Gambar halaman


United States,



tal valuation of commerce through the canal in 'The length of wire of telegraph lines in opera1888 was $82,156,020, an increase of $3,000,000 tion was 2.323 kilometres in 1888. with 83 offices, over 1887. It was expected that no material in- The number of messages was 356,779 in the same crease would be shown, because of the comple- year; the receipts $99,354; and the expenses tion of three new lines of railroad which com- $82,494. A telephone service connects San Salpete with the canal. The report ascribes this vador with Santa Tecla and Santa Ana. result to the increase in shipments of grain, In 1887 the 38 post-offices handled 725.622 manufactured iron, and copper. The annual items of mail matter, 266,033 being letters, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1889, 272 newspapers ; 247 postal-cards: 1,839 samincludes some of the facts noted above, and ple packages; 433 registered letters; and 6,300 brings them down to a later date. During the Government dispatches. past fiscal year the tonnage passing through this Commerce. There has been a steady increase canal has been much greater than in any other in foreign trade, owing to the remunerative year since its construction, and far in excess of prices that coffee and indigo have brought for the business of the Suez Canal, in the months several years past. The imports rose from during which the St. Mary's river was open to $2,134,005 in 1885 to $2,427,643 in 1886; navigation. About 8,500 vessels, not counting $3,343,820 in 1887; and $4,076,404 in 1888; rafts, etc., passed through the St. Ma y's Canal, while the exports, inclusive of specie and bul. carrying 6,932,203 tons of freight. This vast lion, increased as follows: 1885, $5,716,428; quantity was by no means made up of iron ore, 1886, $4,754,649; 1887, $5,242,697; 1888, 86,707,coal, and wheat alone; it included, besides 1,854,- 024. The American trade exhibits these figures: 000 tons of coal, 3,414,000 tons of iron ore, and 13,084,000 bushels of wheat, in round figures,

Import into the

Domestic expert over 30,000 tons of copper, 3.500 tons of silver

to Salvador ore, 2,152,000 barrels of flour, 59,000 tons of man

$1,261,275 $470.541 ufactured iron, 207,000 barrels of salt, 33,700 1887

1,059,341 tons of building-stone, 276,180,000 feet of lum


645.802 1,662,162

691454 ber, and 351,000 tons of miscellaneous freight. On July 16, 1889, notice was given that the draught Mines and Quarries.-The number of mines of vessels passing through the canal might be and quarries, many of them being, worked in increased to fifteen feet and three inches. The Salvador, in 1889, was 180, of which two were Government of the Dominion of Canada has seen limestone; six flagstones; two argentiferous the importance of a canal at this point, and sur- lead, one tin and lead, one rock crystal, one marveys have been made looking to the construction ble, one tin, three non-argentiferous lead, nine of a canal around the falls of the St. Mary's iron, fifteen chalk, one quicksilver, twenty silver, river on the Canadian side.

one hundred gold and silver, seven copper, four SALVADOR, a republic in Central America. coal, and five argentiferous copper. Area, 18,720 square miles; population, Jan. 1, Education.--Public instruction is free from 1888, 664,513; capital, San Salvador; population, supervision by the Church in Salvador, and is 16,327.

gratuitous and obligatory. The number of priGovernment.-The President is Gen. Fran- mary public schools in 1888 was 559—375 for cisco Menendez, whose term of office will expire boys and 184 for girls. The average attendance in 1891. His Cabinet is composed of the follow- during the year was 21,200, against 11,468 in ing ministers : Foreign Affairs, Justice, and Pub- 1874. There are three grammar-schools, attended lic Worship, Dr. M. Delgado; Finances, War, by 343 pupils. At the capital the Government and Navy, Dr. S. Mendez; Public Instruction supports two normal schools and a polytechnic and Charity, Dr. J. Interiano; Interior, J. Lar- institute, the number of pupils aggregating 294. reynaga. The United States Minister, resident In the National University--reorganized on Feb. at Guatemala, is Lansing. B. Mizner. The 15, 1886–98 stndied law in 1888, 59 medicine American Consul at San Salvador is Thomas T. and surgery, 13 chemistry, and 10 engineering. Tunstall. The Consul-General of San Salvador SAMOA, a kingdom in the western Pacifir in the United States is Antonio Pérez Bonalde. Ocean, occupying fourteen volcanic islands.

Finances. The internal debt amounted in Treaties of commerce were concluded with the 1888 to $6,723,590; the income in the same year United States on Jan. 17, 1878, with Germany was $3,603,000, and the outlay $3,523,000. Dur- on Jan. 24, 1879, and with Great Britain on ing the summer the London and Southwestern Aug. 28, 1879. By the convention of Sept. 2 Bank of London floated for the Government a 1879, the town and district of A pia were placed 6-per-cent. railroad loan of £300,000 at 954, to under a municipality, at the head of which were run till Aug. 15, 1914, with a 2-per-cent. per an- the consuls of Germany, Great Britain, and the num sinking-fund attached to it, for the comple- United States. In 1887 King Malietoa was seized tion of the Sonsonate and San Salvador Railroad by the Germans, deported on a war-vessel, and from Ateos to San Salvador. Salvador has no held in captivity in the Cameroons and the other foreign indebtedness.

Marshall Islands. Army. The strength of the regular army is Statistics.—The area of the islands is 2.787 2,000 men; of the militia, 10,000.

square kilometres, and the native population in Communications. The following lines of 1874 was 34,265 persons, of whom 16,568 were railway are in operation : From Acajutla to Son- on the island of 'Upolu, 12,530 on Savaii, and sonate, 24 kilometres, and from Sonsonate to 3,746 on Tutuila. There are besides about 300 Amate Maria, 71 kilometres; in course of con- whites and 1,000 laborers on the plantations struction, the line from Amate Maria to San imported from other islands. The natives bem Salvador,

long to the Polynesian race, and profess Chris

tianity. The chief articles of importation are clothing, hardware, iron manufactures, arms and ammunition, provisions, drinks, animals, and coal. The Germans have plantations in Upolu, comprising the jor part of the cultivated land on the north side of the island, their area being 9,260 acres. They cultivate cotton for three years after clearing the land, then plant cocoanut palms and sow to grass, and, when the trees have a growth of six years, cattle are admitted to graze the land. There are 500 or 600 tons of copra or dried cocoanut-kernels exported. Coffee of superior quality is also cultivated, and the culture is extending. The laborers are brought from the Solomon, New Hebrides, New Britain, New Ireland, Ellice, and Gilbert Islands, and while on the plantations they are well fed and cared for. (For maps of the islands, see the “Annual Cyclopædia” for 1886 and 1888.) The Samoan Question.—The firm opposition of the United States, and a change in the attitude of Great Britain, impelled Prince Bismarck before the beginning of 1889 to restrain the annexationist proceedings of the German consular and ** authorities in Samoa. A formal arrangement to respect the neutrality of Samoa existed between Germany and England, and with the United States there was a diplomatic understanding to the same effect. Yet at the Washington Conference of 1887 the English Government was willing to agree to German predominance. The powers agreed at the conference that the neutrality of Samoa should be respected, and that the Samoans might select their own rulers. The Samoan treaty with the United States concedes the same privileges that had been or might in the future be granted to any other government. The German consul, Dr. Knappe, when informed by Capt. Brandeis, Tamasese's German adviser, that he was going to make peace with Mataafa, owing to lack of ammunition and the desertion of his men, induced the naval commander to send a party of marines against Mataafa to enforce disarmament. This action, which resulted in the combat of Dec. 18, 1888, and the killing of 20 and wounding of 30 Germans, had no other motive than a desire to bring about the German annexation of the islands. When Prince Bismarck, on Jan. 27, 1889, said in the Reichstag that Germany and England were going hand in hand in Samoa, he was told by Lord Salisbury, in a dispatch to the British ambassador at Berlin, that England declined any responsibility for the conflict between the German Government and a part of the inhabitants of Samoa. Before the warlike operations of December, 1888, Prince Bismarck had directed the consul at Apia to restrict his action to the protection of the lives and property of Germans. Capt. Fritze, the German naval commander, referred Capt. Leary, who protested against the violation of the property of Americans by German marines, to the consul; but in January, 1889, the Chancellor instructed naval officers hereafter, before taking any action, to examine both the political and the military grounds. On Jan. 8 Count Bismarck telegraphed to the German consul that annexation was impossible, on account of the agreement with the United States and England. Tamasese was recognized as King not only by Germany but by Great

Britain: yet the Samoans flocked to the camp of Mataafa. The German authorities declared war against Mataafa, proclaimed martial law, bombarded villages, searched English vessels, destroyed the property of Americans, suppressed the English newspaper in Apia, assumed control of the post-office, arrested British and American citizens, and threatened to bombard Apia. Admiral Kimberly sailed for Samoa on the “Trenton,” with powers to inquire into the situation and the acts of the Germans, and to oppose their subjugation of the native Government as a violation of a positive agreement between the treaty powers. The German Government, which had requested the co-operation of the United States, was informed that the American Government was willing to aid in the restoration of order on the basis of the preservation of the complete independence of Samoa. Secretary Bayard protested to Count Arco-Valley that the German authorities in Samoa overstepped the bounds recognized in the law of nations when they assumed to subject American citizens in Samoa to military law. Prince Bismarck telegraphed orders to the naval commander to withdraw the proclamation of martial law, as far as it applied to foreigners, and to Consul Knappe (who was shortly afterward recalled) to retract the demand he had made to have the administration of the country temporarily given into his charge, and to desist from the control of the administration. In the diplomatic appropriations Congress voted $100,000 for the purpose of establishing a coaling-station at Pango Pango harbor, and $500,000 for the execution of the treaty obligations of the United States in Samoa, and the protection of American rights. Consul Sewall, who was objectionable to the Germans, was asked to resign. The English consul in Apia had at first declared that the proclamation of Jan. 19 had no validity as respects British subjects, but when the German naval commander issued a counter-declaration that Englishmen were sub{. to martial law, he announced that he had een officially informed that the German Government had declared war against the Samoan Islands, and therefore advised English captains of vessels to submit to searches for contraband of war. On Jan. 19 Prince Bismarck proposed to the Government of the United States a renewal of the conference of 1887. Mr. Bayard accepted the invitation, on condition that in the mean time belligerent action should be suspended. In his letter the Chancellor renewed the declaration made in 1887 that Germany would not call in question the independence of Samoa nor the cqual rights of the treaty powers. The German authorities in Samoa, in the beginning of March, withdrew their decree establishing martial law, and abandoned the right of search. Mataasa remained in his intrenched camp with his army of 6,000 warriors. The German consul could not induce him to agree to terms of peace involving a preponderant German influence in the administration, nor would he consent to lay down his arms, but he agreed to keel, a truce during the diplomatic negotiations. Tamasese, whose following had dwindled to 600 men, remained in the fort at Zuatuanu. Dr. Stübel was sent to Apia as consul-general to replace Consul Knappe, and all the acts against which the English and American consuls had protested were condemned by the Chancellor as contrary to international law; and the new consul was instructed that the demand made by Knappe in his negotiations with Mataafa, that Germany should assume the administration of the Samoan Islands and represent them politically in their external relations, as well as his proposition for annexation, was opposed to treaties, and could not be accomplished without the assent of the United States and Great Britain. When Admiral Kimberly arrived, on March 11, he offered to co-operate with the German and British consuls for the re-establishment of peace and order, and admonished both Mataafa and Tamasese to await the decision of the conference. Naval Catastrophe.—On March 15, 1889, a hurricane destroyed or disabled all the American and German war-ships in the harbor of Apia. The vessels were anchored near together in the harbor, a semicircular bay, which is entered through a break in the coral reef that extends across its mouth. When the storm arose in the night, the engines were set at work to relieve the strain on the cables. Nevertheless the vessels dragged their anchors and were dashed one against another and carried upon a coral reef on the western side of the bay. The German gunboat “Eber" first struck the reef, and was turned keel upward. The Samoans, losing sight of their warfare, ran out into the breakers at the great risk of their lives, and saved 1 officer and 4 men, while 5 officers and 66 men were lost. The German flagship, the “Adler,” was lifted by the waves to the top of the reef and thrown over on her side. Of the 130 officers and men, 20 were drowned or killed when the ship capsized; the rest swam to the wreck, and clung to the guns and spars, sheltered from the storm, till they were taken off. The American steamer “Nipsic,” by skillful handling, was kept clear of the reef, and run upon the beach. The German corvette “Olga,” after striking against nearly every other vessel, was beached on a sand-flat. The British corvette “Calliope,” having more powerful engines than any of the other vessls, slipped her cable and succeeded in steaming out to sea, narrowly escaping being thrown upon the reef. The United States steamer “Vandalia was carried on the reef near shore, and sank. Those who attempted to swim ashore were nearly all drowned, and those who clung to the masts were swept off by the “Trenton,” which floated by a few hours later, some of them falling into the water and some on the deck of the vessel. The “Trenton " was thrown on the beach in front of the American consulate. The “Nipsic" lost 7 men; the “Vandalia,” 5 officers and 39 men, the “ Trenton,” one man. The Samoans showed great heroism in rescuing the crews, making no distinction between Germans and Americans. A large proportion of the saved were wounded. About 900 American and German sailors had to be provided for on shore. The “Olga " was got afloat again soon after the storm, which lasted two days. The “Nipsic” was floated on the 23d, but had lost both screw and rudder. The 15 merchant vessels in the harbor were either sunk or stranded.

The Conference.—At the Samoan Conference of 1887, Germany proposed that the three powers should appoint a single mandatory to supervise their common interests, who should be nominated for five years by the power having the o interests in Samoa. He was to

ave the post of Prime Minister to the native

but merely nominal King. This scheme, which would virtually convert Samoa into a German dependency, was supported by England; but the United States would not listen to it, and proposed that there should be three foreign advisers, one nominated by each power, who should preside over the departments of foreign affairs, internal affairs, and finance respectively, and should form with the two kings the governing council.

The new conference met on April 29. The representatives of the United States, appointed by President Harrison shortly after his inauguration, were John A. Kasson, William Walter Phelps, and George H. Bates. The English plenipotentiaries were Sir Edward B. Malet, British ambassador at Berlin; Charles S. Scott, minister to Berne, who was formerly secretary to the Berlin enbassy; and J. A. Crowe, commercial attaché at Paris, who had acted as English representative at the Congo Conference. The German representatives were Count Herbert von Bismarck-Schönhausen ; Baron Holstein, formerly of the German legation at Washington; and Dr. Krauel, all of the German Foreign Office. Count Bismarck presided at the meetings.

About th. time when the conference began its labors, Malietoa was brought back to Samoa and set free. A sub-committee was appointed to consider the future government of the islands, and another to form a plan for adjudicating upon private titles to lands, which were in the greatest confusion, the clains of foreigners embracing an extent of land much greater than the entire area of the islands. A general act was elaborated, which was signed by the plenipotentiaries on June 14. The first article contains a declaration respecting the independence and neutrality of the islands, the equal rights of citizens of the three signatory powers, and the right of the Samoans to elect their own King and choose their form of government, over which neither of the powers shall exercise a separate control. With a view to prompt restoration of peace and order, the powers agreed to recognize as King the ..". Laupepa. The second article simply declared that the new treaty should prevail over any conflicting provisions in former treaties. The third article provided for the creation of a Supreme Court, to consist of a single judge, who shall be named by the three treaty powers, or, if they fail to agree. by the King of Sweden and Norway, and may be removed for cause at the request of a majority of the signatory powers. The Supreme Court shall have jurisdiction of all questions arising under the treaty, and any question arising among the Samoans respecting the election of kings or chiefs, shall not lead to war, but shall be referred to him for decision ; and any difference between either of the treaty powers which they shall fail to adjust by mutual accord-shall not lead to war, but shall be presented for decision to the chief justice. He may recommend to the Samoan Government laws

for the punishment of crime and the protection native capitation-tax of $1 per annum, the proof good order, and for the collection of taxes in ceeds of which must be turned over to the SamoSamoa outside the district of Apia. He shall an Government. Imports of alcoholic liquors, have exclusive jurisdiction over: 1, all civil suits tobacco, and sporting arms and gunpowder are concerning real property ; 2, all suits between taxed at specific rates, and all other merchandise natives and foreigners; 3, all crimes commit- pays 2 per cent. ad valorem. Export duties of ted by natives against foreigners or by foreign- 14, 2, and 24 per cent. respectively are levied on ers against natives, except in A pia. Questions cotton, coffee, and copper. Imported laborers between masters and seamen of their respective pay a capitation-tax of $2, and for every trade, nationalities remain under the jurisdiction of the profession, and store a license duty is charged. consuls. The fourth article provides that there All revenues collected outside the district of Apia shall be no more alienation of lands by the na- shall be for the use of the Samoan Governtives, except town lots in Apia and agricultural ment. The seventh article prohibits the sale to lands that are not needed for support of the na- natives of intoxicating liquors of any kind, and tive population. The latter may be leased to the importation of firearms except for sporting, foreigners for forty years, subject to the approval for which licenses must be obtained from the of the Samoan King and the chief justice. All president of the Municipal Council. The sale of titles to lands claimed or occupied by foreigners arms to Samoans or other Pacific islanders by will be examined and passed upon by three com- foreigners is also prohibited. The seventh artimissioners to be named by the three treaty pow- cle provides that the treaty shall remain in force ers, and shall not be allowed unless conveyed by until changed by the consent of the powers; that the rightful owner for a reasonable consider- at the end of three years the powers shall conation and properly described and identified. sider what ameliorations may be introduced, and All disputed claims are to be referred for final in the mean time special amendments may be decision to the chief judge. When land has been adopted by the consent of the three powers and cultivated and improved, a defective title may the Samoan Government. The treaty shall be be made complete by the payment of an addi- ratified within ten months of the date of the sig. tional sum to be ascertained by the commission nature, and in the mean time the powers respectand approved by the court. Continued occu- ively engage to adopt no measure that is opposed pation and cultivation for ten years establish to it, but to give effect to its provisions prior to å title by prescription. All claims based on its ratification. mere promises to sell or options to buy, or where The Restoration of Malietoa.- After the the articles of conveyance give no description powers had come to an agreement at the confersufficiently accurate to enable the commission ence, Tamasese, who had refused to make peace to define the boundaries of the property, or at the demand of Admiral Kimberly, except on where no consideration was expressed, or where the basis of Mataafa's submission, agreed to the consideration was not paid in full or was peace at the prompting of the German authorimanifestly inadequate, or finally in cases where ties. Malietoa and the three other exiled chiefs the consideration for the sale, lease, or mortgage were brought back on a German gunboat, arrivwas firearms or munitions of war or intoxi- ing in Samoa on Aug. 11, and Herr Stübel incating liquors, the claims must be rejected. The formed Malietoa that he was at liberty to do as commission, which shall complete its labors be- he pleased. Mataafa met him and offered to refore the end of two years, is required to survey sign the royal powers into his hands. Malietoa the lands of all Europeans, and register all valid declined to assume control of affairs until a sattitles. The fifth article relates to the munici- isfactory settlement could be made. The people pality of Apia. The tax-payers will elect six preferred Mataafa for King, and when the tribes councilors, but the president of the council and met in October for the election of their chief, chief executive officer of the municipality will King Malietoa, in the presence of the foreign be appointed by the three powers, or, if they fail representatives, praised Mataafa, and recomto agree, on any person, by the chief executive mended that he should be elected. The assemof Sweden, the Netherlands. Switzerland, or Bra- bled people acclaimed Mataafa as King. Tamazil. He may act on the joint instructions of the sese's followers did not assent to the election, and three powers, but not on the separate instruc- some of them on the island of Savaii attacked tions of one of them; and may advise the Sa- some of Mataafa's partisans. A force of several moan King, and shall give such advice when hundred collected to punish the aggressors, and the King requests it. He will have charge of a fight took place in which 1,000 men were enthe municipal revenues, rendering account of re- gaged, and many were killed. The American ceipts and disbursements to the King and the representatives in Samoa would not countenance Municipal Council. He shall superintend the har- the election of Germany's enemy, and pressure bor and quarantine regulations, and shall have was brought to induce the Samoans to choose charge of the administration of the laws and Malietoa, who was elected King by a later asordinances applicable to the municipal district. sembly, and was recognized as such by proclaThe sixth article requires that all foreign goods mations issued by the consuls of the three powmust be imported through the port of Apia ; but ers on Nov. 9. On Dec. 16 a large number of coal and stores for the naval stations may be the chiefs who had been attached to Tamasese's landed at the harbors reserved for the seve party came in a body to Malietoa and announced eral powers, and are not subject to duty. The their allegiance. On Dec. 24 the King issued customs duties, license taxes, and other taxes a proclamation in which he prohibited the sale, collected in the district of Apia, are available lease, or mortgage of any land to foreigners, the for the support of the municipal government, importation of arms or ammunition, and the sale except license taxes paid by Samoans and the of intoxicating liquors.


1887 1888 1689

SANTO DOMINGO, a republic occupying the

Import from

Domestic expert eastern portion of the West Indian Island of that

Santo Domingo. to Santo Domingo. name, the western portion being Hayti. The area of the republic is about 18,000 square miles; 1886

$1,656,181 $1,017,295 the population in 1887 was 504,000; capital,



1,459,892 Santo Domingo; population, 20,000.

1,454,261 1,150,651 Government. --The President is Gen. Ulises Hereause; the Vice-President, Don Manuel Maria Education.—The number of primary public Gautier. The Cabinet is composed of the follow- schools in 1887 was 200, attended by 8,000 pupils. ing ministers: Interior and Police, Gen. Wences- Public instruction is generally very backward; lao Figueredo; Foreign Affairs, Gen. Ignacio M. there should be schools enough to teach 64,000 Gonzalez ; Justice and Public Instruction, Gen. children. Alejandro Wos y Gil; Finance and Commerce, SERVIA, a monarchy in southeastern Europe. Gen. Juan Francisco Sanchez; War and Navy, The legislative powers are vested in the SkupshGen. Federico Lithgoro. The Chargé d'Affaires tina, which is composed of 117 members elected of the United States is Frederick Douglass, resi- by the nation. The present King is Alexander I, dent at Port-au-Prince, Hayti. The American born Aug. 14, 1876, who succeeded to the throne Consul at Puerto Plata is Thomas Simpson. The by the abdication of his father. Milan ObrenoDominican Consul at New York is Don Enrique vitch, on March 6, 1889. During the minority Honriquez

of the King the executive power is intrusted Army.--In June Congress passed a bill ren- to a regency composed of J. Ristich, Gen. J. dering military service obligatory on all citizens Belimarkovich, and Gen. H. S. Protich. The capable of bearing arms.

ministry was composed in 1889 of the following Finances. -- The indebtedness of the nation members: President of the Council and Minister on Jan. 1, 1889, stood as follows: home debt, of Foreign Affairs, Gen. Sava Gruich; Minister $2,931,376; foreign, £1,520,700, bearing 6 per of Public Works, Peter Velimirovich: Minister cent. interest, and an old balance due abroad, of Finance, Dr. Michael Vuich ; Minister of gradually being canceled, of $234,250. There is Public Instruction and Worship. Svetozar Miloan old balance due by Flayti of $824,378. The savlyevich ; Minister of Justice, Gregor Gersich; income in 1887 was $1,484,434; the outlay, Minister of Agriculture and Commerce, Stefan $787,164. During the summer the Paris Crédit R. Popovich , Minister of the Interior, Con. Mobilier secured the privilege of establishing stantine Taushanovich ; Minister of War, Col. at the city of Santo Domingo a national bank. Demeter Djuvich. with the exclusive privilege of circulating bank Area and Population. The area of Servia notes to the amount of twice its capital. is 48,589 square kilometres. The population, as

Communications. The only line of railway computed at the end of 1887, is 2,010,612, comin operation is that connecting Sánchez with La posed of 1,028,606 males and 982,006 females. Vega, 115 kilometres, with a telegraph line run The number of marriages in 1887 was 22,555; of ning alongside. There is in course of construc- births, 93,911; of deaths, 50,481. tion the Santo Domingo Central Railroad by a Finances. - The budget for 1889-'90 shows a New York corporation. The line will run from deficit of 3,000,000 dinars, to which must be the southern coast of the island to a salt mount- added 11,000,000 dinars for the deficit of 1888–89, ain in which is an inexhaustible supply of fine and 9,250,000 dinars to be paid for the exproprirock-salt.

ation of the Franco-Servian railroads. A loan The land lines of telegraph measure only 254 of 25,000,000 dinars was raised, secured on the kilometres, but the net is now rapidly extending receipts of the railroads. The debt on Jan. 1, over the island. The steamship lines calling reg- 1889, amounted to 256,146,520 dinars. ularly at Dominican ports are: the New York The Army.—The effective of the permanent Clyde line, touching at Turk’s Islands and Cape army in 1889 was 13,213 men, with 132 guns. Hayti; two Spanish lines keeping up communi- The war strength is estimated at 70,000 men. cation with Havana, St. Thomas, and St. John's, with 264 guns, exclusive of the reserve army and Porto Rico : the French transatlantic line, the Landsturm. whose steainers run from Havre to West Indian Abdication of the King.-The new Servian ports; the Hamburg line; and the line between Constitution was adopted by the Grand SkupshLiverpool and West Indian ports, touching at tina on Jan. 2 1889, by a majority of 494 votes Sánchez, Samaná, and Santo Domingo.

against 75. On Jan. š the ministry of Nikols In 1887 there were 83 post-offices, which han- Cristich resigned. The King was unwilling to dled 27,727 items of mail matter, the receipts be- appoint a Radical Cabinet, and applied first to ing $24,994, and the expenses $17,650.

Jovan Ristich, but could not induce that states. Commerce.-- The imports amounted in 1888 man to form a Cabinet, and therefore decided to to $1.992,885, compared with $2,056,928 in 1887; retain the old Cabinet as long as possible. The the export was $2,520,983, against $2,660,471 in Radicals refused to take office unless Tauschano1887. "The chief articles exported in 1888 were vich, President of the late Grand Skupshtina, a tobacco, sugar, coffee, honey, wax, cabinet-woods, revolutionist who had been condemned to death and dye-woods. The export of tobacco, which for participation in the Timok valley uprising. goes almost exclusively to Bremen and Ham- should be given the portfolio of the Interior. burg, fluctuates between 20,000 and 50,000 se- They also demanded that the outlawed Pashich roons. During the past five years the amount should be amnestied. The King was deserted of sugar imported into the United States from by Garashanine and the rest of the Progressists Santo Domingo has more than doubled. The His throne was at stake, and he determined to American trade exhibits the following figures : appoint Liberal prefects and sub-prefects, and

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