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foreign-made small-arms was rescinded Jan. 17, 1862, the influx was checked by this affair.

At that time the objections to breech-loading small arms were that they were complicated, liable to get out of order from fouling or escape of gas at the joints, and wanted strength. Owing to the facility with which they could be loaded, it was asserted, in battle the soldier would load and fire without reflection, or without orders, and when the decisive moment should arrive, he would have exhausted his ammunition. The breech-loader invented by John H. Hall was patented in the United States in 1811, thirtyfour years before the Jean Nicholas Dreyse breech-loader was introduced into the Prussian service. It did not have a metallic cartridge.

After the civil war began, the Spencer magazine gun proved an important achievement in small-arms ordnance, and it was a potent factor in the triumph of the national forces during 1864–265. It was the first repeating rifle that was tested in battle, using metallic cartridges. A magazine rifle is one that contains in itself, or attached to it, a supply of ammunition independent of that in the soldier's belt or pouch.

Eminent military men felt that the Prussian success in the Schleswig-Holstein war (1864) was due more to their soldiers than to their breech-loading rifles. In 1866 the repeated success of the Prussians with their Dreyse breech-loaders over the Werndi rifle of Austria occasioned a rush by important military powers for small-arms loaded from the breech. During these wars the Prussian breech-loader was tested in battle, and opened—as wars always do-a new era in tactics. So, too, in the Franco - German struggle of 1870–71, when the French troops were also equipped with a breechloader, the Chassepot. The desire for, or the dread of conquest necessitated a revolution in matters of ordnance. All modern wars have been short, sharp, and quickly decisive. There are 28,000,000 men in Europe liable to be drawn into the next European war. The annual public cost for their support is $600,000,000.

On March 4, 1861, the United States had on hand 336,788 smooth-bore flint and percussion muskets, 73,544 rifled muskets, and 32,855 rifles. In addition we owned nineteen different varieties of breech-loading carbines. The Chief of Ordnance purchased, in open market and from contractors, 1,055,862 foreign rifles, 670,617 rifled United States pattern muskets, and 113,034 old smoothbores. There were fabricated that year in the United States armory 805,537 rifled muskets. The total of smooth-bores was 449,822, and of rifles 1,559,698. By June 30, 1866, the total number of small-arms had increased to 2,649,439. The losses by wear and tear during three years of active warfare were for infantry about 13 per cent. per annum.

In January, 1866, Gen. Winfield S. Hancock was directed to report what form and caliber should be adopted for breech-loading muskets and carbines, and what form of conversion for muskets from muzzle-loading should be adopted. After testing 22 varieties of breech-loading muskets and 17 varieties of breech-loading carbines,


Gen. Hancock reported in favor of .45 caliber for muskets, and the best charge of powder from 65 to 70 grains, weight of ball from 480 to 500 grains. These dimensions are now used. During 1869, Gen. John M. Schofield was ordered to select the 6 best patterns of muskets for infantry: After examining 34 varieties of breech-loading muskets and 8 each of carbines and pistols, he recommended the Remington, Springfield, and Sharps system of breech-loading, as superior to others in the order named, and alone superior for adoption by the Government without further trial in the hands of troops. In 1870, the Chief of Ordnance placed in the hands of companies of infantry and cavalry, for twelve months' trial, muskets and carbines of each of the above - named systems, and also of the Ward - Burton system. Two years later Congress passed an act under the provisions of which Gen. Alfred II. Terry was ordered to recommend a breech-loading system for muskets and carbines to be adopted for our military service, which system, when adopted, it was directed by Congress should be the only one to be used by the Ordnance Department in the manufacture of muskets and carbines for the military service. After the trial and examination of 99 varieties, besides 9 varieties of breech-loaders in use by foreign nations, Gen. Terry (in May, 1873) recommended that the Springfield kreech-loading system be adopted for the military service of the United States. We still adhere to that system.

Some of the foreign systems examined by Gen. Terry were the Martini - Henry (English), Chassepot (French), Dreyse needle (German), Mauser (Prussia), Werndl (Austrian), Berdan (Russian), Vetterli (Swiss), and Werder (Bavarian), also, the Spanish Remington. Four of these nine varieties named were of American origin.

The weight of the Springfield rifle decided on was 8:38 pounds, and the trigger was adjusted to pull off at from six to eight pounds.

In February, 1881, Congress appropriated for the manufacture of small-arms at national factories $300,000. Of this amount, $50,000 was directed to be expended in the manufacture or purchase of magazine guns, to be selected by a board of officers to be appointed by the Secretary of War. Forty guns were submitted. The principal ones were the James P. Lee, Chaffee- Reece, Hotchkiss, Spencer-Lee, Mar


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tini, Remington - Keene, Burton, Springfield- that, from the little that can be learned of the Jones, Elliott, Dean, Russell-Livermore, Trabue, magazine systems abrond, he is persuaded that and Boch. Two foreign guns were presented by nothing is to be gained by haste at this juncture, Joseph Schulhof, of Austria, and F. Vetterli, of as the Springfield will continue to serve the purSchaffh Switzerland. The board reported pose and the best interests of the army long that the Lee, the Chaffee-Reece, and the Hotch- enough to enable the determination finally on a kiss possessed efficiency as single-loaders, and con- magazine gun that will do credit to the inventsidering safety, ease of loading, rapidity of fire, ive genius of the people. endurance, moderate weight, and simplicity of For more than twenty-five years Americans construction, it recommended them in the order have been engaged in improving the Springfield named. The Spencer-Lee was mentioned as rifle and its ammunition. Its parts are interpossessing novel and meritorious features. changeable, and it has been tested by extensive,

Ten years ago Switzerland was the only coun- accurate, and well-designed experiments. To try whose forces were armed with a repeating ascertain its tensile strength, the barrel of the rifle. The lapse of ten years finds six of the Springfield rifle has been filled with lead so nations mentioned feverishly engaged in chang- tightly secured that the service charge-seventy ing their small-arms system. When one cal- grains of gunpowder — when exploded in the

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culates the expenditure involved in buying or chamber, was unable to move the mass of metal making half a million rifles, the immense cost in front of it, and yet no rupture of any kind of rearming a nation with small-arms becomes was produced. This proves that the barrel is appreciable. The Springfield rifle costs $13.12, able to stand at least 43,000 pounds to the square 'the Lee $14.12, the Hotchkiss $16.58, the Chaf- inch. It has been tried with charges of comfee-Reece $33.35.

pressed powder, smokeless propellents, perforated The Lee, Chaffee-Reece, and Hotchkiss maga- cartridges, Hebler cartridges, and every conceivzine guns were issued to selected companies of able variety of projectile. our army for trial by troops. After à carefnl To European nations, these incessant changes consideration of the reports rendered, Gen. Ben- of rifle, ammunition, etc., are almost synonyet, Chief of Ordnance, reported to the Secretary mous with bankruptcy. France, Austria, Italy, of War, December, 1885, that he was satisfied Belgium, Portugal, Prussia, Germany, and Eng that neither of these magazine guns should be land have either adopted, or are about to adopt adopted and substituted for the Springfield rifle. new or converted rifles, with calibers varying but He has since reported that an effective and sim- little from 31-inch. ple magazine gun has become a necessity, but When the United States Ordnance Depart

ment experimented to find out the effect of increasing the length of barrel of the Springfield rifle, it was found that with a barrel 112 inches long, using 70 grains of powder and regulation bullet, there was scarcely any smoke and very little noise accompanying the explosion, while with a barrel only 5 inches in length there was a cloud of smoke and a deafening noise. These phenomena are natural results of the complete combustion of the charge in the bore. In the near future the common black gunpowder will be entirely superseded as a motive force in guns. It is time that the mechanical mixture known as unpowder, which was used in battle by the 'hinese in the ło, 1232, and has practically been used in all portable firearms ever since, should be superseded by a chemical mixture, smokeless, noiseless, odorless, stable, without recoil, and a more powerful pusher than gunpowder. The term “pusher" is used advisedly; there is a difference between a blow and a push; we want a pushing propellant for our rifles, not a rending explosive. Using the Springfield rifle and service ammunition, the penetration at ranges of 3,500 yards is about three inches in pine wood; energy corresponding to a penetration of one inch in pine is held to be sufficient to inflict a wound dangerous enough to put a man out of action. For reasons both humane and politic it is better to wound a man in action than to kill him. The time of flight for the Springfield bullet in traversing 3,000 yards is seventeen and three quarter seconds. An entire chapter could be devoted to the subject of the motion of bullets. In the barrel of the Springfield rifle are three grooves; they are inclined to the axis of the barrel; the twist is uniform from left to right, that is, the groove on the top turns from the left to the right, and Inakes one turn in 22 inches. The bullet in

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slide upon the rear sight. Of course, the slide had to be moved slightly to the left. For this lateral adjustment of the sight, a knowledge was requisite of the force or velocity and direction of the wind, and of the value of one point on the wind-gauge in overcoming the motion of the bullet, due to drift and the wind, at different ranges. A wind blowing directly from the front (that is, from the direction of the target), is called a twelve o'clock wind; one directly from the left and across the line of fire, a nine o'clock wind, and so on. In 1884, Col. Adelbert R. Buffington, U. S. A., invented a rear sight which has since been used for the Springfield rifle and carbine.

hen the sight is adjusted for the necessary elevation, it automatically corrects for drift. As at 200 yards, the drift of the rifle bullet is 3 inches to the right, the Buffington sight causes the soldier to aim nearly 4 point to the left of the objective. At 200 yard range, 1 point of the wind gauge compensates for a wind acting at


plain language, it spins. A lateral motion of the entire projectile results. Its direction is determined by the rifling. As this latter is from left to right, the bullet deviates to the right of the plane of fire. This deviation is called “drift.” At 600 yards, the drift is over 16 inches; at 500

right angles to the plane of fire with a velocity of about 8 miles an hour for rifle firing, and about 10 miles an --- hour for carbine firing. --- Breech-loading rifles may be divided as follows: 1, single-loaders, like the Springfield: 2, single-loaders and repeaters combined: 3, single-loaders with magazine attached; 4. repeaters with no cut-off to the magazine, like the Winchester and the Austrian Manlicher; 5, experimental repeaters: 6, de-tached magazines, like the James P. Lee gun. Repeating rifles may be divided into: 1, those whose magazines are in the butt; 2, those whose magazines are under the barrel: 3, those whose magazines are over the barrel; and 4, those whose magazines are under the breech. With reference to the four sub-divisions, or classes, last named, the Spencer rifle belonged to the first class; no nation now uses a repeater of the first class. The Winchester rifle belongs to the second group. The Bethel-Burton belongs to the third class, but no nation now uses a repeater of this kind. The James P. Lee belongs to the fourth class. All of these rifles are American in their origin and development. The military rifles adopted by European governments are briefly enumerated below, in the alphabetical order of the countries. Austria.-The old type of Austrian bullets belonged to the class of solid expanding projectiles—caliber, 547; length of bullet in calibers, 1-84; weight of bullet, 450 grains; fired from a barrel having one twist in 62 inches. In these old-pattern rifles, Austria utilized the invention of Col. Thouvenin, consisting of a spindle attached to the breech screw, which fitted into the bullet as the finger into a thimble. This was not to aid in the expansion of the bullet, but to give it an invariable position with reference to the powder, and thus secure uniformity of action. Then came the breech loading Werndl rifle, weight 9:04 pounds, having a cartridge weighing 655 grains. No rifle of the Werndl class now exists, so far as known. Its eculiarity consisted in the fact that the breechlock rotated about an axis parallel to the axis of the barrel and below it. About 1877 Austria adopted a new cartridge for the Werndl, and, by the change, passed from one of the lowest to the highest position in Europe in the order of merit of military rifles. In 1885 the great arms factory at Steyr began to work night and day at the manufacture of the Manlicher repeater. The Lee gun, the invention of an American, can be used either as a single-loader or as a repeater. It has a detachable magazine; each magazine holds five cartridges, and when it is desired for use as a repeater, the magazine is *". in a hollow frame beneath the breach. The manipulation of the Lee involves a straight backward and forward motion, so that the gun may be fired again and again without taking it from the shoulder. It is claimed that a full magazine can be substituted for an empty one in two seconds. The balance of the piece is not disturbed each time that the gun is fired, as is the case in the other magazine systems, where the cartridges are carried either in the butt or under the barrel. Both Austria and Austria-Hungary have discarded the Werndl rifle and have adopted the smallcaliber Manlicher, which is an obvious plagiarism upon the old-style Lee. The disadvantage of the Manlicher is that it can not be used as a single-loader. The improved Lee is free from this grave drawback. The Manlicher adopted by Austria in 1885 had a caliber of 433; weight of bullet, 371 grains: twist, one turn in 21-6 inches; length of bullet, 2.33 times the caliber. In 1889 Austria adopted a more effective explosive and an improved cartridge, and began experimental trials with Herr Schulhoff's improved small-caliber Manligher, and also with the Fortelka, the Jurmitschek, and the Salvatore


magazine guns. The result was the adoption of the caliber 31 Manlicher and a compound projectile covered with steel. Those covered with copper or nickle proved too expensive. At an immense cost the transformation was effected and the armament of the Austrian infantry completed. Herr Nordenfeldt imported the machinery for the manufacture of these small-arms, and set up a factory at Pesth, Hungary, for the manufacture of the rifles, guaranteeing 400,000 to be delivered in two years. Hungary allotted the land on which the factory was built free of rent, and exempted the property from taxes for fifteeen years. The Fortelka rifle is the invention of a blind man. It is claimed that the rotary velocity of the bullet fired from this rifle is about 1,800 turns in a second. The Kropatschek tubular magazine seven-shot repeater is made in Austria. This rifle has been adopted by Chili and Portugal, and also by the French navy. France is producing arms on her own account, and the adoption of the Kropatschek of Austrian make by that country is singular. Bavaria.-Although Bavaria is a part of the German Empire it is here considered separately because of its separate armament and because it was not until aster the seven weeks of war with Austria in 1866 that the Bavarians succumbed to the homogeneous power of Prussia and became imbued with the principle that the strongest power should have the sway and Bavarians put away the local hatred fostered in past times and forgot and forgave everything for the sake of a common fatherland. The success of the French Chassepot in 1870–71 would have meant, the Bavarians knew, the restoration of the Rhenish confederation and the political impotency of all Germany. In 1846 the Wahrendorf breech-loader was invented, but it was too slow in action to be long retained. Different systems of breech-loading arms have been tried, accepted, and abandoned in Bavaria since Germany first used them in warfare. It was not until after 1866 that south Germany began to organize according to the Prussian system and to introduce Prussian taetics and regulations. In that year Baden and Wurtemberg had adopted the Dreyse needle-gun and the Prussian drill. The Bavarian infantry then carried a different rifle—the converted Podewills. In 1869 the Bavarian army adopted the Werder rifle, the alleged invention of J. L. Werder, of Nuremberg. This rifle belonged to the class of falling breech-blocks, of which the Peabody, the invention of a Boston man, was the exponent in this country. The caliber of the Werder was 435 inch; length of barrel, 35 inches; twist, one turn in 22 inches; weight of piece, unloaded, 9.75 pounds. The Bavarian rifle factory at Hamburg is reported to be working in feverish haste on a new weapon of reduced caliber. Exact data can not be given, but it is said that it differs from most other guns of its class, as the breech-block is opened and closed by the hammer instead of the lever-guard, giving, it is claimed, greater safety and ease of manipulation, especially when the soldier loads while lying on the ground. Belgium.—The system of alteration of breechloaders adopted in March, 1867, by the Belgian Government was the Albini - Braendlin, and

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