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legacies and gifts for the China Famine Relief fund. A speaker at the anniversary meeting, replying to criticisms of missionary methods by Mr. Caines and to a call for self-denying missionaries, mentioned that for four years one of the missionaries of the society had returned three fourths of his salary in order that more men might be sent out; and that the Baptist missionaries in China during the famine had supported the native brethren out of their incomes, while they distributed the Relief fund of the society among the heathen. The receipts of the Baptist Zenana Mission had been £9,641, and the expenditure £8,488, leaving a balance in hand of £1,152; but a permanent yearly increase of £600 was wanted to make the income equal to the expenditures. The annual income of the Baptist Union Home Mission was returned at the autumnal meeting of the Union at £4,000, while £1,100 more were required in order to carry on the work in hand. Five hundred churches had been visited. An aggressive movement had been begun in London by the Hondon Baptist Association. The autumnal meeting of the Union was held in Birmingham, beginning Oct. 9. The Rev. J. T. Wigner presided and delivered a presidential address on “Christian Citizenship.” At a missionary meeting, held on the first day, the speakers dwelt on the success of missions, and cited facts, particularly from the missions in India, contradictory to the allegations recently made in the public prints and discussions of the failure of missionary effort. Among the new missionaries about to go out to their fields, a number of young men were introduced who would live together and devote their time to personal intercourse with the natives, it being understood that they would remain unmarried while engaged in this work. A letter was approved, to be signed by the officers of the Union, in reply to the letter of the Archbishop of Canterbury transmitting the resolutions of the Lambeth Conference on “Home Reunion.” Of the four articles suggested in those resolutions as forming a suitable basis on which negotiations could proceed, the letter said that as to the first— [(a) The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as “containing all things necessary to salvation,” and as being the rule and ultimate standard of faith..] we are in full accord with your Grace. The supreme authority of the Holy Scripture in matters of religious faith and duty is a cardinal principle underlying our Church organization and individual life. The other three articles [(h) The Apostles' Creed as the baptismal symbol, and the Nicene Creed as the sufficient statement of the Christian faith. c) The two sacraments ordained by Christ himself, baptism and the supper of the Lord, ministered with unfailing use of Christ’s words of institution, and of the elements ordained ” by him. (d) The historic episcopate locally adapted in the methods of its administration to the “ varying needs of the nations and peoles called of God into the unity of his Church.” §. Encyclical Letter, pp. 88, 24, 25).] laid down in the encyclical letter contain terms so obviously susceptible of two or more interpretations that they do not seem to us to promise a profitable issue to any deliberations founded upon them. For instance, our churches hold that they have “the historic episcopate,” as it is laid down in the New Testament, and they do not consider the diocesan episcopate of the Anglican communion to be in accordance with the New Testament law of Church government.

But our chief difficulty as Baptists in approaching the suggested conference arises from the fact that our churches hold and teach— 1. That the Christianity of the New Testament was essentially the introduction of a spiritual, personal, and non-sacerdotal religion. 3. That the New Testamentio of Baptism requires a profession of faith in the Lord Jesus Christ as a prerequisite to the administration of the rite; or, as it is well expressed in the catechism of the Church of England in answer to the question “What is required of persons to be baptized? o whereby they forsake sin, and faith, whereby they steadfastly believe the promises of God,' and that the administrition of baptism to infants, when, by reason of their tender age, they can not satisfy these conditions, is contrary to the teaching of Holy Scripture and to the practice of the primitive and apostolic Church. 3. That in subjection to the teaching of the Word of God, the internal government of each Christian Church should be conducted by the professed servants of the Saviour, and should be in no way controlled by the sovereign powers of the state. These Proof our views on Christian baptism —we hold, as your Grace is fully aware, in common with other free churches in this country with whom we are not only united by the ties of brotherhood but also by a common concern for the salvation and well-being of all men. Having laid before your Grace this frank statement of our position, we are the more anxious to acknowledge the spirit of devotedness to the welfare of our o, which we wit– ness in many of the members of the Established Church. With all that tends to promote spiritual religion and social reformation we earnestly sympathize, and while we do not think the suggested conference would advance the special object of “home reunion” which your Grace has in view, we do regard the mere suggestion of such a conference as tending to bring about a more direct and closely knit federaation of those consecrated labors in which all sections of Christ's Church are engaged. . In our judgment, such co-operation would be a truer index of the growth and power of the spirit of Christian brotherhood than a comprehensive organization and a mere outward conformity. Alterations were made in the rules regulating the Annuity fund, the British and Irish Home Mission, the Augmentation fund, and the Education fund, the effect of which in respect to home missions will be to exclude all reference to Ireland. The home missions there will in future be managed by a separate committee. A report was made by the council favorable to the amalgamation of the General and Particular Baptists. The General Baptist Association had replied favorably to the overtures on the subject, and most of the associations communicated with had approved the effort. The Union advised that the terms “General ” and “Particular” as denominating Baptist churches, societies, or members, should be discontinued; that all institutions denominationally promoted should be designated by the term “Baptist” only: and that all Baptists duly qualified should be eligible to office in any Baptist institution. Commending to the consideration of all Christians the evils of indulgence in intoxicating drinks, the assembly expressed the conviction that the Church should lead in the conflict with the evil, and urged the adoption of such measures as should prove best suited to destroy it. . Objection was made against the measure proposed in Parliament for the establishment and endowment of a Roman Catholic college in Ireland. While it acknowledged the right of Roman Catholics to equality in o collegiate advantages with members of the Episcopal Church, the Union suggested that such equality should be secured, not by concurrent endowment, but by making existing endowed institutions really national and altogether unsectarian. BARNARD, FREDERICK AUGUSTUS PORTER, educator, born in Sheffield, Mass., May 5, 1809; died in New York city, April 27, 1889. He was the oldest son of Robert Foster Barnard (Gen. John G. Barnard was a younger son), a lawyer who was at one time a member of the Massachusetts Senate. His mother was a daughter of Dr. Joshua Porter, of Salisbury, Conn., and on both sides his ancestry was of English origin. He was first taught at home and then entered a grammar school in Sheffield conducted . Dr. Orville Dewey. When he was nine years old he was sent to Saratoga Springs, N. Y., where he entered the academy. In Saratoga he first saw a printing-office, and soon ac

FREDERick Augustus Porter BARNARd.

quired a familiarity with that art. Many of the pages of the “Saratoga Sentinel” were voluntarily set up by him. After three years he went to Stockbridge, Mass., where he was prepared for college by Jared Curtis, and at this time ac#. an interest in chemistry and electricity.

He was uated at Yale in 1828, standing second in his class of eighty-two members, and leading it in pure mathematics and the exact sciences. On

the Monday following the taking of his degree, he began his educational work as a teacher in the Hartford Grammar School, and continued

there for two years. At this time be became a contributor to “The New England Review,” edited by John G. Whittier, the poet, and he also for a short time had complete editorial control of that journal. His articles included poems, of which several were imitations of Hafiz and other Persian poets, and, according to Mr. Whittier, were “full of grace and rhythmic sweetness.” He returned to Yale in the autumn of 1830, and became tutor of mathematics. His success was such that it was proposed to divide the chair of Mathematics as soon as possible, giving him the department of pure mathematics. While in Hartford he had studied law under Jonathan

Edwards, and his own inclination was toward o life, but an unfortunate illness which left im with impaired hearing, led to his relinquishing this project. As the ailment was hereditary in his family, he became unduly sensitive on the subject, and therefore readily accepted an appointment in May, 1831, at the American Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb in Hartford, even seeking a release from his college duties before the close of the term. It was not until after he was fifty years of age that his deafness became marked. He was called in 1832 to the Institution for Deaf and Dumb in New York city, and this place he held for five years, during which he prepared the annual reports of the institution, invented new methods of teaching, and also wrote magazine articles relating to deaf-mute instruction. In 1837 he was chosen to the chair of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in the University of Alabama, where he remained until . 1848, when he was transferred to the charge of Chemistry and Natural History, which he held until 1854. Prof. Barnard was at this time said to be “the best at whatever he attempted to do; he could turn the best sonnet, write the best love-story, take the best daguerreotype picture, charm the most women, catch the most trout, and calculate the most undoubted almanac.” His versatility was remarkable. He edited a weekly newspaper at Tuscaloosa, and for a time had charge of two papers of opposite political opinions. In 1846 he was appointed by the Governor of Alabama as astronomer on the part of that State to assist in determining the boundary line between Alabama and Florida; and as the representative of the latter State did not qualify, Prof. Barnard was employed by both States. His report, submitted to the Legislatures of the two States, was accepted as conclusive, and settled the long-pending controversy. On July 4, 1851, he delivered an oration before the citizens of Tuscaloosa on the questions of the time, beginning with: “No just cause for a dissolution of the Union in anything which has hitherto hapned; but the Union is the only security for uthern rights.” Of this address it is said: “It enraged his colleagues greatly, but it produced a decided impression in the community, and after that day people did not always hold their breath when political topics were mentioned in the streets of Tuscaloosa.” He studied theology, and was admitted to holy orders in the Protestant Episcopal Church in 1854. This step he took on the advice of friends, and he was persuaded that thereby his influence as an educator would be eater, but he never sought for nor held a parish. In 1854 he was invited to fill the chair of Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, and Civil Engineering in the University of Mississippi, of which institution he became president in 1856, and chancellor in 1858. This office he held until 1861, going North in 1860 to serve on the astronomical expedition sent by the United States Coast Survey to Labrador to witness the total eclipse of the sun, and returning to his post on the completion of his work. Soon after the beginning of the civil war, the university closed its doors, and President Barnard was relieved of his charge. Efforts were made to induce him to

take office under the Confederate Government,

but, being opposed to secession, he refused. He was denied a pass o the lines, and,compelled to remain in Norfolk, Va., until that place was captured in 1862 by the United States troops. President Barnard then went to Washington, where he was engaged in continuing the reductions of Lieut. James M. Gilliss's observations of the stars of the Southern Hemisphere, and in 1863 had charge of their publication. He also became connected with the United States Coast Survey, and was made director of the map and chart department. His long residence in the South proved of great service in the preparation of maps used by the national armies. When the chair of Physics in Columbia College, New York city, became vacant, his name was sugested for that place, but the resignation of Sharles King from the presidency of the college led the trustees to call Prest. Barnard, in May, 1864, to that post. This office he held until the close of the collegiate year in 1888, when failing health induced him to place his resignation in the hands of the trustees, which was accepted, “to take effect on the appointment of his successor.” Thus he continued president of Columbia College until his death. At the time of his appointment the college had but recently acquired its present site. Although endowed with abundant means, it was conservative to the last degree. Its law and medical departments were separate and remote from the college proper, while the School of Mines was struggling for existence in the basement of one of the buildings. By his learning and acuteness, his executive tact, his mastery of details, his insight into character, and his unfailing courtesy, President Barnard was well fitted for the place to which he was called. His keen judgment led him to see the future aright, and he bent his energies toward the building of a great university. The School of Mines received at first his chief thought, and at present, with its departments of architecture, chemistry, geology, metallurgy, and civil, electrical, mechanical, mining, and sanitary engineering, with its laboratories and museums unequaled in the country, it is perhaps one of the foremost technical schools in the United States. The School of Political Science, teaching the principles of government, commerce, and finance, claimed his attention later. After that the School of Library Economy was developed, and finally a department for the education of women, bearing the name of Barnard College, has been thrown open. The building of the School of Mines, Hamilton Hall, and the Library Building, in which the law department is placed, also the group of buildings forming the medical departments, was accomplished during his administration. Prof. John S. Newberry says: “Every one of the steps of progress enumerated above was either conceived or earnestly advocated by him, and owed its achievement to his support. He was not only a participant, but a leader in every forward movement.” The library contained 15,332 volumes in 1865 and 94,000 in 1889, while the number of students in 1864 was 600 and in 1888 was over 1,800. During his residence in the South, President Barnard in many ways was actively engaged in promoting public education, encouraging and assisting in all departments of scientific research and literary culture. In his honor, the University of


Alabama has called one of its new buildings Barnard Hall. He was officially connected with the World's Fair held in New York city in 1853. In 1866 he was a pointed one of the commissioners to the World's Fair held in Paris in 1867, and on his return he prepared an extended description of the “Machinery, Processes, and Products of the Industrial Arts and Apparatus of the Exact Sciences,” which was published in the Government reports. At the Centennial Exhibition held in Philadelphia in 1876 he was one of the judges on instruments of precision, and in 1878 he was assistant commissioner-general at the World's Fair held in Paris, when the decoration of the Legion of Honor, with the rank of officer, was conferred on him by the French ministry. He also received other foreign decorations and gold medals in recognition of his scientific work. The degree of LL.D. was given him by Jefferson College, Mississippi, in 1855, and by Yale in 1859. In 1861 the University of Mississippi conferred on him the degree of S. T. D., and in 1872 he received that of L. H. D. from the Regents of the University of the State of New York. Kings College, Canada, made him a D. C. L. in 1887, and St. j. College, Annapolis, bestowed on him the degree of Ph.D. in 1888. President Barnard's name was on the rolls of many scientific societies, both in this country and abroad. He was chosen president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1860, but, owing to the civil war, did not assume the office until 1866, and at the Chicago meeting in 1868 he delivered his address, when he discussed the doctrine of the materialistic school of modern physics, which regards mental and physical forces as reciprocally convertible. He was one of the original members of the National Academy of Sciences, chairman of its physical section in 1872, and its forei secretary in 1874–80. To its proceedings i. contributed seven o and he was an active member of several of its earlier commissions that were charged with special work for the Government. In 1872 he was president of the American Institute in New York city, and in 1873 became first president of the American Metrological Society, which place he held until his .. He was often called upon to preside at public meetings, and delivered a great number of addresses. President Barnard was active in the support of every Fo cause—religious, educational, scientific, and artistic—and was rerded as a co-worker by all those who were evoted to the higher purposes of life. He was the senior editor of “Johnson's Cyclopædia,” for which work he wrote numerous scientific and literary articles. His contributions to scientific literature included papers on astronomy, electricity, engineering, hygiene, mathematics, metrology, photography, and physics. He wrote for the “American Journal P Education ” from its beginning, and from 1838 was a contributor to the “American Journal of Science.” In addition to numerous reports on educational matters presented to the trustees of Columbia College, he published “The School Arithmetic" (1829); “A Treatise on Arithmetic” (1830); “Analytic Grammar with Symbolic Illustrations” (1836); “Letters on College Government” (1854); “Report on Collegiate Education" (1854); “Art Culture” (1854); “History of the American Coast Survey’” (1857); “University Education” (1858); “Undulatory Theory of Light.” (a series of lectures delivered before the Smithsonian Institution) (1862); and “Metric System of Weights and Measures” (1871). His entire estate was bequeathed to Columbia College, and on the death of his wife (who receives the income during her lifetime), $10,000 is to be appropriated for the foundation of a fellowship to be known as the Barnard Fellowship for encouraging Scientific Research, the holder of which must be an alumnus of the School of Mines or School of Arts. The remainder of the estate is to be known as the Barnard fund for the increase of the library, and works pertaining to physical or astronomical science are to be pur: chased in preference to others. He also provided that a medal, to cost not less than $200, be prered, to be known as the Barnard Medal for Meritorious Service to Science. A copy of this medal is to be presented at the end of every five years to the person who, during that period. shall have o: such discovery in physical or astronomical science, or such novel application of science to purposes beneficial to the }. race, as shall be deemed the most worthy of such honor. BELGIUM, a monarchy in western Europe. It seceded from the Netherlands and was constituted an independent state in 1830. By the treaty of London, signed on April 19, 1839, the kingdom was recognized and its neutrality and inviolability guaranteed by the powers of Europe. Leopold II, son of the first King, came to the throne in 1865. The Chamber of Representatives is composed of 138 members, elected for four years, one half retiring every two years. The Senate contains half as many members as the Lower House, renewed by quadrennial elections of half the members. The franchise is limited by a tax-paying qualification to about one thirteenth of the adult male population. The ministers are individually and collectively responsible to the Chambers. The present ministry, constituted in 1884, is composed of the following members: President of the Council and Minister of Finance, A. Beernaert; Minister of Justice, J. Lejeune; Minister of the Interior and of Public Instruction, J. Devolder; Minister of War, Maj--Gen. C. Pontus; Minister of Agriculture, łor. and Public Works, L. Debruyn; Minister of Railways, Posts, and Tele#. J. H. P. Vandenpeereboom; Minister of Moreign Affairs, Prince de Chimay. Area and Population.—The area of the provinces of Belgium and their population as estimated at the close of 1887, compared with the returns of the census of Dec. 31, 1880, are shown in the following table:

uare Population Population provincLs o: in 1880. in 1887. Antwerp ............. | 1,093 577,282 664,480 Brabant ... ........... 1.268 985274 1,091,088 West Flanders......... 1,249 691,764 782,817 East Flanders. . . . . . . . . . 1,158 881,816 939,748 ... . . , 1,487 977.565 | 1,041,719 1,117 | 668,735 728,868 931 210,851 222,489 1,706 209,118 217,447 1,414 822,654 337,092 Total ... . . . . . . . . . . . | lists own Tows

The male population in 1887 was 2,983,093, and the female population 2,991,650. The number of marriages in 1887 was 42,491; of births, 175,466; of deaths, 115,296; surplus of births over deaths, 60,170. The percentage of illegitimate births was 93. The population of Brussels, with its suburbs, at the beginning of 1888, was 458,939; of Antwerp, 210,534; of Ghent, 147,912; of Liége, 140,261. The population has for many years received an increment from immigration, the number of immigrants in 1887 having been 19,286, or 1,758 in excess of the emigrants; but in 1888 as many as 40,000 persons emigrated. Of late years emigration has been directed mainly to the Argentine Republic and to Brazil. Unfavorable accounts of the condition of the Belgian emigrants in those countries having been received, the Government sent agents in 1889 to Canada and to the Transvaal to examine their advantages or disadvantages as a field for Belgian emigration. The attractions of the South African Republic, especially for the surplus Flemish population, were vaunted by the Transvaal Minister of Public Instruction, M. Du Toit, during a visit to Belgium in September, 1889.

Commerce and Industry.—The total value of the special imports in 1887 was 1,431,930,000 francs; of the exports, 1,240,624,000 francs. The rincipal imports were cereals, of the value of 23,487,000 francs; textile materials, 200,055,000 francs; vegetable foods, 78,013,000 francs; hides and skins, 75,218,000 francs; minerals, 61,596,000 francs; living animals, 59,710,000 francs; timber, 59,357,000 francs; chemicals, 55,284,000 francs; tissues, 53,231,000 francs; resins, 51,558,000 francs; coffee, 39,058,000 francs; metals, 33,919,000 francs; butter and eggs, 29,987,000 francs; yarns, 28,103,000 francs; meat, 25,799,000 francs. The largest exports were yarns, of the value of 134,222,000 francs; textile materials, 84,542,000 francs; coal, 71,972,000 francs; machinery, 68.255,000 francs; stone, 67,502,000 francs; tissues, 66,493,000 francs; cereals, 59,483,000 francs; hides and leather, 58,316,000 francs; iron, 57,456,000 francs; glass, 54,739,000 francs; sugar, 38,129,000 francs; live animals, 29,869,000 francs; paper, 24,574,000 francs; chemicals, 22,800,000 francs; meat, 22,110,000 francs; resinous substances, 16,915,000 francs; steel, 13,864,000 francs; arms, 11,538,000 francs. The chief commercial countries furnished imi. and received Belgian exports of the folowing amounts in 1887, the values being given in francs:

countries. Imports. Exports. France ..................... 2s2.soso | Saosis. Great Britain .. ... 187,791,078 240,425,238 Netherlands ... . 198.736,078 167,758,788 Germany....................... 148,831.905 197,806,547 United States 164,878,283 || 49,848,829 oil §§§ {:}; entine redu * * *** 16,235,012 || 41,586,121

The product of the coal mines in 1886 was 17285,543 metric tons, of which one fourth was exported, the bulk of it going to France. There were 754,481 tons of pig-iron produced in 1887. The product of manufactured iron in 1887 was §§ tons. In 1886 it was 470,255 tons, and in that year 301,816 tons of steel, valued at 27677,000 francs, were manufactured. . The cultivable area is 2,704,957 hectares out of a total of 2,945,715 hectares. The area under cultivation is 1,983,570 hectares; under forest, 489,423 hectares; uncultivated, 231,964 hectares. The soil is divided into 910,396 separate properties, more than 710,000 of which are less than 2 hectares. The imports of cereals in 1886 were 1,095,877 metric tons, and the exports 304,276 tons. The export of beet sugar in 1885 was 98,390 tons. avigation.—The merchant navy on Jan. 1, 1888, comprised 65 vessels, of 86,391 tons, 55 being steamers, of 80,891 tons. The deep-sea fisheries employed 344 vessels of 12,191 tons. The number of vessels entered at the ports of Belgium during 1887 was 6,747; the tonnage, 4,571,705, more than half being British, The number cleared was 6,780; the tonnage, 4,584,297. Railroads, Posts, and Telegraphs.-Qn Jan. 1, 1888, the railroad lines belonging to the state had a total length of 3,195 kilometres. The length of lines belonging to joint-stock como was 1,246 kilometres. The gross receipts rom state lines in 1886 amounted to 124,057,764 francs, while the expenses were 66,541,005 francs. The receipts of the companies were 36,782,204 francs, and the expenses 18,138,562 francs. The capital expenditure of the Government up to Jan. 1, 1887, was 1,285,068,000 francs. The number of private letters carried in the mails for the year 1887 was 86,831,068; official letters, 14,816,465; postal cards, 25,407,239; rinted circulars, 56,665,000; newspapers, 94,24,000. The revenue of the post-office in 1887 was 15,253,560 francs, and the expenditure 8,643,167 francs. The state telegraph lines at the beginning of 1888 had a total length of 3,900 miles, with 18,700 miles of wire. The number of dispatches in 1887 was 6,811,534. The receipts for the year were 2,916,978 francs, and the expenses 3,734,917 francs. The Army.—Belgium has conscription laws making every able-bodied citizen liable to serve eight years from the age of nineteen, yet allowing substitution. Actual service is not required for more than one third of the legal period. A commission, with General D'Oultremont at its head, has worked out a project of military reform, based on the German system of universal service. This project is stubbornly resisted by the extreme wing of the dominant Clerical party. The standing army, as provided for in the budget of 1889, has a total strength of 47,570 officers and men, the infantry numbering 30,778, the cavalry 6,048, the artillery 8,371, the engineers 1,479, the administrative corps 894. In addition the general staff numbers 474 officers and men, and there is a gendarmerie of 2,449 men. The number of horses of the peace establishment is 7,200, not including 1,636 horses of the gendarmerie. The guns number 200. The war strength of the army is 103,860 men, 13,800 horses, and 240 guns. Besides the standing army there is the volunteer force called the Garde Civique, numbering 42,706 men on March 31, 1888. The kingdom has a central citadel at Antwerp and other arsenals at Liége, Huy, and Namur. In 1888 the fortification of the valley of the Meuse was begun. The Belgian Government, like other European gov


ernments, has long sought for a repeating rifle. The inventors of all known systems were invited to a competitive trial, which took place at Beverloo in January, 1889. Eight different models were tested, all of which are said to have shown themselves superior to the French Lebel rifle. After the preliminary trials the competition was narrowed down to the weapons of Casper Engh, Mauser, and Mannlicher. The Austrian Mannlicher system was decided to be the best, but the inventor of the Nagant rifle and other Belgian inventors asked for a second trial after they had made improvements that were suggested by the results | the contest. In May the final trials took place, on the same ground, under the direction of Lieutenant-General van der Smissen. Finance. — The revenue for 1888 was estimated at 326,405,000 francs, of which 319,365,000 francs are derived from ordinary sources. The ordinary expenditures were estimated to amount to 307,743,000 francs, and special expenditures were estimated at 52,101,000 francs, making the total of expenditures 359,853,000 francs. The budget for 1889 reckons the total ordinary revenue at 322,345,702 francs, of which 24,028,000 francs are derived from property taxes, 19,425,000 francs from personal taxes, 6,580,000 francs from trade licenses, 25,567,807 francs from customs, 40,602,718 francs from excise, 19,710,000 francs from succession duties, 24,060,000 francs from registration duties, 5,802,000 francs from stamps, 120,500,000 francs from railroads, 5,278,800 francs from telegraphs, 9,686,000 francs from the postoffice, and the remainder from mines, funds, navigation dues, domains and forests, and other sources. . The total ordinary expenditure is estimated at 313,137,948 francs, of which interest on the public debt consumes 96,619,397 francs, the civil list and dotations 4,674,665 francs, the Ministry of Justice 15,904,733 francs, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs 2,385,120 francs, the Ministry of the Interior and Public Instruction 22,025,984 francs, the Ministry of Public Works 16,843,941 francs, the Ministry of Railways, Posts, and Telegraphs 87,381,328 francs, the Ministry of War 45,968,100 francs, the Ministry of Finance 15,578,180 francs, and the gendarmerie 4,100,000 francs, the remainder, of 1,656,500 francs, representing repayments. The public debt in 1889 amounted to 1,915,846,574 francs, not including 30.106,000 francs to be paid annually in terminable annuities. The debt was raised mainly for public works, and its payment is provided for by a sinking fund. The revenue in recent years shows a steady growth, although the coffee and sugar imposts have been lowered and other taxes, yielding 6,000,000 francs per annum, have been remitted. A small deficit in the ordinary budget was formerly the rule. In 1884, when the present ministry came into office, there was a deficit of 19,000,000 francs to carry over. Since then, although the revenue has increased, the ordinary expenditure has not been augmented, so that in 1889 a surplus of 12,000,000 francs is in prospect, and in the estimates for 1890 the Minister of Finance reckons on one of 16,000,000 francs. Legislation. — The Moderate Conservative ministry that was called into office to reverse the policy of secular education pursued by the Liberals is supported by a Clerical majority so large

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