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DAMIEN.) Two priests, two brothers, and three nuns continue the work begun by him. The Church in America celebrated important anniversaries during the year. Foremost among them was the centenary of the establishment of the See of Baltimore—the founding of the American Catholic hierarchy. Formal exercises were held in the metropolitan cathedral, Cardinal Gibbons pontificating. The orations delivered by Archbishops Ryan and Ireland were full of practical wisdom. Nearly all the prelates of the {. States were present, and Rome, England, Canada, Mexico, and other countries were liberally represented. This great event was immediately followed by another not less important—the Congress of American Catholic Laymen. Its object was the discussion of questions bearing directly upon the present status of Catholicism, upon the duties of laics, and upon certain political grievances. Cardinal Gibbons, Daniel Dougherty, John Gilmary Shea, and other noted Americans addressed the congress. On Nov. 12 the work of the Congress was concluded, and on the 13th began the ceremonies for the dedication and formal opening of the new university at Washington. The two American cardinals were present, and nearly all the archbishops, bishops, abbots, and other Church dignitaries met to honor the occasion. Right Rev. Bishops Gilmour and O’Farrell, Dr. Shroeder, and Father Fidelis, C. P., were the orators. On Feb. 19 Georgetown College celebrated the centennial anniversary of its founding. A host of graduates and distinguished friends of the institution thronged the historic spot, and the festivities were continued for several days. All the educational institutions of America joined with Georgetown in the celebration, or sent messages of felicitation and encouragement. Cardinal Gibbons paid a glowing tribute to the memory of its illustrious founder, Archbishop Carroll. President Harrison, members of his Cabinet, and other distinguished citizens, spoke of the march of Christianity, of the position of the Church in America, and of the importance of thorough education. At the time of the foundation of the university it was scarcely a hope. The skillful management of the authorities, the zeal and earnestness of the Jesuits, and the substantial support of appreciative Americans have made Georgetown a great power in American education. The action of the Italian freethinkers in erecting a statue to Giordano Bruno was discussed throughout Christendom, and directed the attention of the civilized world to the position of the Pope. Bruno is regarded by Catholics as a reneo cleric, who, for blasphemy, was burned at the stake by the civil Government. The enemies of the Pope consider Bruno as a martyr to philosophy and freedom of thought, who o at the same time to destroy the papal influence in Italy. Telegrams expressive of sympathy with the Holy Father and of indignation at the insults offered him, poured in from all sides and consoled him, in part, for the defection of the Italians. In Ireland the Church is most concerned with the university question. The bishops seem determined to control the higher education of the Irish laymen. The only dissentient from this

view seems to be the Rev. Dr. Healy, coadjutor Bishop of Clonfert. Cardinal Manning's successful arbitration in the labor strikes in England redounds to the glory of the Catholic hierarchy of that country. This truly pastoral action was performed with such satisfaction to employers and workmen that no complaint was ventured on either side. The necrology for 1889 bears the names of many eminent churchmen. Cardinal Pitra died on Feb. 9. He had been librarian of the Vatican for many years, and his learning and wisdom were proverbial throughout Europe. A few weeks afterward Cardinal Sacconi died. Then Cardinal Messala, the Apostle of Africa, died at Naples Aug. 6. Finally the sacred college lost a fourth and very distinguished member by the death of Cardinal Schiaffino. Right Rev. J. P. Macheboeuf expired in his episcopal city at Denver, and was succeeded by Bishop Matz, his coadjutor (July 15). Mgr. Corcoran, a learned and devoted son of the Church, passed away on July 16. He had been editor of so “American Catholic Quarterly Review" since its foundation, and impressed his mind deeply on American literature. He was the principal secretary of the third Plenary Council, and prepared a digest of the decrees of that body. On Sept. 1 occurred the death of Bishop Kelly, of Derry, and on Dec. 6 that of Bishop Tuigg, in the pool city of Pittsburg. Rev. James Curley, S.J., the oldest priest in America, and one of the oldest in the world, died near the end of the year. Father Curley was a celebrated astronomer, and was appoint. by the Government to ascertain the longitude of Washington. Another Jesuit, Father Thiry, died about the same time: his charity and zeal earned for him the surname of the “American Curé of Ars.” Very Rev. Fra di Bruno, RectorGeneral of the Society of Missions passed away in Rome, April 18. #. is perhaps best known in America by his little book entitled “Catholic Belief.” On Feb. 21 the Augustinians were called upon to mourn the death of their Superior-General, Most Rev. Dr. Nino, who was formerly a missionary in the United States. The Society of Jesus lost two eminent members, Fathers Weniger and Ienni. Father Ienni was the compiler of a well-known Greek Grammar. The ranks of the laity, too, were thinned by the death of many distinguished Catholics. American journalism sustained a severe loss in the person of Commendatore P. V. Hickey (Feb. 21), founder and editor of the “Catholic Review.” Mr. Hickey's reputation was international, and he was particularly honored by the Pope on several occasions. Queen Mary, of Bavaria, died May 17, and the widow of President John Tyler on July 10. Both Were converts. Seven archbishops were admitted to the Sacred College, May 11. They were: Mgr. Richard (Paris), Foulon (Lyons), Guilbert (Bordeaux), De. Schoenborn (Prague), Goosens (Malines), Appolloni, and De Ruggiere. Other changes in the episcopate were: Bishop Van de Wyver to succeed Bishop Keane in the see of Richmond; Bishop Heslin for Natchez; Bishop Walsh, of London, Ont., transferred to the archdiocese of Toronto; Bishops McGolrick, Zardetti, Cotter, Shanely and Marty for the new dioceses of Duluth, St. Cloud, Winona, Jamestown, and Sioux Falls. On Feb. 14 Archbishop Janssens received the pallium, and on the same day Father Foley was made Bishop of Detroit, Father Hennessey of Wichita, and Father Dowling of Hamilton. The public-school system furnished matter for extended discussion, and at one time it was thought a crisis had been reached. Catholics consider themselves obliged to support schools for the education of other people's children as well as their own, and the difficulty is as pressing as ever. The race problem, too, has forced itself upon the public during the past year. A seminary has been opened in Baltimore for the training of young men who are to spend themselves wholly for the improvement of our colored brethren. The first meeting of the colored Catholics of the United States was held in Washington, Jan. 1–4. The Catholics of the United States are organizing an international congress, to be held in Chicago in 1892. ROUMANIA, a constitutional monarchy in eastern Europe. The sovereign is Carol I, born April 20, 1839, son of the late Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, who was elected Prince in 1866, and was proclaimed King on March 26, 1881. The legislative power is vested jointly in the Senate, composed ..}". members, and the Chamber of Deputies, numbering 183. The members of both houses are chosen by electoral colleges in each district. Area and Population.—The area of Roumania is 48.307 square miles. The population is estimated at 5,376,000. The population of Bucharest, the capital, in 1876, was 221,805. Of the total population, about 4,529,000 are Greek Catholics, 400,000 Israelites, 114,200 Roman Catholics, 13,800 Protestants, 8,000 Armenians, 6,000 Lipovans, and 2,000 Mohammedans. Finances.—For the year ending March 30, 1888, the receipts of the treasury amounted to 142,927,318 lei or francs, and the disbursements to 140,201,995 lei, leaving a surplus of 2,725,823. The capital of the .# debt at the end of 1889 stands at 851,412,554 lei, and the interest payable during 1889–90 is 54,505,497 lei. The Army.--Thebo. strength of the permanent army is 2,666 officers and 35,921 men, with 8,124 horses and 573 field-guns. The territorial army on the war footing numbers 81,843 men of all ranks, with 4,401 horses. There is also a militia. The naval force consists of a toro cruiser, 2 avisos, 6 gunboats, and 5 torpedots. Gen. Mano, the new Minister of War, although on technical grounds an opponent of the system of fortifications that had been ap|. by a military commission, and already Il. o himself to the King, on accepting office, that he would carry out the scheme. Commerce.—The total value of the imports in 1887 was 314,680,752 lei, an increase of 18,183,390 lei over the previous year. The exports were valued at 265,726,613 lei, an increase of 10,179,350 lei. Of the imports, 90,053,000 lei came from Germany, 86,787,000 lei from Great Britain, 53,455,000 lei from Austria-Hungary, 25,017,000 lei from France, 16,616,000 lei from Belgium, 15,632,000 lei from Switzerland, 10,290,000 lei from Turkey and Bulgaria, 8,776,000 lei from Russia, and 8,055,000 lei from Italy, Greece, and other countries. Of the exports, 154,243,000 lei went to Great Britain, 21,239,000

lei to Austria-Hungary, 19,751,000 lei to France, 17,225,000 lei to Italy, 15,702,000 lei to Belgium, 10,868,000 lei to Turkey and Bulgaria, 8,764,000 lei to Germany, 7,896,000 lei to Russia, and 10,049,000 lei to other countries. Railroads, Posts, and Telegraphs.-The state lines of railroad in operation in 1889 had a total length of 2,230 kilometres, besides 222 kilometres of private lines worked by the state. There were 80 kilometres under construction, and 364 kilometres more surveyed. The number of ordinary private letters forwarded in the mails during 1888 was 11,454,270; of official letters, 2,932,337; of registered letters, 1,318,756; of circulars and printed inclosures, 6,135,942; of postal-cards, 3,436,453. The length of the telegraph lines in 1888 was 5,234 kilometres; the length of wires, 12,935 kilometres. The number of private internal telegrams was 870,343; of foreign private telegrams, 295,734. The revenue from telegraphs and the post-office was 5,049,219 lei, and the expenditure 3,780,480 lei. Politics and Legislation.—The defeat of the Bratiano Cabinet in April, 1888, resulted in the formation of a Junimist or Young Conservative Cabinet, under T. Rosetti, with P. Carp as Minister of Foreign Affairs. The Old Conservative or Boyar party, who had brought about the downfall of the Liberal statesman that had been at the head of the Government for twelve years, began in January, 1889, to oppose the Government in regard to making Galatz and Braila free ports, and on other questions, in the hope of replacing the ministers with a Conservative Cabinet, with Lascar Catargi, President of the Chamber, as its chief. Catargi resigned when the motion for restoring the free ports was lost, but was re-elected. Gen. Mano entered the Cabinet as Minister of War in the beginning of the year. As the result of a compromise, the Conservatives, Vernesco and A. Lahovary, were also taken into the Cabinet as Ministers of Justice and Domains. The Conservatives represented chiefly the antiAustrian sentiment, which springs from the old antagonism between the Roumanians and the Hungarians, and was intensified by the tariff war. On Feb. 21 the Chamber voted in favor of the impeachment of the late Cabinet for violating the freedom of the press and of assembly, and the privilege of members of Parliament. The new resolution, from which some of the charges were omitted, obtained a majority of 101 votes against 47. A ministerial bill to sell the national domains in parcels to peasants was adopted in principle on March 2 by 98 against 17 votes. All receipts from the sales of public lands must be applied to reducing the debt. The total extent of the domain lands is about 1,500,000 hectares. The number of peasant families lacking the necessary land was estimated as high as 200,000. Vernesco, after first, refusing to withdraw from the Cabinet at the dictation of Catargi, produced a Cabinet crisis by appointing friends to high judicial offices without the ap: roval or iod. of his colleagues. On April the ministers sent in their resignations in consequence of the refusal of Vernesco to retire. The late ministers, having declined to resume their portfolios without the privilege of dissolvi ing the Chamber, Lascar Catargi was called on, and was intrusted with the formation of a ministry on his undertaking to satisfy the existing Parliament. ... His first attempt was fruitless, and it was not till other combinations had failed that the Kin o!. to him a second time, and he formed a Cabinet on April 10. The new Cabinet was compelled to adopt, in its main traits, the foreign policy of the preceding Governments. The Cabinet dissensions became so serious in the early part of August that Ministers Lahovary and Mano asked leave to resign. Catargi had not ventured to oppose the agrarian reform bill, which was passed by the Senate after he came into office, yet he had neglected to carry out the provisions of the act, and had rendered himself unpopular in the rural constituencies furthermore by proposing to take away from the communes the right to elect their mayors. Before the Chambers reassembled, Catargi asked the King to grant a dissolution. The Kin to dissolve Parliament only on condition that the members of the Cabinet should heal their differences, and go before the country with a homogeneous programme. After a stormy Cabinet conference, the Premier went to King Carol, and offered his resignation, which was accepted. Gen. Mano was asked to form a new ministry, which he did, chiefly from Junimist elements. RUDOLF, FRANZ KARL JOSEF, Archduke, Prince Imperial of Austria and Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia, born Aug. 21, 1858; died in Meyerling. Jan, 30, 1889. He was the only son of the Emperor-King Franz Josef and of the Empress Elizabeth, daughter of Duke Maximilian of Bavaria. The Crown Prince received a careful education, and developed tastes for literature, science, art, and inventions, rather than for military affairs. He was declared of age on June 24, 1877, and a year later entered upon active military service. He was made a major-general and rear-admiral in September, 1880, was appointed to the command of a brigade of infantry stationed at Prague on April 6, 1881, was advanced in 1883 to the rank of lieutenant field-marshal and vice-admiral, taking command of the division of troops in Vienna, and at the time of his death he filled the post of inspector-general of o He was the proprietor of a regiment of Uhlans and of a regiment of artillery, and was honorary colonel of Prussian, Bavarian, and Russian regiments. On May 10, 1881, he married the Princess Stéphanie, Duchess of Saxony, born May 21, 1864, second daughter of Leopold II, King of the Belgians, and of Queen Marie Henriette, Archduchess of Austria. They had one child, the Archduchess Elizabeth, born Sept. 2, 1883. The Crown Prince was disappointed that the only fruit of the marriage was a daughter, and that therefore the throne and the possessions of the Hapsburgs must pass to the descendants of others. Crown Prince Rudolf was a man of active habits, versatile talents, and cordial manners, gaining friends wherever he was known, and eni."; universal popularity. He observed a correct demeanor in political matters, seemingly taking little interest in controversial subjects, but showing a patriotic love for the lands and peoples of the Austro-Hungarian dominions and a great attachment for his father. He was a graceful public speaker, and his extempore ad

dresses were always remembered for their pointed sentences and bright aphorisms. He was a master of the Magyar and Bohemian languages, and could write and speak any of the lan of the empire. At one time he surprised the Servian minister by holding with him a long conversation in his own tongue. He was fond of hunting and of travel, and was devoted to the stud of natural history, and an accomplished ornithologist. He traveled much in foreign countries. His first long journey was in Spain, where he was accompanied by the naturalist Brehm. A hunting tour on the lower Danube furnished him with the subject for his first published work, a little book entitled “Fünfzehn Tage auf der Donau,” evincing love of nature and uncommon powers of observation and description. In 1884 he visited Constantinople, and a }. later he made a trip through, Egypt and Palestine, which he described in “Eine Orientreise." This work was issued first in a large volume with illustrations by the painter Pausinger, and afterward in a popular edition, also illustrated. The natural and antiquarian specimens that he brought home were given to the Imperial Museums. “Studien ini Beobachtungen,” a book that he published subsequently, treats of subjects connected with woodcraft and natural history. Soon after his return from the East he lanned an important literary undertaking, an illustrated descriptive work on thejo of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. isting the services of the most eminent writers and artists of the country, he took upon himself the duties of editor-in-chief, and in fact organized the work and directed all the technical details. Some of the descriptive articles are from his pen. The assistant editor of the German edition, Councilor von Weilen, was much with the Prince in his last days. The sub-editorial work of the Hungarian edition was committed to Maurus Jokai. The work, which is entitled “Die ūsterreichisch-ungarishe Monarchie in Wort und Bild,” was intended to be completed in twelve quarto volumes. Crown Prince Rudolf had lanned another large, comprehensive work, to called “Die Jagd,” treating of all subjects connected with game and hunting. He was interested in practical economical subjects, and was the author of papers dealing with the destruction of forests, vineyard culture, agricultural reforms, noxious insects, forest legislation, and other such subjects. It was reported at first that the cause of the Crown Prince's death was paralysis of the heart. and the court officials were desirous of concealing from the world the fact that he had committed suicide. This design was defeated by the refusal of the physicians to sign a statement ascribing his death to heart-disease. Their report, based on a post-mortem examination, revealed the fact that he had killed himself with a pistol fired against his right temple. The confirmation of his skull indicated pathological conditions. and suggested to the doctors the probability that he had committed the deed in a state of mental alienation. RUSSIA, an empire in northern Europe and Asia. The government is an absolute monarchy. The autocratic power is hereditary in the house of Romanoff-Holstein-Gottorp. Alexander III ordained, in a family law, promulgated on June 18, 1889, that no member of the imperial house is capable of succeeding to the throne both of whose parents are not adherents of the national Church; and that no prince who might become heir to the throne can marry a princess of another faith unless she embraces the Orthodox religion. The government is carried on by the aid of four boards: (1) the Council of State, which examines projects of law submitted by the ministers; (2) the Ruling Senate, which |. legislation, acts as the Supreme Court of Justice, and supervises the general administration; (3) the Holy Synod, which superintends ecclesiastical affairs; and (4) the Committee of Ministers. The reigning Emperor is Alexander III, born Feb. 26, 1845, who succeeded his father, Alexander II, on March 13, 1881. The heir-apparent is the Grand Duke Nicholas, born May 18, 1868, the eldest son of the Czar and of the Czarina Maria Dagmar, a daughter of the present King of Denmark. The Committee of Ministers is composed of the following members: Minister of the Imperial Household, Lieutenant-General Count Vorontzoff-Dashkoff; Minister of War, General P. Vannofsky; Minister of Foreign Affairs, Nicholas de Giers; Minister of Marine, Vice-Admiral Tchihatchoff; Minister of the Interior, M. Durnovo; Minister of Public Instruction, Count Delyanoff; Minister of Finance, M. Vyshnegradsky; Minister of Domains, M. Ostrofsky: Minister of Communications, M. Hübbenet; Comptroller-General, J. Filipoff; Minister of Justice, N. Manassein. The Council of State is presided over by the Grand Duke Michael, uncle of the Czar. The Czar's brother, the Grand Duke Alexis, is commander-in-chief of the navy. The President of the Holy Synod is Isidore, Metropolitan of Novgorod; and the Procurator-General is M. Pobiedonostcheff. M. Durnovo, who was at first appointed Minister of the Interior ad interim, after the death of Count Tolstoi, was definitively confirmed in the office by an imperial rescript, published on May 18. The Czar appointed the Czarevich, on his twenty-first birthday, a member of both the Council of State and the Committee of Ministers. This is the first time that any Russian heir to the throne has been made a member of these bodies, and thus brought into direct connection with the Government. Finances.—The receipts from ordinary sources in 1888 were 896,361,000 rubles: the total receipts from all sources, 961,438,000 rubles. The ordinary expenditures amounted to 840,419,000 rubles, and the extraordinary expenditures to 86,848,000 rubles, making a total sum of 927,267,000 rubles, which was 34,171,000 rubles less than the receipts. The Government on Jan. 1, 1889, owed 3,044.687,872 rubles, repayable in paper currency, including 568,559,743 rubles of paper notes, unprotected by metallic reserves. There were also a debt of 387,954,583 rubles payable in specie, one of £121,442,680 sterling, one contracted in Holland of 63,334,000 guilders, and another of 550,128,000 francs. The success of the conversion, in 1888, of the 5-per-cent. loan of 1877 into 4 per cents., and the general improvement of Russian credit. induced the Minister of Finance to conclude anoth

er loan of 175,000,000 gold rubles for the conversion of other 5 per cent. obligations. The German semi-official newspapers cried down Russian credit, but the books were opened at Paris, as well as in Berlin, and in the French capital the loan found !"; of takers. The Army.—Military service in the permanent army begins at the age of twenty-one, and lasts in Russia in Europe five years in the active army and thirteen years in the reserve; and in Asiatic Russia, seven years in the active army and seven years in the reserve. In the territorial army the period of service is five years. Young men who are completely capable .# bearing arms, and are not the sole support of their parents, if not drawn for the o: army, are inscribed in the first ban, which in time of peace can be called out to drill for two periods of six weeks each ; and in time of war is destined to complete the permanent army. In 1889 the number of men called into the service was 850,000, of whom 250,000 were drawn for the permanent army, not counting 2,400 in the trans-Caspian territory. This was the same as the recruit of 1888, 15,000 more than in 1886 and 1887, and 32,000 more than in 1878 and 1879. The effective strength of the field army in 1889 was 848 battalions of infantry, comprising 386,312 men; 328 squadrons of cavalry, comprising 57,416 men; 344 batteries of field artillery, with 1,542 guns, numbering 61,880 men; 33} battalions of engineers, numbering 18,977 men; and 35,130 men belonging to the train, siege artillery, etc., making the total force 562,500 men. The reserve numbered 73,634 men, the local troops 112.850 men, and the Cossack cavalry 51,953 men, bringing up the total number to 799,937. The great augmentation of the cavalry force on the western frontiers has been followed by the doubling of the rifle battalions, which are likewise designed to hinder the mobilization of an enemy, assisted by the flying batteries and ammunition-wagons that will be attached to each brigade. A second division of Cossacks has been transferred to European Russia. For three successive years the reserves have been called out for the autumn manoeuvres. The Navy.—The naval force in the Baltic in 1889 comprised 33 ironclads, including 2 under construction, 32 armed steamers, of which 2 were building, and 45 other steamers, 97 topedo-boats, of which 3 were unfinished. In the Black Sea there were six ironclads, one of them being incomplete, 18 armed steamers, 23 other steamers, 28 steam launches, and 21 torpedo-boats. There were 10 armed steamers in the Caspian Sea and 7 in Siberia, besides 8 torpedo-boats, 8 unarmed steamers, and other vessels. Since 1886 the greatest activity has been shown in re-establishing a Russian fleet in the Black Sea. In 1888 three armored vessels and several gunboats were added, and in 1889 the Minister of Marine ordered three more ironclads to be built within four years, each having a displacement of 11,000 tons and engines of 12,000 horse-power, besides six torpedo-boats designed to burn petroleum. A steel torpedo-boat, launched at Nicholaieff in May, 1889, is planned for a speed of 20 knots. Four large monitors were also ordered to be added to the Black Sea fleet. A large ironclad with two turrets was laid down at St. Petersburg in April, 1889. Two monster ironclads, surpassing anything in the Russian navy, have been ordered to be built. The “Emperor Nicholas I,” launched at St. Petersburg in 1889, has a displacement of 8,840 tons, armor 14 inches thick, and an armament of two 12-inch guns, in thickly plated turrets, and 20 quick-firing revolving cannons. Commerce.—The value of the imports in 1888 was 390,700,000 rubles, of which 332,300,000 rubles came over the European frontiers, 11,400,000 rubles from Finland, and 47,000,000 rubles from Asia. The exports had a total value of 793,900,000 rubles, of which 728,100,000 rubles went to European countries, 19,300,000 rubles to Finland, and 46,500,000 rubles to Asia. The imports at the Baltic ports amounted to 154,400,000 rubles, and the exports to 201,100,000 rubles; the imports by way of the European land frontiers were 125.300,000 rubles in value, and the exports 177.800,000 rubles; 51,700,000 rubles of import were received at the ports of the Black Sea, and 342,200,000 rubles, or 47 per cent. of all the exports of European Russia were shi o from those ports; the import trade of the White Sea ports was 900,000 rubles, and the export trade 7,000,000 rubles. The commercial intercourse with the principal foreign countries doing business with Russia is shown in the following statement of the value of the trade with each one in 1888, given in rubles:

countities. Imports. Exports. Great Britain .................. 101,223,000 286,873, Germany ........... 122,624,000 182,790,000 France ........ 13,944,000 ,036, Netherlands ... 4.551 000 53.428,000 Austria-Hungary.... 14.878,000 26,953,000 Belgium ................. 6,812,000 82,968,000 Italy .......... 6,632,000 27,442,000 Turkey............. 5,312,000 24,178,000 China ............. 28,175,000 2,504, Sweden and Norway 4,717,000 16,706,000 United States..... - - - - 20,788,000 155, Ilenmark ... . 144,000 12,268,000 Persia. . 11,295,000 8,006,000 Greece ....... 733,000 9,231,000 Roumania. . . . . -- 1,750,000 5,484,000 All other countries............. 45,172,000 45,336,000 Total....... ............... 390,745,000 || 793,864,000

The imports of the precious metals in 1888 were 29,519,000 rubles on the European and 2,115,000 rubles on the Asiatic frontier; the exports were 34,452,000 rubles on the European and 4,601,000 rubles on the Asiatic frontier.

Changes in the tariff increase the duties on wool, raw and in every stage of manufacture, and on powder and dynamite, starch, rice, wax, marble blocks and slabs, woolen rags, and, more recently, on paper stock, hardware, and bar-iron. Laws have been passed, or are in contemplation, excluding foreign insurance companies, restrict: ing the coasting traffic in foreign vessels, and altering the railroad tariffs in ...; wise that the importation of foreign goods is made as difficult as possible. On the Asiatic frontier tariffs have been lowered. The Czar, in April, 1889, gave his sanction to a resolution of the Council of State that goods entering Russia from Persia or British India shall be assessed at 24 per cent. ad valorem.

Navigation.—The total number of vessels entered at the ports of the empire in 1887 was 13,659, of which 8,860 were steamers. The total

number cleared was 13,434, of which 11,794 carried cargoes and 1,171 sailed in ballast. The Russian mercantile navy in 1886 comprised 2,157 sailing vessels, of 469,098 tons, and 218 steamvessels, of 108,295 tons. Railroads.-The railroad network on Jan. 1, 1889, measured 30,731 kilometres, exclusive of the lines of Finland and the trans-Caspian line of 1,064 kilometres. The contemplated Siberian Railroad will run from Samara to Ufa, 485 kilometres, thence to Slatoust, 438 kilometres, thenee to Omsk, 1,200 kilometres, and to Tomsk, 900 kilometres more, and from that point to Irkutsk, 1,700 kilometres, and thence about 1,000 kilometres farther to Nerchinsk. From the last lace there is steamboat communication of about ,000 kilometres on the Amur and Shilka, and 400 kilometres of railroad in the Ussuri valley leading to Vladivostok. The distance between Moscow and Vladivostok is more than 10,000 kilometres. The entire cost is estimated at 445000,000 rubles, or more than twice that of the Canada Pacific Railroad. Posts and Telegraphs—The number of ordinary letters carried in the mails in 1887 was 152,616,013; of t-cards, 17.596,779; of registered letters, łoś. of money letters, 11292,988; of formal 106,217,068; of sealed packets, 23,819,895. The !o lines belonging to the state had in 1887 a total length of 110,212 kilometres, with 211,026 kilometres of wire. There were besides the Anglo-Indian line of 3,635 kilometres and 1,289 kilometres of other lines. The number of internal dispatches in 1887 was 8,534,323; of international dispatches sent, 622,726; received. 658,000. The receipts were 9,550,912 rubles. An imperial ukase was issued in August, 1889, ordering the introduction of post-office and telegraph savings-banks wherever it is considered practicable. Reorganization of Local Administration and Judicature.—Count Tolstoi's reform project, which was ostensibly designed for the benefit of the peasantry, although it had been rejected by a considerable majority when brought before the Council of State in January, was ratified by the Czar on July 24, 1889. The change will restore to the central Government a large of the o that was committed to the Zemstvos, and will deprive the people of the right of electing the minor judiciary. A district chief or administrator, who is responsible to the Minister of the Interior, will be the repository of the administrative and also of the chief local judicial powers. Under him will be township Judges, who are also appointed, while certain judicial powers will remain in the hands of elective justices of the peace, one of these functionaries being retained in each district. The reform was to be introduced in the provinces of Moscow, Vladimir, Kazan, Kaluga, Kostroma. Riazan, Novgorod, and Chernigoff, on Jan. 1, 1890, and in time to be extended to thirty-four other provinces. The decisions of the district Justices of the can be reviewed by the ordinary court of sessions, while from the judgments of the district administrator an appeal can be taken to a district court o of the marshal of nobility, a justice of the peace elected by the Zemstvos, and a judge from the higher court.

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