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throughout the country. The most stringent precautions have been adopted to prevent unauthorized persons from obtaining possession of any of the new powder, the exact composition of which is now the sole secret connected with the Lebel rifle. Any cartridges that are temporarily in the hands of troops have to be examined and counted by a commissioned officer at intervals of three hours, and it is said that it has been announced that the punishment for opening a cartridge will be imprisonment for ten years with hard labor. The French private is not supposed to know even the color of the propellent that he uses. It is said that the new powder absorbs humidity, and that it is unstable, especially in hot climates. To test this point, the German Government is said to have obtained and analyzed specimens of the chemical powder, and to have sent out a quantity to be experimented with in the German settlements in Africa. Schultze’s powder, like sawdust powder, contains a species of gun-cotton made from wood, mixed with other combustible substances. It produces but a mild report, and leaves little or no residuum to foul the piece. These are all decided advantages for a sporting powder, and in many cases would be desirable in a military powder; but, unfortunately, these powders sometimes develop such abnormal pressures as to burst the gun, and this is a condition more likely to obtain in military rifles than in fowling-pieces, which are discharged so infrequently that the barrel remains cool. The extent to which the propelling force of the Lebel powder exceeds that of the old-time military gunpowder is unquestioned. Smokeless powder originated in America more than ten years ago, only to be brought to the attention of the world in foreign countries, and, as usual, France has taken the lead in utilizing it; but its ractical use, like that of a new arm, is of doubtul value unless her fighting machines are called upon to employ such soon. The fighting machine of any nation is the product of two factors, the gun and the soldier; but the rapid development in ordnance matters is such that scientific investigation and practical mechanics may, probably will, soon rendor, both the Lebel and its cartridge obsolete. This fact has not deterred France from changing its arm - caliber, projectile, and propellent—a change that most modern nations have imitated or will imitate. The length of the Lebel bullet, it will be noted, is greatly in excess of its diameter. A projectile of such dimensions can only be preventcd from upsetting and be given steadiness in its flight by increasing its rotation. This can only be effected by increasing the twist. The effect of increase of twist and decrease of caliber is to increase the retardation. The Lebel bullet is said to revolve at a speed of 1,000 revolutions a second. At an elevation of 15° a range of nearly 3,800 yards is claimed for the Lebel. It is deficient in “shock,” as all light bullets are. The Lebel powder is light brown. When first made it has the appearance of large sheets of glue, which, for small arms, is cut into square grains, and for guns of large caliber into long strips, which are packed in the gun like wax tapers in a box. Germany.—The adoption by Austria of the small-caliber 31 Manlicher repeating fixed maga

zine rifle in place of the single-loading Werndl, and the introduction by France of the Lebel }. in place of the Pralon, Tramond, Ems, 'lechter, or Gras (model of 1874), may or may not have been determining causes in the alteration by the Germans of the 11-millimetres caliber Mauser to an arm of repetition. The Mauser, when originally manufactured at Ilion, N. Y., was a single-loader. It is now made at Oberndorf-on-the-Necker, Germany. When adopted by the Germans, after the war of 1870–71 with France, it was a modification of the Chassepot system adopted to the use of the metallic gascheck cartridge as a substitute for the Dreyse needle-gun, which used a paper cartridge. The Mauser has a fixed chamber closed by a movable breech block to slide in the axis of the piece by direct action—i.e., a bolt moved by a concealed lock. At first the Germans attempted to alter the Mauser into an arm of repetition without decreasing the caliber, 433 inch, having a tubular magazine under the barrel, after the American Winchester pattern: but the ballistic properties of the converted arm proved so far behind the modern standard that a total change of small-arm armament became necessary. American inventors instituted suits for reclamation and damages, claiming that the gun machinery used was made after the drawings of American inventions protected by patents. When the inadequacy of the converted Mauser was found to be due to defects inherent in the rifle itself—the chief fault being its too great caliber and the alleged fact that its extreme range was only 3.250 yards—it is said that 700,000 stand were sold by the German authorities to Turkey, Roumania, and China, at a large reduction in price, and the manufacture of 800,000 additional magazine rifles of caliber 8 millimetres carrying a W.". weighing 386 grains, was begun. The auser cartridge head is solid, and has an exterior primer invented by Col. Hiram Berdan, an American. Skilled workmen were employed night and day in turning out the new-converted Mauser, with which to give the German troops an assured military superiority and moral force. Some authorities place the number of these altered magazine rifles of the second lot converted at 1,500,000, and indicate the contract price paid, apart from the original value of the unconverted Mauser, at $5.45 per gun. German mechanics failed on the second trial to make as good an arm as was hoped for. This was accounted for by their alleged imperfect knowledge of the machinery employed, which was of American inception, and the weapon was discarded. Germany then found that she had not suitable powder and bullet. The relation between the propellent, caliber, and projectile, and requisite ballastic properties of the rifle itself, rather than economic considerations, were earnestly and thoroughly studied with a view to obtaining the proper relation between the arm, charge, caliber, and bullet. A German commission on small arms was appointed, and held frequent secret sessions, to decide upon a magazine gun to supersede the Mauser. In the matter of projectiles, systematic and exhaustive experiments were made with bullets of harder metal than any compound of lead, as steel of various grades, solid copper, nickel, etc. The IRubin bullet consists of a copper or nickel skin, not soldered to an inside lead core; the Lorenz bullet is soldered to the lead core and consolidated by hydraulic pressure into one solid homogeneous mass. The caliber investigations and rojectiles of Prof. Hebler, were considered. |. P. Salcher and Herren Mach made instantaneous photographs of bullets having a velocity of 1,730 feet a second to determine the waves formed in the air displaced by the motion of various kinds and shapes of small-arm projectiles. These and other interesting experiments were made at the Spandau Firing-School, organized in 1854 for the study and practice of arms and ammunition in use in the Prussian army, and the trial of arms adopted in the military service of foreign nations. German chemists and military experts are still directing their efforts to the development of increased strength in what is popularly called gunpowder for small-arms ordnance, rather than in exploiting with a modern substitute; keeping constantly in view the fact that none of the military explosives, such as are used in torpedoes and for mining, can be utilized with safety asII. jecting agents in any portable small arm. High explosives and such mixtures as Designolle's or Brugere's powders are rejected by them as being too violent for use as propelling agents in whatever rifle they may adopt. The new German repetition small-arm of 1889 is practically identical with the American Remington-Keene magazine gun tested in the autumn of 1881 by a board of officers of the United States army, under the act of Congress providing for the manufacture or purchase of magazine guns, and is fully described in the report of the Chief of Ordnance for 1882. The gun is admitted by the Germans to be merely “an arm of transition.” The future small-arm of the German army will be one of gradual growth, and only finally made up of successive improvements rendered necessary to correct defects developed in the hands of the soldier. When the Germans finally acquire the much-needed smokeless powder, now being sought for by all military powers, the standard regulation small-arm will be fixed. The Duttenhofer powder now used by Germany seems to have a reasonable chance of adoption. After Sedan the French abandoned the Chassepot for the Gras (model of 1874), a single-loading arm. About 1885 Col. Gras visited the United States for the purpose of familiarizing himself with American gun-making machines and processes. During the next thirty months Gens. Gras, Tramond, and Luzeux and Col. Lebel jointly gave their names to special repeaters. On {. 1, 1888, the Lebel (model of 1886) rifle, having the American tubular magazine under the barrel, was issued to the French army. About 1848 Mr. Jennings, of Windsor, Vt., invented a magazine gun whose cartridges were stored in a fixed tube extending lengthwise under the barrel. In 1863 a Connecticut firm, the Winchester Arms Company, sent this magazine gun to a small-arms board in Switzerland. Because of its original features, it was awarded a prize of one thousand francs. In 1869 the Government of Switzerland adopted a native modification of the Jennings-Winchester tubular magazine rifle called the Vetterli. The Ameri

can storage system for cartridges was afterward substantially adopted for use in the French navy, also by the land forces of Portugal and Chili. To the small-arm having the fixed under-tubular magazine invented by Št. Jennings, and inodified by Winchester, was given the name Kropatschek. The Lebel rifle, with which the infantry of France are now armed, retains the Kropatschek magazine system; the cartridges are placed beneath the barrel in the forearm of the stock. Italy.—Italy has been so long classified as a military power of the second order that it is surprising to know that her regular army comprises more than 750,000 men, with a war footing of nearly $2,000,000, maintained at an annual cost of more than $41,000,000. Her small-arins armament includes the Wetterli and the Vitali-Vetterli, both of which are well-tested single-loaders, or repeaters, at will; the Cei, a magazine gun. hitherto untried; and the Freddi and the Pieriexperimental recoil single-loaders with magazine attachment. The Vitali bolt gun has a magazine fixed under the shoe, into which four cartridges, packed in a card-board box, are pushed from above. This is avowedly only a temporary expedient, pending the introduction of an imroved weapon. A recent issue of a military journal called “Revista d'Artigleira e Genio,” Jublished in Rome, has a description of smokeess gunpowder; an account of the results of the labors of the Italian officers who are building a small-arm factory in Morocco for the Sultan ; also data of the infantry rifles in use in the different armies of the world. The “Revista Marittima” publishes the new regulations made necessary by the adoption of the Vitali repeating rifle in the Italian army, particular reference being had to the number of cartridges that noncommissioned officers, bandsmen, and privates are in future to carry. Privates of Italian infantry each carry ninty-six rounds of ammunition. The Freddi and Pieri recoil rifles, like the Maxim and Paulson, utilize the force of the recoil. When the charge of gunpowder contained in a gun is fired, the sudden expansion of the powder into many times its former bulk acts with equal force in every direction. As the resistance offered by the ball is far less than that of the gun, it is forced to a great distance; but the gun must, nevertheless, feel the reaction and is driven backward. This is called the recoil, or “kick.” In big guns, the gun and shot remaining the same, the recoil is proportionate to the charge, and means are employed to check or control it. But pneumatic and hydraulic buffers and friction checks are not practicable with rifles. Some sportsmen have recoil pads, or steel or rubber springs, attached to the butts of their rifles or against the shoulder. These appliances enable them to fire heavy charges with impunity. By using the gunsling in the firing positions so popular in our army to-day, many times the recoil of the service Springfield can be sustained without inconvenience. The augmentation of power and accuracy has been believed to be attained only by increased charges, which. in turn, mean increased “kick.” Many conflicting opinions are held on the subject of recoil. By the Freddi invention the severity of recoil is not only reduced, but the force of discharge is made to assist the soldier in reloading, recocking, and refiring the rifle. By the Maxim invention, with continued pressure of the finger upon the trigger after the first discharge, the piece will load and fire automatically to the extent of its magazine, which contains seven cartridges. When it is desired to fire single shots, pressure upon the trigger must be released after each discharge. The Paulson recoil rifle—machine gun, rather—does the same thing, and more too; the rearward motion of the breech-block, under the action of the gases, compresses, as it moves, a strong spiral spring and extracts the old shell, after which the wonderful invention goes on acting on a system of levers that work a revolving drum under the receiver, which latter supplies a new cartridge: the cartridge is then automatically pressed into place in the chamber by the breech-block as it returns under the action of the spring. If the finger-pressure on the trigger is continued, the gun goes off by itself. All that the soldier has to do is to | the gun at his shoulder. As a clock automatically strikes the hours, so do these recoil rifles deliver their shots: but no winding-up process is required. The distinguishing feature of the Freddi rifle is the attempt to reduce recoil and utilize the force of discharge by allowing the barrel a motion of translation at the time of discharge, a strong spiral spring being attached to resist this motion and bring it back to its proper position. The breech-block goes back with it, but, by means of a stop, is prevented from returning, and thus the empty shell is extracted. The new cartridge is then inserted into the receiver, and, by pressing a button, the breech-lock is closed by a spring forcing the cartridge into the chamber and cocking the firing-pin. This process is almost simultaneous, and is performed so rapidly as hardly to be perceptible to the eye. A quick-loading device, consisting of a leather case attached to the side of the gun, enables the soldier to fire twenty-four shots a minute. It is claimed that the spiral spring used in this rifle diminishes the severity of recoil, and the weight of the gun has therefore been reduced from ten pounds to seven pounds. The recoil of our Springfield rifle is about 174 pounds. The Freddi has a caliber of 315: 83 rains of powder; bullet weighs 225 grains: ength of bullet in caliber, 3.67; initial velocity, 1,640 feet a second. The Italian Pieri rifle is more powerful than the German Hebler. The Pieri has a caliber of 323; 83 grains of powder: bullet weighs 284 grains: length of bullet in calibres, 4:3; twist, one turn in 12:1 inches: initial velocity, 2,057 feet; at an angle of fifteen degrees it has a range of 3,103 yards. The rapid twist, to give poor rotation to the long bullet, is a necessary evil. The Vitali-Vetterli (model of 1887) has a caliber of 414: charge, 62 grains of powder; bullet weighs 312 grains: length of bullet in calibers, 2-24: twist, one turn in 26-28 inches; initial velocity, 1,430 feet a second. Our word “pistol" is derived from the word pistallo. The pistol was first made at Perugia, where was first made a small hand cannon about seven and a half inches in length. In the Dresden Museum there is a wheel-lock pistol of the sixteenth century, which is the most ancient weapon of this kind in existence.

Portugal.—The desire for, or the dread of conquest has impelled every European nation of importance to improvement and enlargement of its armament. Peace can be compelled by any nation that has the highest military strength. Portugal, too, is waking up. Some time ago she adopted the Guedez-Kropatschek singleloader, with magazine attachment, 40,000 of which have been ordered from an Austrian gunfactory. This rifle is: Caliber, 323; bullet, 264 grains; length of bullet in calibers, 4.09; fired from a barrel having one twist in 11-3 inches. It is a bolt gun, carries five cartridges in a box, and has an initial velocity of 1,673 feet a second. About 1865 the Portuguese adopted, or used, the Snider rifle extensively. The inventor of this rifle, Jacob Snider, is a Philadelphian. As many as 30,000 shots have been fired from a single rifle of this make without affecting its efficiency. There has been a general rush in Portugal, as in France and Italy, toward bullets of the least obtainable caliber. The action of Portugal has not been governed by any general principle or plan. She has rushed into the field !". like a blind man. When a condition is imposed that a bullet, impelled by gunpowder, shall be in excess of four calibers in length, a reduction in the barrel causes an increase in retardation. A decrease in caliber is at the expense of a great sacrifice of power. In order to compensate for the loss of energy incident to the reduction of caliber, a new motive power to supersede gunpowder, and of greater strength, is everywhere sought for. , Attempts are being made at Aldershot, England, to utilize other explosives than gun|. for use in military rifles. In many other ocalities the efforts of thought, invention, and experiment have been i. toward ways and means by which new explosives can be made serviceable in rifles. Portugal has vegetated in such a state of inglorious apathy that no development in the implements of warfare is looked for in that country. Russia.-In 1868 Russia bought 30,000 Berdan rifles in the United States, and 30,000 more were bought at Birmingham, England, in 1870. At the close of the last war between Russia and Turkey, she had 1,120,000 of these rifles on hand. In 1867 a Swede named Karle presented to the Russian Government a breech-loader of his own invention. About 200,000 Cossack rifles, caliber '55, 176-grain bullet, one twist in 45 inches, were altered to the Karle system. Not long afterward an Austrian named Krenk offered a rifle adapted to the metallic cartridge. His system was adopted, and more than 1,000,000 guns were converted. The Russian troops, during the war of 1877–78, were armed with the Krenk. The Berdan rifle is classified with our own Springfield, and has a fixed chamber closed by a movable breech-block, which rotates about an axis at ninety degrees to the axis of the barrel and in front. Trials have been had in Russia with the Berdan single-loader and the Mossin magazine rifle. The American Berdan, with Wasmoudi’s quick-loading device, has been retained. Gens. Dragomiroff and Shebechess have published articles against the alleged advantages of the adoption of any magazine repeating rifle. The former says that the present arming of European troops with magazine weapons is due solely to the force of imitation and example set by the inordinate military rivalry between France and Germany. The general recommends the retention of the American Berdan rifle, only with a smaller caliber, pressed powder, and steel{. bullets. Gen. Shebecheff asserts that the Hermans are not pleased with their new magazine weapon, the converted Mauser. The great objections are, first, the time taken to replenish the magazine, and, second, the alteration of the trim or balance of the weapon as each shot is withdrawn from the tubular magazine under the barrel and fired. This latter difficulty can be overcome only by incessantly practicing with ball-cartridges until the changing trim of the rifle ceases to affect the soldier. #. enormous expenditure of ammunition necessary to accomplish this is more than any government would sanction. The Russian Berdan has a singleloader, caliber of '42 inch; the bullet weighs 370 grains, and is 2:55 calibers in length; twist. 21.65 inches; initial velocity, 1,444 feet. The United States with her Springfield and Russia with her Berdan are faithful to the antiquated system of well-tried, well-made single-loaders and heavy projectiles. The Russians have a saying that, in war, that bullet is preferable which travels nearest to the surface of the earth ; in other words, has the flattest trajectory. Russia has introduced the Evans magazine rifle, an American invention, into her navy. The general principle of the Evans is similar to that of the wellknown Spencer repeater. It can be used as a single-loader. The rifle holds thirty-eight small cartridges, so stored in the butt that they are never in contact with one another. The Russians consider a magazine gun a double-edged tool, effective in the hands of well-trained and seasoned soldiers, but a source of weakness to men who can not well be kept under control b what is professionally known as “fire" disciline in contradistinction to “drill” discipline. en. Skobeleff declared the repeating rifle to be useless until some description of smokeless powder was introduced. The name of “Silvotar" is given to the new Russian explosive. pain.-Spain maintains a regular army of about 153,000 men. Her war footing is 400,000, and the annual cost of maintaining her army is 25,000,000. In sharp contrast with the military decadence of Spain and her inertness in the matter of efforts to keep pace with other nations is the fact that the musket was first introduced in Europe by the Spaniards under Charles V. The original caliber of the musket was such that eight round bullets weighed a pound; the piece was, consequently, so heavy that it was necessary to fire it from a forked rest inserted in the ground. The size of the bore was finally reduced to eighteen bullets to the pound, and from this arm was derived the smooth-bore rifle. The rifle was invented by Gaspard Zoller, of Vienna, and first made its appearance at a target practice at Leipsic in 1498. The original object of risling or grooving the barrel was to find space for the reception of the foul residue o by discharging the rifle, and thus to diminish the friction of the bullet as it was forced down by the ramrod. Twenty years later a spiral turn was given to the groove, the degree of twist varying as the fancy of the gunmaker might suggest.

About 1600 the rifle began to be used as a military weapon for firing spherical bullets. In 1729 it was found that good results could be attained by using oblong projectiles of elliptical form: hence the Lancaster elliptical rifle. But Spain did not manifest enterprise enough to follow these or succeeding military improvements upon her ancient muskets, and Europe no longer trembles with fear at the armament of the descendants of the warlike hidalgoes. Almost every nation has elaborated some system, or stolen one, of small-arms armament except Spain. Spanish infantry are armed with the Roon rifle of American manufacture. Sweden.—Sweden has discarded cur Remington and adopted the Jarman magazine rifle, which has a tube under the barrel holding eight cartridges. It can be used either as a single-loader or as a repeater, and is open to all the objections urged against, and also to all of the credit claimed for its American prototype, the Winchester. The caliber of the Jarman is 397 inch ; powder charge. 77 grains; bullet, 337 grains; length of bullet in calibers, 2-75; twist, 21.8; initial velocity, 1,536 feet. The Jarman, Mauser (Germany), and Lebel (France), all have the eightcartridge tubular magazine; the Vetterli (Switzerland) has the tubular eleven-cartridge magazine; the Kropatschek (French navy) the tubular with seven. Thus four European nations have adopted our Winchester system of storing cartridges in a repeating rifle. A foreign publication contains the following: “The United States Government has offered every facility, and even inducement, to the manufacturers of breechloading firearms for the most effective and simple weapon which in the hands of the most clumsy and least intelligent soldier can be manipulated without danger to the user and be capable of the deadliest effect upon the enemy. The result has been that a large number of smallarms of every variety has been produced, many of them presenting such claims to merit that these American inventions have been adopted, in whole or in part, by the military powers of Europe.” This compliment from the country governed by the descendants of Bernadotte will be appreciated by our manufacturers, if not by Our Government. Switzerland.—In 1869 Switzerland adopted a complicated magazine gun of the MauserChassepot class, called the Vetterli. It was of Swiss invention, and the barrel had four grooves; twist, 26 inches. One of the adjuncts of the arm was a set trigger. It could be used either as a single-loader or as a repeater. It used a bottle-necked rim-fire cartridge of small capacity. The Vetterli weighed 10:14 pounds, and carried eleven cartridges, each weighing 478 grains. It required thirty seconds to load the magazine. Thus, nearly twenty years ago, this little republic possessed a repeating arm, and stood ready to preserve its neutrality, not relying upon treaties only. The choice of a lighter piece and a smaller bore has not been a matter of indifference to the Federal Government. The authorities at Berne have procured lately 3,000 Feisz rifles, which, like the French pattern, are of 8 millimetres (about 31 inch) bore. Swiss experiments with the Rubin rifle are noted with interest, and are compared with the results attained by our own Ordnance Department with one of the Rubin rifles constructed according to the Hebler system, using also the Hebler ammunition lately received from Europe. These tests are conducted at the National Armory at Springfield, Mass. Prof. Hebler's rifle uses so long a bullet that a very rapid twist is necessary, one turn in every four inches. The bullet formerly used in the Swiss service was solid. and forcing was effected by a cloth tied around the ves. The diameter of the Swiss bullet of fifteen years ago was much less than that then in use by any other service, and it was fired by a larger proportional charge of powder. For reasons given in the discussion of the Lebel bullet, it lost its velocity very rapidly at ranges in excess of 1,000 yards. The Federal rifle of Switzerland had a caliber of 413; weight of bullet, 257 grains; length of bullet in calibers, 2.44; twist, one turn in 35 inches. Since 1869 Switzerland's army has been supplied with the Vetterli repeating rifle. This weapon has a tubular magazine, somewhat on the Winchester pattern, with a complicated action. It carries cartridges of caliber 414; bullet, 312 grains; length in calibers, 224; twist, 26-28. It is a bolt gun, and can be used either as a single-loader or as a repeater. Its initial velocity is 1,427 feet a second. In all tubular magazine rifles the cartridges are forced toward the breech mechanism by some kind of spring, usually spiral, which must be of suffcient strength to support the weight of the column of cartridges and force them into the receiver of the arm as fast as required: hence, of necessity, it must have very considerable stiffness or strength. The weight of a column of cartridges when a magazine gun is in a vertical position brings each bullet directly in contact with the primer of the cartridge in advance of it. Fulminate of mercury is used in preparing all primers. It is of different degrees of sensitiveness; different batches vary; despite every caution and care, cartridges explode, sometimes under slight pressure. It is readily seen that any tubular magazine rifle, even of recent invention, has a liability of explosion at “order arms” or from shock not shared o other repeaters. These facts suggest some of the reasons why, in the United States, the Swiss magazine rifles are not regarded as combining the maximum of security from premature explosion to the extent that such repeaters as the or Chaffee-Reece do. The repeaters last named obviate all the objections found in the tubular magazine systems by having their cartridges under the breech and placed nearly horizontally, or as the fingers of the hand lie when it is held edgewise. Turkey.—In 1877–78 the practical tests that the Peabody-Martini single-loader underwent in Turkey showed that weapon to be one of the most powerful military rifles in the world. The reorganized Turkish army is armed with Krupp breech-loading guns and the German Mauser magazine rifles. It is understood, even by the Moslems, that as long as war is a calamity that nations are unable to prevent, it is the part of wisdom and of humanity to make the weapons employed as perfect as possible of their several kinds. The Turkish Government contracted last year with German armories for 550,000. Mauser repeating rifles and ammunition. It is believed

that this contract would have come to this country had not Minister Cox returned to the United States before his place was filled by a successor. Turkey pays more for the Mauser than she would have had to pay for the original from which the Mauser was taken—that is, the Lee— and she will receive an inferior arm, while American manufacture loses the incentive of $15,000000 worth of business. The Mauser was originally made in the United States, its inventor, after whom it is named, being at work here in 1873, under the patronage of Samuel Remington. Mr. Remington received $500 for his interest in the invention. The Mauser rifle factory at Oberndorf is en d in turning out these rifles for the Turkish Government. Eight officers of the Turkish army are residing in a Moorish villa at Oberndorf, for the purpose of taking over the weapons when ready. All of these rifles are to be of caliber 31, 8 millimetres (not caliber 43, 11 millimetres), an important circumstance in regard to the manufacture by the same firm of rifles for the German army. Should the military forces of Germany and Turkey ever be allied, the two nations would thus have a common rifle and ammunition. Should Turkey and Germany confront each other, the advantages of a capture of small-arms and cartridges are equally obvious. Before the last war between Turkey and Russia, the Imperial Ottoman Government bought 600,000 Peabody-Martini rifles from a company in Providence, R.I. The chronic impecuniosity that characterizes the Turkish Government is illustrated in the notification from Krupp that it must pay up or it can have no more ordnance for its army from that quarter. Herr Krupp's grounds are at Essen and Meppen. The extraordinary size of the breech-loading cannon made by Krupp is suggested by the fact that there is not in America an establishment capable of producing a single part of one of his guns, because unable to hammer or work such enormous masses of metal. ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. The encyclical letters issued during 1889 are important items in the history of the year. In these letters the Holy Father deplores the decay of the religious spirit in our time and the growth of modern false liberalism which threatens Church and state. He encourages the founding of schools and colleges and the dissemination of the principles of sound morality. He also discusses his own o regarding the Italian Government; and, although he has been shamefully abused by the revolutionary party headed by Crispi, he remains fixed in his resolution not to quit the Eternal City. His letters to Canada o the European states treat of the labor question and recommend an immediate and amicable adjustment, The missionary spirit and civilizing influences of the Church find expression in the efforts made by Cardinal Lavigerie to crush the slave trade in Africa and to make the evangelization of that continent possible. His success, thus far, is promising, when we consider the obstacles that meet his work on all sides. The cardinal affirms that force alone can abolish this disgraceful traffic. Father Damien has shown the world to what heights of charity the soul may rise when animated by the spirit of true Christianity. (See

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