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had besides accrued of endowments $16,365 in the previous year and $7,893 in the present year, and there were now returned $11,233 of interest-bearing, and $13,025 of non-interest bearing funds. Including the endowments, its estate was valued at $25,637, the increase in value from the previous year having been $8,286. It had issued 188,152 copies of publications, and had sold and distributed 121,148 copies. The General Church Erection and Missionary Committee had received $6,237, and returned an Endowment fund of $40,327. Improved interest had been shown by the people in its work. Assistance had been given to five State districts (Northwestern Kansas and Colorado, Tennessee, Western Iowa and Minnesota, Northern Missouri, and Northern Indiana for the Canada Mission); loans had been made to five meetinghouses, and nine meeting-houses had been provided for; two churches had been organized; and 158 persons received by baptism. During five years since the o missionary plan was adopted, $20,000 had been received and expended by the committee in missionary and church erection work; 19 churches had been organized, 36 meeting-houses provided for, and 520 members received by baptism. A |. to consolidate the missionary scheme by instituting one general work, of which each State district should be a department through its auxiliary committee, was deferred for a year, as was also the subject of providing for the training and appointment of missionaries. The conference refused to advise members that it would not consider it wrong for them to work and vote for local option; then, lest this action should be misunderstood as opto the temperance movement, it unanimously resolved to recommend that all the brethren “carefully maintain our position against the use or toleration of intoxicants, whether to manufacture, sell, or use as a beverage, and to the extent of our influence contribute our part to secure practical ibition, but that we be advised against taking part in the public agitation of the subject.” o preparation of a German edition of the journal of the meeting was directed. The use of tobacco by members was discountenanced. The former rules upon the subject were again insisted upon ; members were advised to refrain as much as possible (as working men) from laboring in the tobacco business in any way; and not to trade or traffic in tobacco alone or in connecticn with other merchantable goods. also reiterated against conforming to worldly fashions and customs in the matters of wearing riding habits, carrying gold watches, and participating in social plays at parties. I. Baptists in Canada.-The Baptist Convention of the maritime provinces (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island) includes, according to the statistical reports for 1889, 8 associations, with 384 churches, 202 ministers (in 1888), and 59,719 members, with 1,817 baptisms reported during the year. According to the American Baptist YearBook,” for 1889, the Baptists have in Ontario, Quebec, Manitoba, and the Northwest Territory, 15 associations, with 30 unassociated churches, 441 churches in all, 286 ministers in the two conventions of Canada, and 34,068 members. The

The testimony of the Church was .

“Baptist Year-Book for Ontario, Quebec, and the Northwest Territories,” for 1889, gives the number of members as 33,029; and of pupils in Sunday-schools as 23,549 onvention of the Maritime Provinces.—

The Baptist Convention of the Maritime Provinces met at Frederickton, N. B., Aug. 24. Mr. E. D. King was chosen president. The report from Acadia College represented that the faculty had been increased, * further additions were to be made to it. A theological professor was to be appointed in the next year. Twenty-five of the under-graduates had been engaged durin the vacations in home-mission work. Associate with this institution are Horton Collegiate Academy and Acadia Seminary. The receipts of the Ministerial Relief and Aid Fund had been $1,448, and the amount of its moneys was returned at $4.887. The sum of $810 had been expended in the relief of 23 persons, aged or infirm ministers or widows of ministers. A beuest was reported to the convention of $10,000 or a ministers' annuity fund. The receipts of the Home Mission Board had been $6,443. Sixty-seven missionaries had reported concerning their labors—including the organization of 2 churches and the reception of 320 members by baptism. The receipts of the Foreign Mission Board had been $13,236. Two bequests— one of $46,000 and one of about $10,000—for this cause were acknowledged. The missions returned the present number of members at the three stations of Chicacole, Deodangagiri, and Binilipatam, in India, as 137. The committee on union with the Free Christian Baptists representing that the people of that denomination were not yet pre ared to take action on the “basis of union ” adopted by the joint committee of the two bodies, the matter of union was left in abeyance for the present, and a standing committee for conference on the subject was appointed. A declaration was made adverse to concessions to the Jesuits in Canada. It defined as the principles with which Baptists stand historically identified touching civil and religious rites—

That the state is a political corporation simply: that freedom of religious opinion and worship is a vested right of the individual conscience, and not a grant from the Legislature; that the Legislature may not prescribe any form of religious belief or worship o as such, though for reasons of public ". or for the safety and order of society, it may properly forbid acts done in the name of religion, as, for instance, polygamy with the Mormons, or the interference of ecclesiastics with the lawful authority of the state. We believe that nothing less than the thorough application of these principles throughout the entire Dominion will produce harmony and secure the welfare of the people of Canada; and we therefore, as citizens of Canada, are bound to support all wise and lawful efforts to secure the complete separation of Church and state in every province and territory of the Dominion.

The convention, holding that the prohibition of the liquor traffic "...i. “but the protection of the citizens' rights and the bestowment upon the greatest number of the greatest amount of ...i. the least possible evil,” recommended that preference be given in the election of members of Parliament to persons who would vote for laws embodying that principle in full.

Convention of Ontario and Quebec.-- The vention undertook to raise $3,000 a year for Baptist Home Missionary Society of Ontario and home missions in Manitoba, in aid of which an Quebec received for the year ending in October, agent to receive contributions was appointed for 1888, $16,104. It gave aid to about 130 churches, each association. The Standard Publishing Comand about 650 baptisms were returned as among pany, whose interests had been passed by Senathe fruits of the labors of the missionaries. The tor McMaster to the Baptist organization, had Woman's Home Missionary Society of Ontario declared and paid a dividend of 3 per cent. to returned $4,311 as the amount of its receipts. the societies entitled by the founder's will to parThe income of the Superannuated Ministers, ticipate in its profits. On the subject of the reWidows, and Orphans' Society had been $2,980; lations of Church and state the convention reand it gave aid to 29 persons. The Baptist solved that, Church Edifice Society returned the amount of Whereas, .The historic belief of the Baptist Church its funds as $6,978. It received $1,442, and has always been that Church and state should be sepagranted 3 out of 15 applications for loans. The rate, and that all citizens and denominations should receipts for the Grand Ligne Mission were $9,- be equal in every way before the law, and whereas 889. It sustained 8 churches, with 234 members the said principle is being violated in all ecclesiasand 211 pupils. The value of its church build- tical exemptions, whether in favor of the Baptists or ings and of Feller Institute and real estate at mediæval tithing system of the Roman Catholic de

of other denominations, in the continuance of the Grand Ligne was returned as over $53,000, all nomination in Quebec, in the existence of separate chapel property being free from debt. The in- schools supported out of public rates, in state procome of the Foreign Missionary Society for the vision for religious instruction in public schools, and year ending in October, 1888, was $19,201. The in public grants for denominational purposes, as well mission among the Telugus in India-returned as in other respects. : : Resolved, That we hereby four stations, with

1,947 members of the church, declare our conviction that the only permanent and and a seminary at Samulcotta with 70 students. of the principle of religious liberty and equality, and A Home Missionary Society had been formed are therefore a hindrance in the development of our among the converts. Two Woman's Foreign national life, is the absolute and final separation of Missionary Societies (of Ontario and of East- Church and state, and a revision of our Constitution in ern Ontario and Quebec) had received $9,- harmony with the same. 157. These societies co-operate in educational The views of the convention were also declared work, and by the employment of Bible women. on prison reform, Sunday observance, and the Steps were taken in 1888 for the organization of Jesuit Estates bill. Me Master University, with an endowment be VII. Baptists in Great Britain. The staqueathed for the purpose by the late Senator tistics of the Baptists in Great Britain, Ireland, McMaster. The senate of the institution deter- and the Channel Islands, as given for 1888 in mined that the arts department should be estab- the "American Baptist Year-Book” foot up: lished at Toronto, and that the efficiency of Number of associations, 56; of churches, 2,770; Woodstock College should be increased, and it of ministers, 1,865; of members, 299,505. be made an institution for young men who do The annual meeting of the Baptist Union of not intend to pursue a university course, and for Great Britain and Ireland was held in London, instruction in classics and modern languages. April 29. The Rev. J. T. Wigner presided. The A gift of property was also made by Mrs. McMas- report of the council showed that 20,000 churchter for the foundation of a ladies college at To members and 23,000 pupils in Sunday-schools ronto as a department of the university, to be had been added during the year, while about known as the Moulton Ladies' College. £60,000 had been expended on new chapels,

A bill was passed by the Dominion Parlia- £32,000 on chapel improvements, and £85,000 ment in the winter of 1888-'89, authorizing the in removing or diminishing debt; and that the association of the Baptist interests and enter- Union had received for all purposes, £21,452. It prises of Ontario and Quebec in home and for- was represented in the opening address of the eign missions, church erection, publication, and president that although 5 churches and 13 perpreachers' aid into a representative body to be sonal members had withdrawn from the Union known as “ the Baptist Convention of Ontario during the year, 61 churches and 116 personal and Quebec."

members had been received in the same time, The meeting of the convention thus incor- and that between £12,000 and £13,000 had been porated was held in Ottawa in October, 1889. distributed to pastors and widows, annuitants, Mr. D. E. Thomson was chosen president. The and to pastors aided by the British and Irish report of the governors of McMaster University Mission, Augmentation, and Educational funds. was presented. Questions regarding the organi- A minute was adopted declaring that the Union zation of the institution were discussed and re- considered it desirable that the General Bapferred back to the senate and board of govern- tists and Particular Baptists should become one ors for further deliberation. Among these ques- denomination and that their various societies tions was one respecting the appropriation of should be amalgamated. Resolutions were passed the $14,500 a year specially designated by Sena- in favor of settling international disputes by artor McMaster as the smallest amount to be spent bitration and disapproving those features in the on the work of the theological college. The con- Revised Education Code which were alleged to tributions for foreign missions had been $20,116, tend to confirm the position and prolong the existand the accounts showed a surplus in the treas ence of weak, inefficient, and ill-equipped schools. ury of $1,687. Six new missionaries had been The receipts of the Baptist Missionary Society sent out to the mission in India. The Home were returned at £80,818, against £66,209 in Mission Society had received $17,950, and gave 1887. More than 10,000 pounds, however, of the accounts of a successful year's work. The con- former sum had come in the shape of special

legacies and gifts for the China Famine Relief But our chief difficulty as Baptists in approaching fund. A speaker at the anniversary meeting, the suggested conference arises from the fact that our replying to criticisms of missionary methods by churches hold and teachMr. Caines and to a call for self-denying mis

1. That the Christianity of the New Testament sionaries, mentioned that for four years one of the sonal, and non-sacerdotal religion.

was essentially the introduction of a spiritual, permissionaries of the society had returned three 2. That toe New Testament law of Baptism requires fourths of his salary in order that more men a profession of faith in the Lord Jesus Christ as a might be sent out; and that the Baptist mis- prerequisite to the administration of the rite ; or, as it sionaries in China during the famine had sup is well expressed in the catechism of the Church of ported the native brethren out of their incomes, England in answer to the question. What is required while they distributed the Relief fund of the so- of persons to be baptized ? Repentance, whereby

they forsake sin, and faith, whereby they steadfastly ciety among the heathen.

believe the promises of God, and that the administraThe receipts of the Baptist Zenana Mission tion of baptism to infants, when, by reason of their had been £9,641, and the expenditure £8,488, tender age, they can not satisfy these conditions, is leaving a balance in hand of £1,152; but a per- contrary to the teaching of Holy Scripture and to the manent yearly increase of £600 was wanted to practice of the primitive and apostolic Church. make the income equal to the expenditures.

3. That in subjection to the teaching of the Word The annual income of the Baptist Union Home of God, the internal government of each Christian Mission was returned at the autumnal meeting ants of the Saviour, and should be in no way conof the Union at £4,000, while £1,100 more were trolled by the sovereign powers of the state. These required in order to carry on the work in hand. principles--excepting our views on Christian baptism Five hundred churches had been visited. An-we hold, as your Grace is fully aware, in common aggressive movement had been begun in London with other free churches in this country with whom by the Eondon Baptist Association.

we are not only united by the ties of brotherhood, The autumnal meeting of the Union was held but also by a common concern for the salvation and in Birmingham, beginning Oct. 9. The Rev. J.T. well-being of all men. Having laid before your Grace Wigner presided and

delivered a presidential ad- this frank statement of our position, we are the more dress on Christian Citizenship.". At a mission- the welfare of our fellow-countrymen which we witary meeting, held on the first day, the speakers ness in many of the members of the Established dwelt on the success of missions, and cited facts, Church. With all that tends to promote spiritual particularly from the missions in India, contra- religion and social reformation we earnestly sympadictory to the allegations recently made in the thize, and while we do not think the suggested conpublic prints and discussions of the failure of reunion" which your Grace has in view, we do regard missionary effort. Among the new missionaries the mere suggestion of such a conference as tending about to go out to their fields, a number of to bring about a more direct and closely knit federayoung men were introduced who would live ation of those consecrated labors in which all sections together and devote their time to personal inter- of Christ's Church are engaged. In our judgment, course with the natives, it being understood that such co-operation would be a truer index of the growth they would remain unmarried while engaged in and power of the spirit of Christian brotherhood than this work. A letter was approved, to be signed

a comprehensive organization and a mere outward conby the officers of the Union, in reply to the letter

formity. of the Archbishop of Canterbury transmitting Alterations were made in the rules regulating the resolutions of the Lambeth Conference on the Annuity fund, the British and Irish Home “ Home Reunion.” Of the four articles sug- Mission, the Augmentation fund, and the Edugested in those resolutions as forming a suitable cation fund, the effect of which in respect to basis on which negotiations could proceed, the home missions will be to exclude all reference letter said that as to the first

to Ireland. The home missions there will in [(a) The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testa- future be managed by a separate committee. A ments as "containing all things necessary to salva- report was made by the council favorable to the tion," and as being the rule

and ultimate standard of amalgamation of the General and Particular faith.) we are in full accord with your Grace. The Baptists. The General Baptist Association had supreine authority of the Holy Scripture in matters of replied favorably to the overtures on the subject, religious faith and duty is a cardinal principle under- and most of the associations communicated with lying our Church organization and individual life. had approved the effort. The Union advised the baptismal symbol, and the Nicene Creed as the that the terms “General ” and “ Particular” as sufficient statement of the Christian faith. (c) The denominating Baptist churches, societies, or two sacraments ordained by Christ himself, baptism members, should be discontinued; that all instiand the supper of the Lord, " ministered with unfail- tutions denominationally promoted should be ing use of Christ's words of institution, and of the designated by the term "Baptist” only; and elements ordained” by him. (d) The historic episco- that all Baptists duly qualified should be eligible pate locally adapted in the methods of its administration to the " varying needs of the nations and peo- to office in any Baptist institution. Commendples called of God into the unity of his Church.” ing to the consideration of all Christians the evils (See Encyclical Letter, pp. 88, 24, 25).) laid down in of indulgence in intoxicating drinks, the assemthe encyclical letter contain terms so obviously sus- bly expressed the conviction that the Church ceptible of two or more interpretations that they do should lead in the conflict with the evil, and not seem to us to promise a profitable issue to any urged the adoption of such measures as should deliberations founded upon them. For instance, our churches hold that they have“the historic episcopate,"

prove best suited to destroy it. Objection was as it is laid down

in the New Testament, and they do made against the measure proposed in Parlianot consider the diocesan episcopate of the Anglican ment for the establishment and endowment of a communion to be in accordance with the New Testa- Roman Catholic college in Ireland. While it ment law of Church government.

acknowledged the right of Roman Catholics to

equality in university and collegiate advantages with members of the Episcopal Church, the Union suggested that such equality should be secured, not by concurrent endowment, but by making existing endowed institutions really national and altogether unsectarian. BARNARD, FREDERICK AUGUSTUS PORTER, educator, born in Sheffield, Mass., May 5, 1809; died in New York city, April 27, 1889. He was the oldest son of Robert Foster Barnard (Gen. John G. Barnard was a younger son), a lawyer who was at one time a member of the Massachusetts Senate. His mother was a daughter of Dr. Joshua Porter, of Salisbury, Conn., and on both sides his ancestry was of English origin. He was first taught at home and then entered a grammar school in Sheffield conducted . Dr. Orville Dewey. When he was nine years old he was sent to Saratoga Springs, N. Y., where he entered the academy. In Saratoga he first saw a printing-office, and soon ac

rrederick Augustus PortTER BARNARD.

quired a familiarity with that art. Many of the pages of the “Saratoga Sentinel” were voluntarily set up by him. After three years he went to Stockbridge, Mass., where he was prepared for college by Jared Curtis, and at this time ac}. an interest in chemistry and electricity.

e Was uated at Yale in 1828, standing second in his class of eighty-two members, and leading it in pure mathematics and the exact sciences. On the Monday following the taking of his degree, he began his educational work as a teacher in the Hartford Grammar School, and continued there for two years. At this time be became a contributor to “The New England Review,” edited by John G. Whittier, the poet, and he also for a short time had complete editorial control of that journal. His articles included poems, of which several were imitations of Hafiz and other Persian poets, and, according to Mr. Whittier, were “full of grace and rhythmic sweetness.” He returned to Yale in the autumn of 1830, and became tutor of mathematics. His success was such that it was proposed to divide the chair of Mathematics as soon as possible, giving him the department of pure mathematics. While in Hartford he had studied law under Jonathan

Edwards, and his own inclination was toward olitical life, but an unfortunate illness which left i. with impaired hearing, led to his relinquishing this project. As the ailment was hereditary in his family, he became unduly sensitive on the subject, and therefore o accepted an appointment in May, 1831, at the American Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb in Hartford, even seeking a release from his college duties before the close of the term. It was not until after he was fifty years of age that his deafness became marked. }. was called in 1832 to the Institution for Deaf and Dumb in New York city, and this place he held for five years, during which he prepared the annual reports of the institution, invented new methods of teaching, and also wrote magazine articles relating to deaf-mute instruction. In 1837 he was chosen to the chair of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in the University of Alabama, where he remained until . 1848, when he was transferred to the charge of Chemistry and Natural History, which he held until 1854. Prof. Barnard was at this time said to be “the best at whatever he attempted to do; he could turn the best sonnet, write the best love-story, take the best daguerreotype picture, charm the most women, catch the most trout, and calculate the most undoubted almanac.” His versatility was remarkable. He edited a weekly newspaper at Tuscaloosa, and for a time had charge of two papers of opposite political opinions. In 1846 he was appointed by the Governor of Alabama as astronomer on the part of that State to assist in determining the boundary line between Alabama and Florida; and as the representative of the latter State did not qualify, Prof. Barnard was employed by both States. His report, submitted to the Legislatures of the two States, was accepted as conclusive, and settled the long-pending controversy. On July 4, 1851, he delivered an oration before the citizens of Tuscaloosa on the questions of the time, beginning with: “No just cause for a dissolution of the Union in anything which has hitherto hap§: but the Union is the only security for uthern rights.” Of this address it is said: “It enraged his colleagues greatly, but it produced a . impression in the community, and after that day people did not always hold their breath when political topics were mentioned in the streets of Tuscaloosa.” He studied theology, and was admitted to holy orders in the Protestant Episcopal Church in 1854. This step he took on the advice of friends, and he was persuaded that thereby his influence as an educator would be eater, but he never sought for nor held a parish. In 1854 he was invited to fill the chair of Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, and Civil Engineering in the University of Mississippi, of which institution he became president in 1856, and chancellor in 1858. This office he held until 1861, going North in 1860 to serve on the astronomical expedition sent by the United States Coast Survey to Labrador to witness the total eclipse of the sun, and returning to his post on the completion of his work. Soon after the beginning of the civil war, the university closed its doors, and President Barnard was relieved of his charge. Efforts were made to induce him to take office under the Confederate Government, but, being opposed to secession, he refused. He was denied a pass o the lines, and,compelled to remain in Norfolk, Va., until that place was captured in 1862 by the United States troops. President Barnard then went to Washington, where he was engaged in continuing the reductions of Lieut. James M. Gilliss's observations of the stars of the Southern Hemisphere, and in 1863 had charge of their publication. He also became connected with the United States Coast Survey, and was made director of the map and chart department. His long residence in the South proved of great service in the preparation of maps used by the national armies. When the chair of Physics in Columbia College, New York city, became vacant, his name was sugested for that place, but the resignation of Sharles King from the presidency of the college led the trustees to call Prest. Barnard, in May, 1864, to that post. This office he held until the close of the collegiate year in 1888, when failing health induced him to place his resignation in the hands of the trustees, which was accepted, “to take effect on the appointment of his successor.” Thus he continued president of Columbia College until his death. At the time of his appointment the college had but recently acquired its present site. Although endowed with abundant means, it was conservative to the last degree. Its law and medical departments were separate and remote from the college proper, while the School of Mines was struggling for existence in the basement of one of the buildings. By his learning and acuteness, his executive tact, his mastery of details, his insight into character, and his unfailing courtesy, President Barnard was well fitted for the place to which he was called. His keen judgment led him to see the future aright, and he bent his energies toward the building of a great university. The School of Mines received at first his chief thought, and at present, with its departments of architecture, chemistry, geology, metallurgy, and civil, electrical, mechanical, mining, and sanitary engineering, with its laboratories and museums unequaled in the country, it is perhaps one of the foremost technical schools in the United States. The School of Political Science, teaching the principles of government, commerce, and finance, claimed his attention later. After that the School of Library Economy was developed, and finally a department for the education of women, bearing the name of Barnard College, has been thrown open. The building of the School of Mines, Hamilton Hall, and the Library Building, in which the law department is placed, also the group of buildings forming the medical departments, was accomplished during his administration. Prof. John S. Newberry says: “Every one of the steps of progress enumerated above was either conceived or earnestly advocated by him, and owed its achievement to his support. He was not only a participant, but a leader in every forward movement.” The library contained 15,332 volumes in 1865 and 94,000 in 1889, while the number of students in 1864 was 600 and in 1888 was over 1,800. During his residence in the South, President Barnard in many ways was actively engaged in promoting public education, encouraging and assisting in all departments of scientific research and literary culture. In his honor, the University of


Alabama has called one of its new buildings Barnard Hall. He was officially connected with the World's Fair held in New York city in 1853. In 1866 he was a pointed one of the commissioners to the World's Fair held in Paris in 1867, and on his return he prepared an extended description of the “Machinery, Processes, and Products of the Industrial Arts and Apparatus of the Exact Sciences,” which was published in the Government reports. At the Centennial Exhibition held in Philadelphia in 1876 he was one of the judges on instruments of precision, and in 1878 he was assistant commissioner-general at the World's Fair held in Paris, when the decoration of the Legion of Honor, with the rank of officer, was conferred on him by the French ministry. He also received other foreign decorations and gold medals in recognition of his scientific work. The degree of LL.D. was given him by Jefferson College, Mississippi, in 1855, and by Yale in 1859. In 1861 the University of Mississippi conferred on him the degree of S. T. D., and in 1872 he received that of L. H. D. from the Regents of the University of the State of New York. Kings College, Canada, made him a D. C. L. in 1887, and St. j. College, Annapolis, bestowed on him the degree of Ph.D. in 1888. President Barnard's name was on the rolls of many scientific societies, both in this country and abroad. He was chosen president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1860, but, owing to the civil war, did not assume the office until 1866, and at the Chicago meeting in 1868 he delivered his address, when he discussed the doctrine of the materialistic school of modern physics, which regards mental and physical forces as reciprocally convertible. He was one of the original members of the National Academy of Sciences, chairman of its physical section in 1872, and its forei secretary in 1874–80. To its proceedings i. contributed seven o and he was an active member of several of its earlier commissions that were charged with special work for the Government. In 1872 he was president of the American Institute in New York city, and in 1873 became first president of the American Metrological Society, which place he held until his .. He was often called upon to preside at public meetings, and delivered a great number of addresses. President Barnard was active in the support of every Fo cause—religious, educational, scientific, and artistic—and was rerded as a co-worker by all those who were evoted to the higher purposes of life. He was the senior editor of “Johnson's Cyclopædia,” for which work he wrote numerous scientific and literary articles. His contributions to scientific literature included papers on astronomy, electricity, engineering, hygiene, mathematics, metrology, photography, and physics. He wrote for the “American Journal P Education ” from its beginning, and from 1838 was a contributor to the “American Journal of Science.” In addition to numerous reports on educational matters presented to the trustees of Columbia College, he published “The School Arithmetic" (1829); “A Treatise on Arithmetic” (1830); “Analytic Grammar with Symbolic Illustrations” (1836); “Letters on College Government” (1854); “Report on Collegiate Education" (1854);

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