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ordained, in a family law, promulgated on June 18, 1889, that no member of the imperial house is capable of succeeding to the throne both of whose parents are not adherents of the national Church; and that no prince who might become heir to the throne can marry a princess of another faith unless she embraces the Orthodox religion. The government is carried on by the aid of four boards: (1) the Council of State, which examines projects of law submitted by the ministers; (2) the Ruling Senate, which |. legislation, acts as the Supreme Court of Justice, and supervises the general administration; (3) the Holy Synod, which superintends ecclesiastical affairs; and (4) the Committee of Ministers. The reigning Emperor is Alexander III, born Feb. 26, 1845, who succeeded his father, Alexander II, on March 13, 1881. The heir-apparent is the Grand Duke Nicholas, born May 18, 1868, the eldest son of the Czar and of the Czarina Maria Dagmar, a daughter of the present King of Denmark. The Committee of Ministers is composed of the following members: Minister of the Imperial Household, Lieutenant-General Count Vorontzoff-Dashkoff; Minister of War, General P. Vannofsky; Minister of Foreign Affairs, Nicholas de Giers; Minister of Marine, Vice-Admiral Tchihatchoff; Minister of the Interior, M. Durnovo; Minister of Public Instruction, Count Delyanoff; Minister of Finance, M. Vyshnegradsky; Minister of Domains, M. Ostrofsky: Minister of Communications, M. Hübbenet; Comptroller-General, J. Filipoff; Minister of Justice, N. Manassein. The Council of State is presided over by the Grand Duke Michael, uncle of the Czar. The Czar's brother, the Grand Duke Alexis, is commander-in-chief of the navy. The President of the Holy Synod is Isidore, Metropolitan of Novgorod; and the Procurator-General is M. Pobiedonostcheff. M. Durnovo, who was at first appointed Minister of the Interior ad interim, after the death of Count Tolstoi, was definitively confirmed in the office by an imperial rescript, published on May 18. The Czar appointed the Czarevich, on his twenty-first birthday, a member of both the Council of State and the Committee of Ministers. This is the first time that any Russian heir to the throne has been made a member of these bodies, and thus brought into direct connection with the Government. Finances.—The receipts from ordinary sources in 1888 were 896,361,000 rubles: the total receipts from all sources, 961,438,000 rubles. The ordinary expenditures amounted to 840,419,000 rubles, and the extraordinary expenditures to 86,848,000 rubles, making a total sum of 927,267,000 rubles, which was 34,171,000 rubles less than the receipts. The Government on Jan. 1, 1889, owed 3,044.687,872 rubles, repayable in paper currency, including 568,559,743 rubles of paper notes, unprotected by metallic reserves. There were also a debt of 387,954,583 rubles payable in specie, one of £121,442,680 sterling, one contracted in Holland of 63,334,000 guilders, and another of 550,128,000 francs. The success of the conversion, in 1888, of the 5-per-cent. loan of 1877 into 4 per cents., and the general improvement of Russian credit. induced the Minister of Finance to conclude anoth
er loan of 175,000,000 gold rubles for the conversion of other 5 per cent. obligations. The German semi-official newspapers cried down Russian credit, but the books were opened at Paris, as well as in Berlin, and in the French capital the loan found !"; of takers. The Army.—Military service in the permanent army begins at the age of twenty-one, and lasts in Russia in Europe five years in the active army and thirteen years in the reserve; and in Asiatic Russia, seven years in the active army and seven years in the reserve. In the territorial army the period of service is five years. Young men who are completely capable .# bearing arms, and are not the sole support of their parents, if not drawn for the o: army, are inscribed in the first ban, which in time of peace can be called out to drill for two periods of six weeks each ; and in time of war is destined to complete the permanent army. In 1889 the number of men called into the service was 850,000, of whom 250,000 were drawn for the permanent army, not counting 2,400 in the trans-Caspian territory. This was the same as the recruit of 1888, 15,000 more than in 1886 and 1887, and 32,000 more than in 1878 and 1879. The effective strength of the field army in 1889 was 848 battalions of infantry, comprising 386,312 men; 328 squadrons of cavalry, comprising 57,416 men; 344 batteries of field artillery, with 1,542 guns, numbering 61,880 men; 33} battalions of engineers, numbering 18,977 men; and 35,130 men belonging to the train, siege artillery, etc., making the total force 562,500 men. The reserve numbered 73,634 men, the local troops 112.850 men, and the Cossack cavalry 51,953 men, bringing up the total number to 799,937. The great augmentation of the cavalry force on the western frontiers has been followed by the doubling of the rifle battalions, which are likewise designed to hinder the mobilization of an enemy, assisted by the flying batteries and ammunition-wagons that will be attached to each brigade. A second division of Cossacks has been transferred to European Russia. For three successive years the reserves have been called out for the autumn manoeuvres. The Navy.—The naval force in the Baltic in 1889 comprised 33 ironclads, including 2 under construction, 32 armed steamers, of which 2 were building, and 45 other steamers, 97 topedo-boats, of which 3 were unfinished. In the Black Sea there were six ironclads, one of them being incomplete, 18 armed steamers, 23 other steamers, 28 steam launches, and 21 torpedo-boats. There were 10 armed steamers in the Caspian Sea and 7 in Siberia, besides 8 torpedo-boats, 8 unarmed steamers, and other vessels. Since 1886 the greatest activity has been shown in re-establishing a Russian fleet in the Black Sea. In 1888 three armored vessels and several gunboats were added, and in 1889 the Minister of Marine ordered three more ironclads to be built within four years, each having a displacement of 11,000 tons and engines of 12,000 horse-power, besides six torpedo-boats designed to burn petroleum. A steel torpedo-boat, launched at Nicholaieff in May, 1889, is planned for a speed of 20 knots. Four large monitors were also ordered to be added to the Black Sea fleet. A large ironclad with two turrets was laid down at St. Petersburg in April, 1889. Two monster ironclads,
surpassing anything in the Russian navy, have number cleared was 13,434, of which 11,794 carbeen ordered to be built. The "Emperor Nich- ried cargoes and 1,171 sailed in ballast. The olas I," launched at St. Petersburg in 1889, has Russian mercantile navy in 1886 comprised 2,157 a displacement of 8,840 tons, armor 14 inches sailing vessels, of 469,098 tons, and 218 steamthick, and an armament of two 12-inch guns, in vessels, of 108,295 tons. thickly plated turrets, and 20 quick-firing re Railroads. The railroad network on Jan. 1, volving cannons.
1889, measured 30,731 kilometres, exclusive of Commerce. The value of the imports in 1888 the lines of Finland and the trans-Caspian line was 390,700,000 rubles, of which 332,300,000 ru- of 1,064 kilometres. The contemplated Siberian bles came over the European frontiers, 11,400,- Railroad will run from Samara to Ufa, 485 kilo000 rubles from Finland, and 47,000,000 rubles metres, thence to Slatoust, 438 kilometres, thence from Asia. The exports had a total value of to Omsk, 1,200 kilometres, and to Tomsk, 900 793,900,000 rubles, of which 728,100,000 rubles kilometres more, and from that point to Irkutsk, went to European countries, 19,300,000 rubles to 1,700 kilometres, and thence about 1,000 kiloFinland, and 46,500,000 rubles to Asia. The im- metres farther to Nerchinsk. From the last ports at the Baltic ports amounted to 154,400,000 place there is steamboat communication of about rubles, and the exports to 201,100,000 rubles; the 3,000 kilometres on the Amur and Shilka, and imports by way of the European land frontiers 400 kilometres of railroad in the Ussuri valley were 125,300,000 rubles in value, and the ex- leading to Vladivostok. The distance between ports 177,800,000 rubles; 51,700,000 rubles of Moscow and Vladivostok is more than 10.000 import were received at the ports of the Black kilometres. The entire cost is estimated at 445,Sea, and 342,200,000 rubles, or 47 per cent. of all000,000 rubles, or more than twice that of the the exports of European Russia were shipped Canada Pacific Railroad. from those ports; the import trade of the White Posts and Telegraphs.
The number of orSea ports was 900,000 rubles, and the export dinary letters carried in the mails in 1887 was trade 7,000,000 rubles. The commercial inter- 152,616,013; of post-cards, 17,596,779 ; of regiscourse with the principal foreign countries do- tered letters, 14,221,720; of money letters, 11.ing business with Russia is shown in the follow- 292,988; of journals, 106,217,068 ; of sealed packing statement of the value of the trade with each ets, 23,819,895. one in 1888, given in rubles :
The telegraph lines belonging to the state bad
in 1887 a total length of 110,212 kilometres, with COUNTRIES.
Importa. Exports. 211,026 kilometres of wire. There were besides Great Britain
the Anglo-Indian line of 3,635 kilometres and Germany
122,524,000 182,790,000 1,289 kilometres of other lines. The number of France ..
13,944.000 59,036,000 internal dispatches in 1887 was 8,534,323; of inNetherlands
4,551 000 53.425,000 Austria-Hungary
ternational dispatches sent, 622,726 ; received,
14.878,000 26.953,000 Belgium
6,812,000 82,968,000 658,000. The receipts were 9,550,912 rubles. Italy
6,682,000 27,442,000 An imperial ukase was issued in August, 1889, Turkey..
5,812,000 24,178,000 China
ordering the introduction of post-office and tele
2,504,000 Sweden and Norway
4,717,000 16,706,000 graph savings-banks wherever it is considered United States
20,783,090 155,000 practicable. Denmark
2,144.000 12,268,000 Reorganization of Local Administration Persia.
9,231,000 and Judicature.-Count Tolstoi's reform proRoumania
1,750,00 5,484,000 ject, which was ostensibly designed for the benefit All other countries
45,172,000 45,836,000 of the peasantry, although it had been rejected Total
890,745,000 798,864,000 by a considerable majority when brought before
the Council of State in January, was ratified by The imports of the precious metals in 1888 the Czar on July 24, 1889. The change will rewere 29,519,000 rubles on the European and 2,- store to the central Government a large part of 115,000 rubles on the Asiatic frontier; the ex- the authority that was committed to the Zemstports were 34,452,000 rubles on the European vos, and will deprive the people of the right of and 4,601,000 rubles on the Asiatic frontier. electing the minor judiciary. A distriot chief
Changes in the tariff increase the duties on or administrator, who is responsible to the Minwool, raw and in every stage of manufacture, ister of the Interior, will be the repository of the and on powder and dynamite, starch, rice, wax, administrative and also of the chief local jumarble blocks and slabs, woolen rags, and, more dicial powers. Under him will be township recently, on paper stock, hardware, and bar-iron. judges, who are also appointed, while certain Laws have been passed, or are in contemplation, judicial powers will remain in the hands of electexcluding foreign insurance companies, restrict- ive justices of the peace, one of these functioning the coasting traffic in foreign vessels, and aries being retained in each district. The reform altering the railroad tariffs in such wise that the was to be introduced in the provinces of Mosimportation of foreign goods is made as diffi- cow, Vladimir, Kazan, Kaluga, Kostroma. Riacult as possible. On the Asiatic frontier tariffs zan, Novgorod, and Chernigoff, on Jan. 1, 1890. have been lowered. The Czar, in April, 1889, and in time to be extended to thirty-four other gave his sanction to a resolution of the Council provinces. The decisions of the district justices of State that goods entering Russia from Persia of the peace can be reviewed by the ordinary or British India shall be assessed at 24 per cent. court of sessions, while from the judgments of ad valorem.
the district administrator an appeal can be taken Navigation. The total number of vessels en- to a district court composed of the marshal tered at the ports of the empire in 1887 was of nobility, a justice of the peace elected by the 13,659, of which 8,860 were steamers. The total Zemstvos, and a judge from the higher court.
The final appellate jurisdiction will not be vested, as heretofore, in the Ruling Senate, but in the Committee of Ministers or a Department of the Council of State. The district chiefs will be nominated from the nobility by the provincial governor. Another part of Tolstoi's project makes the Zemstvos dependent bodies by ordaining that the president, who has hitherto been freely elected, shall be appointed by the Government and wear a uniform, and that he shall prescribe the order of business after receiving his instructions from the governor of the province. An imperial ukase, dated July 19, 1889, sanctioning a decision of the Council of State, greatly diminishes and restricts the functions and jurisdiction of Russian juries. An agitation against trial by jury has been carried on for a long time by reactionaries, on the ground that in cases of political crime, or in which administrative oppression or provocation could be assigned as a cause of an offense, the offender is invariably !". In future, certain categories of crimes and misdemeanors will be adjudicated without a jury, but by a specially constituted court, composed not only of professional judges but of representatives of the various classes of the community, appointed by the Minister of Justice. The cases that are excluded from the competency of juries include all offenses and derelictions of Government employés, rebellion, resistance to the authorities, insults offered to officials, sentinels, or constables, tampering with official seals, rescuing criminals, insubordination of laborers employed in Government mines, factories, or lands, contraband traffic in Government salt, smuggling and breach of the excise laws, abandonment of a ship or railroad-engine, resistance to custom-house authorities, bank frauds and forgeries, and polygamy. Russification of the Baltic Provinces.— During the reign of Alexander III the German schools of Livonia, Esthonia. and Courland have been compelled to adopt the Russian language: a law has been enacted requiring all children of mixed marriages to be reared in the Orthodox faith; and disciplinary measures have been taken against more than sixty Evangelical clergymen of Livonia. The so-called German provinces are only German in the sense that Germans have composed the ruling classes for 700 years, and by the favor of former Czars have been able to impose their religion and institutions upon the rest of the population. The noble and burgher classes are German by blood. They constitute 200,000 out of a total population of 1,700,000, or less than 12 per cent. The peasantry speak the Lettish or Esth tongue. The Letts, who are allied to the Russian race, and the Esths, a Finnish tribe, have no affection for the German feudal lords, although the former are with few exceptions Protestants. The Government has determined to abolish the special administrative and legislative privileges granted in former times to the Baltic provinces. The Panslavists desire to impose the national religion and language on the Germans, who have always excited the jealousy of Russians because, owing not less to their native energy and ability than to the patronage of the Czars, they have been represented in the highest posts of the Government and the army in strikingly disproportionate numbers. Not VOL. xxix.-48 A /
long ago, an enumeration showed that 24 per cent. of the field officers, 58 per cent. of the staff, and 75 per cent. of the general officers of the Russian army were of German extraction. Some of the best of the German schools have been closed because they refused to introduce Russian as the language of instruction. In February, 1889, the juristic faculty was reorganized in pursuance of an imperial ukase, so as to give lo. to Russian law and language. By a recent order, religious instruction must be imparted in the language familiarly spoken in each locality, and German teachers are required to be able to speak the Russian and the local language. German pastors who were banished to Siberia for inducing Letts who had embraced the state religion to return to the Lutheran faith, have been pardoned, but not allowed to return to Livonia. The Ministry of the Interior, which has supervision over the foreign confessions, issued a decree in July forbidding collections to be taken in Evangelical congregations for missionary purposes, or remittances to be sent abroad for the support of Protestant missions. In August an imperial edict was published abolishing the old German courts and system of judicature, controlled by the German barons, and introducing the Russian judicial code of 1864, thus assimilating the legal procedure to that of the rest of the empire. Nihilistic Conspiracies.—One of the leaders of the Nihilist refugees in Switzerland, named Thikomiroff, publicly abjured his revolutionary sentiments, and in January, 1889, was pardoned by the Czar. Shortly after this a new attempt against the life of the Czar was planned in Switzerland. The Russian Minister of Justice was warned of this by disinterested persons, and the inquiries that he instituted resulted in the arrest of many persons in Wilna and other places. Some bombs that were made in Zürich were discovered by the Swiss authorities, who arrested and eventually expelled several Russians. Several bombs were known to have been sent to Russia, but the search for these was ineffectual. Officers of the artillery and other branches of the Russian military service who had formed a secret political club in which a change in the system of government was discussed were found out, and many were arrested in Cronstadt and St. Petersburg and in the provinces, and sent to prison or to Siberia. Instead of having to do with a single revolutionary organization, as formerly, the police came upon traces of different societies having no connection with one another, and pursuing different aims and methods. The Czar again immured himself in Gatchina. Treaty with Corea.—A treaty of commerce concluded with Corea is expected to open to Russian enterprise the frontier districts bordering on the south Ussuri region of the Amur. Besides the ports of Genssan. Chemalpo, and Fussan, and the cities of Séoul and Yanchuatsin, the town of Kong Chong in the north of Corea is made free to Russian traders, and the Russian Government is at liberty to establish a consulate there. Russians are permitted to acquire a site for a commercial .." Arms, opium, spirits, and books are the only articles that can not be imported. The duties are lower than those collected at the seaport towns.
ST. MARY'S FALLS CANAL. The St. Mary's river connects Lake Superior with Lake Huron, and it is the only outlet for the waters of Lake Superior. The head of the St. Mary's river is at Point Iroquois, near the southeastern corner of Whitefish Bay, and the foot of that portion which is at present navigated by the commerce of the United States is at Point Detour, at the head of Lake Huron. The body of water called St. Mary's river is not a river but a strait, composed of several lakes, connected by narrow and tortuous streams. The fall from Lake Superior to Lake Huron is 20:5 feet, and it occurs in the first 50 miles of the channel navigated by American vessels. One tenth of a foot of this fall occurs between the head of the river and the Falls of St. Mary, a distance of 15 miles; 18 feet are at the falls, or rapids; and the other 2:3 feet are between these and the head of Mud Lake, 35 miles below. The greatest single fall is at the East Neebish, the rapids at the foot of Lake George. The American channel, as navigated through these several bodies of water, is 75 miles long. The lower 25 miles, from the head of Mud Lake to Lake Huron, present an abundance of water. The upper portion begins at Point Iroquois, turns northeast three miles below St. Mary's Falls, passes north of Sugar Island, then east of this island through Lake George, then past the East Neebish to the eastward of Neebish Island into Mud Lake, thence through Mud Lake and Potaganissing Bay to the west of Drummond Island and into Lake Huron. The improvement of St. Mary's river began in 1852, in the construction of the first lock at the “Sault,” a grant of land for which was made to the State of Michigan. This canal cost $1,000,000. The lock had two chambers, each 70 feet wide and 350 feet long between gates, and Fo vessels drawing a maximum of 111 feet. This structure, opened for business in 1855, met the immediate necessities of the early development around the shores of Lake Superior, especially in iron and copper ore productions. The first year's tonnage through the lock was 100,000 tons: five years later it was 400,000; ten years later, 700,000; in 1875, 1,260,000; and in 1880, 1,750,000. By this time the iron ores of Lake Superior were supplying one third of the ore for the total pig-iron production of the United States.
Ten years had not elapsed from the completion of the first canal and lock before the rapid increase of tonnage demonstrated the necessity of another structure, with largely increased capacity. The construction of the lock now in use gave this; and it is one of the grandest engineering works of the time. The dimensions of this work, known as the second canal, are, length 515 feet, width 80 feet, and 17 feet of water over the miter sill. It was opened for business, Sept. 1, 1881. While this work was in progress, extensive improvements were made in the canal above the lock, and at different points in the river below, by which was obtained nearly an equal depth of water with that carried by the lock—
16 feet. This increased capacity through the entire strait was advantageous to the shipping on the lakes and to all producing interests. The increased draught of water largely augmented the vessel-carrying capacity and diminished the cost of transportation. The saving in the cost of iron-ore transportation alone from Lake Superior in the following year was $800,000. The cost of this canal was $2,000,000. But the tonnage once more began to crowd the lock capacity, and Congress moved in the direction of relief by the passage of a resolution. Dec. 29, 1881, calling on the War Department for information as to what additional works were necessary on the St. Mary's river and St. Mary's Falls to complete the improvements thereof in a manner to serve the interests of the commerce of the northern lakes. Under this call, Gen. Godfrey Weitzel, then in charge, reported, Jan. 14, 1882, recommending “ the construction of a dry dock on the canal, the inprovement of the Hay-Lake channel, and the immediate construction of another lock.” The new lock, which occupies the site of the original lock of 1855, is 800 feet long, 100 feet wide, and has 21 feet of water over the miter sill. The estimated total cost of these works is, for the Hay-Lake channel, $2,659,115; for the lock and canal, $4,738,865. Hydraulic machinery operates the gates and valves of the locks, and a movable dam has been constructed, designed to stop the flow of water through the canal or locks whenever an accident to the locks or the banks below requires it. These improvements have rendered no longer pertinent the objections that were made, early in 1879, to the effect that “the greatest obstruction to this water-way is in the St. Mary's river, between Lake Superior and Lake Huron, the present condition of which permits vessels of twelve feet draught to pass; and although the Government has made large expenditure in the construction of a ship-canal for vessels drawing sixteen feet of water, it can not be available for the purposes designated until such further improvements are made to the river below as will give the required depth of water, and thus save the present loss of 30 per cent. in the carrying capacity of modern lake vessels, and the annually recurring loss of so much of the public wealth.” It is the purpose of the engineers to give a depth of twenty-one feet through the entire chain of lakes by deepening the St. Clair flats and the Lime-Kilns channel; but, as the only lock is on the Sault St. Marie, the work is begun there. Ultimately, the deepening of all the lake channels will admit of the use of vessels of 2,500 tons burden, Boats of great depth carry coal and freight from Buffalo to the ports of Lake Superior, and bring return cargoes of grain and iron ore. The ore enriches manufacturing cities like Cleveland, Buffalo, and Pittsburg; and the grain contributes largely to the commerce of the city of New York. The distance from the St. Mary's Falls Canal to the head of Lake Superior is 397 miles. Early in 1888 the report of the United States engineer in
North Channel LAKE MICHIGAN
Straits of Mackinac
MAP SHOWING LOCATION
ST. MARY'S FALLS CANAL
SAULT STE, MARIE, MICHIGAN.
SCALF OF MILES
GR. MANITOULIN I.
charge of the improvements at the St. Mary's In the 212 days of navigation, in 1888, there Falls Canal stated that, for the year 1887, the passed through the St. Mary's Canal an aggredown freight was 1,749,536 tons, and the up gate tonnage of over 6,200,000. This, for seven freight 1,745,313 tons. The total freight-charges, months of navigation, would average 900,000 a including terminal charges, were $10,075,- month, or nearly double the usual monthly ton153; average freight-charges per ton per mile, nage of the Suez Canal. In 1889 the tonnage 23.100 of a cent. The United States Bureau of was 7,400,000. In other words, St. Mary's Canal Statistics gave the average freight-charges per does as much in six or seven months as the Suez ton per mile on the trunk railroads for 1886, in Canal does in an entire year; and it has one round numbers, at one cent. To realize what quarter of all the seaport tonnage of the United this benefit means, it is only necessary to show States. An equally noteworthy fact is the steady that it represents more than ten times the cost increase in the size of vessels. Thus, while there of improving the canal and St. Mary's river to was a decrease of 1,552 vessels, there was an inthat date, or about six times the estimated cost crease of 37 per cent. in the registered tonnage, of the proposed further improvement. At the and an increase in the average cargo of 40 per close of 1888 a similar report stated that the ca- cent. The average cargo of registered vessels in nal was open to navigation from May 7 to Dec. 11. 1887 was 644 tons; in 1888, 8766 tons. The to