validating the township bonds issued in aid of railroads, which the State Supreme Court had declared unconstitutional, was before the same court this year, and a decision was rendered in favor of validity. Legislative Session. — The regular annual session of the Legislature began on Nov. 26, and was adjourned on Dec. 24. The most important act of legislation was a repeal of the law protecting the civil rights of the colored race, which prohibited common carriers, inn and restaurant keepers, and managers of theatres or other places of amusement from discriminating against persons of color in the accommodations or otherwise. This law had been on the statute books more than twenty years. An act relating to State convicts forbids their employment in phosphate mining, and provides that a farm or farms shall be purchased out of the surplus earnings of the State Penitentiary, on which such convicts shall be worked. Provision was made for refunding at par that part of the State

debt known as the “brown consol bonds and stocks,” which bear interest at 6 per cent., and become due in July, 1893. The refunded debt shall bear 4 per cent. interest, instead of 6 per cent., and shall not become payable till 1940. Persons wishing to exchange their bonds and stocks for the new issue, may present them to the State Treasurer at any time before July, 1893, and in addition to the new bonds or stocks, shall receive in cash the difference of 2 per cent. in interest from the date of surrender to July, 1893. After June, 1892, the treasurer may advertise and sell such of the new bonds and stocks as have not been issued in exchange for old ones, as above provided, and from the proceeds shall in July, 1893, redeem the old bonds and stocks then due. For the payment of interest on the new issue, the State binds itself to levy annually a tax of three mills, or so much thereof as is necessary for the purpose. The Legislature of 1888 late in the session passed a bill accepting a devise under the will of Thomas G. Clemson of 814 acres in Oconee County, and of certain other property, on condition that the State should erect and maintain an agricultural and mechanical college; but the Governor did not sign and return the bill till the opening of the present session. An act was thereupon passed to provide for building and maintaining the proposed college. Half of the land script fund heretofore vested in the State University was given to the new college as a permanent fund: the annual grant of $15,000 from the United States for maintaining an agricultural experiment station was taken from the State University and given to the new college; for building and maintenance, $40,000 was appropriated — $15,000 from the general funds, $10,000 from the fertilizer tax of 1889, and $15,000 from the same tax in 1890. The trustees of the new college were authorized to use fifty State convicts on the new buildings, paying only for their transportation and maintenance. An amendment to Article IV of the Constitution to abolish the office of county commissioners was proposed, and its submission to the people in 1890 was provided for. The State tax for the year beginning in November was fixed at 54 mills. Other acts of the session were as follow :

Reducing the maximum rate of interest that may be legally agreed upon and collected from 10 to 8 per cent.

To authorize incorporated towns of 300 inhabitants or more to substitute hard labor in their streets for fine and imprisonment in cases of misdemeanor. To prevent the killing and destruction of fish in the fresh waters of this State by the use of dynamite, giant powder, or other explosive material. Providing a mode of ascertaining the names of registered voters convicted of disqualifying crimes, and requiring their names to be erased from the registration books. To prohibit the sale, furnishing, giving, or providing to minors under eighteen years, of cigarettes, tobacco or cigarette paper, or any substitute therefor. Changing the names and location of voting precincts in the State. Requiring the polls at all voting places to be kept open from seven o’clock in the forenoon till four o'clock in the afternoon. . [The hour for closing had previously been six o'clock. Changing the time for meeting of presidential electors from the first Wednesday in December to the second Monday in January next after their election.

SOUTH DAKOTA, a Western State, admitted to the Union on Nov. 3, 1889; area, 76,620 square miles; population (estimated), 379,000; capital, Pierre. Government.—The following were the State officers from the date of admission : Governor, Arthur C. Mellette, Republican ; LieutenantGovernor, J. H. Fletcher; Secretary of State, A. O. Ringsrud; Treasurer, W. F. Smith; Auditor, L. C. Taylor; Attorney-General, Robert Dollard; Superintendent of Public Instruction, G. L. Pinkham; Commissioner of School and Public Lands, O. H. Parker; Justices of the Supreme Court, Dighton Corson, A. G. Kellam, and John E. Bennett. The Admission Act.—The provisions of this act, which received the signature of President Cleveland on Feb. 22, 1889, so far as they relate to South Dakota, are as follow : An election shall be held on May 14 to choose delegates to a constitutional convention, which shall meet at Sioux Falls on July 4. The people, on May 14, shall also vote for or against the Sioux Falls Constitution adopted in September, 1885, and, if a majority shall be in favor of the Constitution, its provisions shall be incorporated in the new Constitution, which shall be perfected by the Sioux Falls Convention in July, and which shall be submitted to a vote of the people on Oct. 1. If this new Constitution is accepted, South Dakota shall become a State by proclamation of the President. On admission the State shall be entitled to two members in the House of Representatives. The State shall receive the sixteenth and thirty-sixth sections in every township, or sections in lieu thereof, the proceeds from the sale or lease of which shall form a permanent ublic-school fund. This fund shall .. receive per cent. of the net proceeds derived by the Federal Government from sales of unappropriated public lands within the State. Seventy-two sections of the public lands are confirmed to the State for university purposes. Fifty sections are ranted for public buildings at the capital, 120,)0 acres for agricultural colleges, 40,000 acres each for the School of Mines, Reform School, Deaf and Dumb Asylum, Agricultural College, and State University: 80,000 acres for normal schools: 50,000 acres additional for public buildings at the capital, and 170,000 acres for general educational and charitable purposes. All lands and buildings thereon already set apart for the uses of the Penitentiary at Sioux F. are given to the State. Constitutional Convention.—In accordance with the Admission act, Territorial Governor Mellette, on April 15, issued his proclamation, calling a special election to be held in the South Dakota counties on May 14, for the purpose of choosing delegates to a constitutional convention, and also to vote on the question whether the Constitution framed by the Sioux Falls Convention in September, 1885, should be adopted as the basis for the Constitution of the proposed State of South Dakota. This election resulted in the choice of 75 delegates, as provided in the Admission act, a large majority of whom were Republicans. On the question of adopting the Sioux Falls Constitution, 41,123 votes were cast, of which 37,710 were in favor of the Constitution and 3,413 against it. The delegates met at Sioux

Falls on July 4, and organized by choosing Judge A. J. Edgerton as president. As the people had voted to adopt the Sioux Falls Constitution of 1885, the only duties of this convention, as provided in the Admission act, were to make such changes only in that Constitution as related to the name and boundary of the proposed State, and to the reapportionment of legislative and judicial districts, and such amendments as might be necessary to comply with the provisions of the Admission act, and then to provide for the submission of the Constitution thus amended to a vote of the people on Oct. 1. The convention appointed a committee to confer with a similar committee from the North Dakota Constitutional Convention, and to agree upon a division of the debts and property of the Territory of Dakota. The report of this committee was incorporated in the Constitution, such other minor changes as became necessary were made, and the whole was adopted as the proposed Constitution of South Dakota. The convention adjourned on Aug. 5. (For the leading provisions of the Sioux Falls Constitution of 1885, as incorporated in this Constitution, see the “Annual Cyclopædia" for 1885, page 283.) The report of the joint committee to divide the debts and property of Dakota Territory provides that all the public buildings and institutions of the Territory, in South Dakota, shall become the property of the State of South Dakota, which shall become responsible for all debts, bonded or otherwise, outstanding for their construction, repair, or maintenance. The State of South Dakota shall pay to the State of North Dakota $46,500, on account of excess of Territorial appropriations for permanent imrovement of public institutions in South Da|. for one half interest in the Territorial Library, etc. Such liabilities of the Territory as are not above provided for shall be shared equally by the two States, except that a detailed agreement is made for adjusting the Territorial expenses and receipts of the current year. Provision was made for the election of a full set of State officers on Oct. 1, the date of the election upon the Constitution, and for submitting independently the articles of the proposed Constitution relating to prohibition and to minority representation, as well as the question of temporary location of the State capital. Election.—The canvass for State officers began immediately after the dissolution of the Constitutional Convention. A Republican State Convention was called to meet at Huron on Aug. 28, at which time the following ticket was placed in nomination : For Governor, Arthur C. Mellette: Lieutenant - Governor, J. H. Fletcher; Secretary of State, A. O. Ringsrud ; Treasurer, W. F. Smith : Auditor, L. C. Taylor: AttorneyGeneral. Robert I)ollard ; Superintendent of Public Instruction, G. L. Pinkham : Commissioner of School and Public Lands, O. H. Parker: Justices of the Supreme Court, Dighton Corson, A. G. Kellam, and John E. Bennett; Members of Congress, O. S. Gifford and J. A. Pickler. The platform makes the following declarations upon local questions:

We most heartily welcome to our fellowship the people who have come to us from foreign lands to find a home in this the country of their adoption, intending to render due respect to its laws. We favor the

enactment of such laws as will protect the citizen in the vote was: Yeas, 70,131; nays, 3,267. On the the free exercise of his right of suffrage, and will in- two constitutional propositions submitted indesure fair and honest elections and equal and just taxa- pendently to the popular vote, the article protion of property. Recognizing the pernicious influ- hibiting the manufacture and sale of intoxicatinterest of our commonwealth, we favor national and ing liquor was adopted by a vote of 40,234 yeas State prohibition of such traffic and the adoption of to 34,510 nays, and the article providing for mithe article of our Constitution relating thereto and nority representation was rejected by a vote of the enactment and enforcement of such laws as will 24,661 yeas to 46,200 nays. For temporary locamake the same effective. The great agricultural in- tion of the State capital, the city of Pierre had terests of Dakota demand that they should be pro- 29,256 votes; Huron, 15,647; Watertown, 12,012; tected, fostered, and guarded with jealous care, and Sioux Falls, 11,888; Mitchell, 7,793; Chamberlain, such laws enacted as will insure equitable rates of 2,421. Pierre was therefore selected. A similar against sections or individuals; that we favor the im- vote taken in 1885 resulted in the selection of provement of the great waterways of the Northwest Huron by the following vote: Huron, 12,695; so as to bring close competition in the carrying trades. Pierre, 10,574; Chamberlain, 3,232; Sioux Falls, We favor a warehouse law which will give every 3,338; Alexandria, 1,374. The result of this elecfarmer a free market for his produce and which will tion was officially communicated to President not leave him at the mercy of any elevator or railroad Harrison, and on Nov. 3 he issued his proclamaaction on the part of the State and nation toward the tion admitting South Dakota to the Union. establishment of a comprehensive system of irriga

Legislative Session.-On assuming his oftion. For such portions of our State as would be fice, Gov. Mellette issued his proclamation, conbenefited thereby, we favor the establishment of a vening the first State Legislature at Pierre on bureau of labor and statistics. We also favor prohi- Oct. 15. Its first duty was to elect two United bition of the employment of children under sixteen States Senators to represent the new State. In years of age in mines, shops, and factories. We favor the Republican caucus, Richard F. Pettigrew the election of railroad commissioners and giving and Gideon C. Moody were chosen. The Demo them ample authority for protection of the people cratic caucus nominated Bartlett Tripp and M. against exorbitant rates and unjust discrimination. We view with alarm the dangerous encroachment of H. Day. In the Legislature on Oct. 17 the Rethe numerous trusts forming all over our land, and publican candidates were elected by the following demand the enactment of stringent laws declaring the votes: Senate-Pettigrew 41, Tripp 4; Houseformation of all trusts and combinations for the pur- Pettigrew 108, Tripp 14; Senate-Moody

41, Day pose of controlling, or enhancing the price of any of 4; House-Moody 107, Day 14. The Legislathe necessaries of life unlawful.

ture then adjourned, to meet on Jan. 7, 1890. On Sept. 5 the Democrats met in State con Finances. The financial condition of the vention at Huron and nominated the following new State is set forth by the Governor in his ticket: For Governor, P. F. McClure; Lieuten- first message in January, 1890, as follows: ant-Governor, A. W. Pratt; Secretary of State, Otto Peemiller; Auditor, J. E. Horton; Treas- by South Dakota was $710,200, of which amount

At the date of admission the bonded debt assumed urer, A. D. Hill; Attorney-General, R. F. Fel- $116,600 bears interest at 6 per cent. per annym, lows; Superintendent of Public Instruction, G. $125,000 at the rate of 5 per cent., $317,100 at 4x H. McFarland ; Commissioner of School and per cent., and the remainder, $152,500, at the rate of Public Lands, H. S. Volkman; Justices of the 4 per cent. (All these bonds were issued for build. Supreme Court, H. McLaughlin, C. H. Winsor, ing public institutions within the limits of the State. S. B. Van Buskirk; Members of Congress, L. There was also outstanding Nov. 4, an indebtedness Q. Jeffries and S. M. Booth. The resolutions by three funding warrants, of which South Dakota

of the Territory to the amount of $150,000 evidenced adopted include the following:

owes $75,000. By the terms of the agreement made We are opposed to constitutional prohibition, now by the joint commission of the Constitutional Condemanded by the Republican party of South Dakota, vention, South Dakota must also pay North Dakota and favor in its stead a well-regulated license law, $46,500' on account of the difference in adjustment which is accepted by the Democracy of the country of accounts up to March 8, 1889; since that date as the best method of controlling the traffic in intoxi- South Dakota has overdrawn its account, so that it cating liquors and lessening the evils of intemper- is probable that South Dakota will have to pay, on ance. We declare in favor of minority representation final settlement of these three items, $150,000, makand urge the fair-minded tax payers to support the ing the total indebtedness at the date of adminira article of our Constitution relating thereto as a partial $860,200. The balance belonging to South Dakota, protection against the evils of vicious legislation. We received

by the State Treasurer from the retiring Terarraign the Republican party of South Dakota forritorial Treasurer was $84,441.93, of which $38,407.10 extravagance and mismanagement in conducting the was in bond funds and not available for the general affairs of the Territorial government.

purposes of the Government, and $46,084.23.in genThere was no Prohibition ticket in the field. eral fund, bond-interest fund, and stock-indemnity

fund. At the election on Oct. 1 all the Republican can The Territorial Auditor has estimated the total redidates received large majorities. For Governor ceipts for the current fiscal year to be $335,826.68, the vote was: Mellette, 53.964; McClure, 23,- and the necessary expenditures to be $508,282.50, 840. For Lieutenant-Governor-Fletcher, 54,- leaving a deficiency for the year of $172,905.82. By 711; Pratt, 22,946; For Members of Congress the State Constitution, which we have adopted, the Gifford, 54,983 ; Pickler, 54,105; Jeffries, 23,229; total tax levy for ordinary purposes is limited to two

mills. Booth, 22,535. Members of the State Legislature were elected as follow : Senate-Republi The indebtedness that the State may create is cans 37, Democrats 4, Independents 4; House- very limited, under the Constitution. The LegRepublicans 104, Democrats 13, Independents 7. islature may provide for the issue of bonds to On the question of adopting the Constitution, as cover the Territorial indebtedness assumed by perfected by the Sioux Falls Convention in July, the State, and may further increase this indebt

edness to $100,000, and here the power of the budget has been made apparently to balance, it Legislature to create indebtedness ceases. has only been done by extraordinary remedies,

The total assessed valuation of the counties of such as the issue of new loans, the increase of South Dakota for purposes of taxation in 1889 the floating debt; the postponement of imporwas $97,342,440.60. There were assessed 12,610,- tant obligations; or the sale of Government pos049-9 acres of land, valued at $51,475,558.50 ; sessions. In 1889 all the extraordinary resources 191,557 horses, valued at $7,631,228; 7,489 mules, had been exhausted, and the foreign money valued at $319,611; 448,234 cattle, valued at $4,- markets were not open for a new Spanish loan. 734,618.50; 134,823 sheep, valued at $164,175.50; In 1888-'89 the minister expected to raise a reveand 209,194 swine, valued at $484,117.60. nue of 851,667,932 pesetas with the aid of new

Agriculture. The following are the official taxes, but the financial expedients were a failure, figures showing the acreage and yield of farm and only 710,603,325 pesetas were collected. The products in South Dakota for 1889: Wheat, 2,- disbursements, estimated at 849,323,985 pesetas, 013,726 acres, 17,287,352 bushels; oats, 671,829 were reduced to 813,258,722 pesetas, and still the acres, 11,623,615 bushels ; corn, 784,655 acres, estimated surplus of 2,343,947 pesetas was con21,821,898 bushels; barley 127,338 acres, 1,694,- verted into a deficit of 102,655,397 pesetas. For 875 bushels; rye, 16,587 acres, 255,620 bushels; 1890–91 a revenue is expected of 803,349,277 buckwheat, 2,828 acres, 29,667 bushels; potatoes, pesetas, nearly balanced by 803,332,591 pesetas 29,537 acres, 2,637,132 bushels ; flax, 345,803 of expenditures. The floating debt on Aug. 1, acres, 2,754,376 bushels.

1889, amounted to 197,879,000 pesetas. The Indian Reservations.-Early in August, a paper currency in circulation was 723,000,000 commission appointed by Congress to treat with pesetas, in amount. the Sioux Indians obtained their agreement to The Army.--The strength of the standing the cession of a large portion of their lands, army is fixed for the financial year 1889-'90 as which will open to settlement about 11,000,000 follows: Spain, 92,082 men; Cuba, 19,571 ; Porto acres of fine farming land embraced between Rico, 3,153; Philippine Islands, 9,214. A new American and Medicine creeks on the east and territorial division was made in 1889.

The Cheyenne and White rivers on the west side of country is divided into 68 districts, each of Missouri river, together with all that portion of which is expected to raise, in case of war, an enthe Great Sioux Reservation lying south of the tire reserve regiment of infantry of three batforty-sixth parallel and west of the one hun- talions. In case of mobilization two of the batdred and third meridian. Late in December a talions, consisting solely of trained reservists, similar commission to treat with the Sisseton will be placed under arms immediately. The Indians obtained the assent of the tribe to a third battalion can also be called out, but can cession of about 1,000,000 acres north of the not at once take the field, since it consists of nucity of Watertown.

merous untrained men in addition to the remainSPAIN, a constitutional monarchy in southern ing trained reservists. The number of depot Europe. The present King is Alfonso XIII, in- battalions is reduced from 140 to 68. The Spanfant son of Alfonso XII, and the Archduchess ish infuntry on mobilization will consist of 60 Maria Christine of Austria, born May 17, 1886. regiments of the line ; 68 reserve regiments of 2 During his minority his mother reigns as Queen- battalions each; 68 additional reserve battalions, Regent. The legislative power is exercised by and 68 depot battalions. the Congress, consisting of a Senate having the The Navy.—The war navy in 1889 comprised maximum number of 180 members, comprising 23 vessels in commission, viz. : 2 armored frigprinces of the blood royal, grandees of Spain, ates, 9 cruisers, 4 avisos, 6 gunboats, and 1 torcertain functionaries, and 123 nominated Sena- pedo-catcher. There were i armored frigate, 8 tors, and a Chamber of 432 Deputies elected for gunboats, 8 torpedo-boats, and 49 other vessels five years in the proportion of one to every 50,- in reserve, besides 6 other torpedo-boats and 29 000 inhabitants, by electoral colleges. The last miscellaneous vessels. An armor-clad frigate general election was held in 1886. The ministry was not yet fitted with its armament, and 2 constituted on June 14, 1888, is as follows: Presi- deck-protected cruisers, 3 cruisers of the first dent of the Council, P. Mateo Sagasta ; Minister class, and 6 of the second class were in various of Foreign Affairs, Marquis de Vega de Armijo; stages of construction. The Queen - Regent Minister of Grace and Justice, J. Canalejas; signed a decree in October, 1887, authorizing the Minister of Marine, Admiral Rodriguez Arias; construction of 6 battle-ships of 7,000 tons each, Minister of Finance, Venancio Gonzalez; Minis- and 24 torpedo-boats. The fleet was manned in ter of War, Gen. J. Chinchilla; Minister of the 1889 by 672 officers and 14,000 sailors, besides Interior, T. Ruiz Capdepón ; Minister of the the marine infantry, consisting of 376 officers Colonies, M. Becerra.

and 7,033 men, the arsenal guards, engineers, Area and Population. The area of Spain mechanics, etc. is 504,551 square kilometres. The population at Commerce.—The total value of the imports the end of 1887 was 17,550,246, compared with in 1887 was 811,211,708 pesetas, and of the exports 16,634,345 in 1877. The population of the prin- 722,181,792 pesetas. The values of the chief imcipal cities in 1887 was as follows: Madrid, 472,- ports in pesetas were as follow : Cereals and 228; Barcelona, 272,481; Valencia, 170,763 ; Se- flour, 88,088,861 ; cotton and cotton goods, 76,villa, 143,182 ; Malaga, 134,016.

353,729 ; spirits, 45,028,994; timber, 35,300,318; Finances. The revenues of the Government tobacco, 30,286,940; fish, 29,811,117: sugar, 29,have declined under the present system of tariff 743,228; coal and coke, 25,571,514 ; wool and and taxation, and the Minister of Finance has woolen goods, 24,938,269 ; machinery, 20,136,not been able to develop new resources. There 968; hides, etc., 19,389,742; flax and hemp, 17,has always been a deficit, and in years when the 736,378; cattle, 17,137,709; iron, and manufact

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