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Bismarck on July 4, which should prepare a Constitution for the proposed State, to be submitted to the people on the first Tuesday of October. The convention was directed to appoint a committee to meet a similar committee from South Dakota and agree upon a division of the institutions, debt, records, etc., of the Territory of Dakota. This agreement should be incorporated in the Constitution of each proposed State. On receiving official notice of the adoption of the Constitution by the people at the October election, the President was directed to issue his roclamation admitting the State to the Union. t should thereupon become entitled to the sixteenth and thirty-sixth sections of every township, or to sections in lieu of such, to be sold or leased by the State, and the proceeds used to form a permanent school fund for the support of common schools. This fund should also receive 5 per cent. of the net proceeds of all public lands sold by the United States subsequent to admission. The following lands were also granted to the State: Seventy-two sections for university purposes (being in part a confirmation of former grants), fifty sections for public buildings at the capital, 130,000 acres for agricultural colleges, 40,000 acres for a school of mines, 40,000 acres for a reform school, 40,000 acres for a deaf-anddumb asylum, 40,000 acres for the university, 80,000 acres for normal schools, 170,000 acres for general educational and charitable purposes, and 50,000 acres additional for public buildings at the capital. A grant of $30,000 to erect a State penitentiary similar to that in South Dakota was also made. The State should form one judicial circuit and should have one Representative in Congress, until otherwise provided. Constitutional Convention.—In accordance with the above-mentioned act, the Territorial Governor, on April 15, issued his proclamation, calling a special election in North Dakota on May 14 for the purpose of selecting delegates to a constitutional convention. The number of delegates chosen was 75, a majority of whom were Republicans. The convention met at Bismarck on July 4, and chose F. B. Fancher as president. It adopted a Constitution, of which the following are the prominent features:

The legislative power shall be vested in a Senate and House of Representatives. There shall be not fewer than 30 nor more than 50 Senators, and their term of office shall be four years. There shall not be fewer than 60 nor more than 140 members of the Ilouse, and their term shall be two years. Each member of the Legislative Assembly shall receive as a compensation for his services for each session $5 per day, and 10 cents for every mile of necessary travel in going to and returning from the place of the meeting of the Legislative Assembly, on the most usual route. The Legislative Assembly shall meet at the seat of government at twelve o’clock noon, on the first Tucsday after the first Monday in January, in the year next following the election of the members thereof. The sessions shall be biennial, and no regular session shall exceed 60 days except the first, which may be 120 days. Bills may originate in either House. The general appropriation bill shall embrace nothing but appropriations for the expenses of the executive, " and judicial departments of the State. interest on the public debt, and for public schools. All other appropriations shall be made by separate bills, each embracing but one subject.

The Legislative Assembly may change, regulate, or abolish the grand-jury system. The offense of solicitation of bribery by members of the Legislature is defined. Local and special laws are forbidden. All acts shall take effect on July 1, next after the close of the session, except in case of emergency. The csecutive power shall be vested in a Governor, who shall reside at the seat of government and shali hold his office for the term of two years and until his successor is duly qualified. A Lieutenant-Governor shall be elected at the same time and for the same term as the Governor. The Licutenant-Governor shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided. He shall act as Governor in case of the removal or disability of the Governor or his absence from the State, and in case neither can act, the Secretary of State shall be acting Governor. The Governor shall have the pardoning power and a veto power. He may veto separate items of an appropriation bill. There shall be chosen by the qualified electors of the State, at the times and places of choosing members of the Legislative Assembly, a Secretary of State, Auditor, Treasurer, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Commissioner of Insurance, three Commissioners of Railroads, an Attorney-General, and one Commissioner of Agriculture and Labor. They shall severally hold their offices at the seat of government for the term of two years, and until their successors are duly qualified, but no person shall be eligible as Treasurer for more than two consecutive terms. The Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction only. It shall be composed of three judges, to be elected by the people of the State at large, and holding office for six years. They shall appoint the clerk of the Supreme Court. When the population of the State shall exceed 600,000, the number of judges may be increased to five. District and county judges and justices of the peace shall also be elected by the people. Courts of conciliation or arbitration may be established, but they shall have no power to enforce their decisions. The general elections of the State shall be biennial, and shall be held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November: provided, that the first general election under this 8. shall be held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, A. 1). 1890. Women may vote for school officers and on all school questions, and are clergible to any school office. All elections shall be by secret ballot. Consolidation of parallel or competing lines of railroad is forbidden. Laws may be pa sed to control railroad rates. “Trusts,” and combinations of a similar character, are forbidden. The Legislative Assembly shall make provision for the establishment, and maintenance of a system of public schools which shall be open to all children of the State and free from sectarian control. The proceeds of all sales or leases of lands granted by the United States for educational or charitable objects shall form permanent funds, which shall never be diminished. The total annual tax for State purposes shall not exceed four mills on the dollar. Railroads may be taxed on their gross earnings. No State debt shall be incurred in excess of $900,000, exclusive of the debt existing at the adoption of the Constitution. County and municipal indebtedness is also limited. Every citizen shall be free to obtain employment wherever possible, and any person, corporation, or agent thereof, maliciously interfering or hindering, in any way, any citizen from obtaining or enjoying cmployment already obtained from any other corporation or person shall be deemed guilty of a misdein Cantor. The labor of children under twelve years of age shall be prohibited in mines, factories, and workshops.

All flowing streams and natural water courses shall its prosperity for their own success. We therefore forever remain the property of the State for mining, declare it to be the duty, as it should be the pleasure, irrigating, and manufacturing purposes.

of all men who are placed in public position by the The State capital is permanently located at people of North Dakota to oppose every unjust enBismarck. Numerous public institutions are croachment of corporations or trusts upon the rights established and located. Amendments to the Governinent in all its branches as will best conduce Constitution must receive a majority vote in two to the welfare, the prosperity, and the advancement successive Legislatures, and be approved by a of our agricultural people. That we are uncompromajority of the electors at a general election. misingly in favor of the American system of protecThe convention decided that the following pro- tion by such properly, regulated import duties upon hibitory article should be submitted to a sepa- protect the wages of our vast army of labor against rate vote of the people :

the unfair competition of the serfs of Russia, ryots of No person, association, or corporation shall within India, the coolies of China, and the pauper labor of this State manufacture for sale or gift any intoxicating other nations. liquors, and no person, association, or corporation The Republican party, viewing with unfeigned reshall import any of the same for sale or gift, or keep gret the growing evils of intemperance in our land, or sell or offer the same for sale or gift, barter, or declares itself in sympathy with all well-directed eftrade as a beverage. The Legislative Assembly shall forts calculated to suppress the vice. We cordially by law prescribe regulations for the enforcement of approve the wisdom of the constitutional convention the provisions of this article, and shall thereby pro- in providing for the submission to a vote of the peovide suitable penalties for the violation thereof. ple of the question of prohibition in accordance with

A committee was appointed which met a simi- the expressed wish of the organized temperance assolar committee from South Dakota, and agreed adoption by the people, pledge ourselves to a striet upon a division of the Territorial indebtedness. enforcement of the

laws and to enact such legislation By this agreement North Dakota assumed the

as may be necessary to that end. payment of all bonds issued in behalf of the

The Democratic State Convention was called public institutions or buildings located within to meet

at Fargo on Aug. 29. It nominated for its limits, as follows: Jamestown Insane Hospi- Governor, William N. Roach ; Lieutenant-Govtal bonds, $266,000 ; North Dakota University ernor, S. K. McGinnis ; Secretary of State, A. S bonds, $96,700; Bismarck Penitentiary bonds, Froslid ; Auditor, P. Odegaard : Treasurer, C.D. $93,600; Capitol-building warrants, $83,507.46; Lord; Attorney-General, T. R. Bangs; Supera total of $539,807.46. The State should receive intendent of Public Instruction, C. A. Kent; Infrom South Dakota $46,500 on account of excess of Territorial appropriations for permanent im- surance Commissioner, W. A. Fridley;

Commisprovements, for one-half interest in the Terri- sioner of Agriculture and Labor, J. Ř. Engberg; torial library, and for other claims, and it agreed Cameron, John Ely; Justices of the Supreme

Railroad Commissioners, F. R. Wright, Peter to assume a stipulated share of existing Territorial liabilities not above mentioned. A basis Court, W. P. Miller. J. W. Gammons; Member for dividing the share of each State in the car. Democratic principles was adopted.

of Congress, D. W. Maratta. A platform of rent receipts and expenditures of the Territory up to the date of admission was also agreed

As the election of the Republican candidates upon. These stipulations were ratified by the was a foregone conclusion, the interest in the convention and embodied in the Constitution.

canvass centered in the question whether the Provision was also made by the convention for prohibitory article should be embodied

in the filling all State and local offices created by the Constitution, and for its adoption the ProhibiConstitution at the election in October.

tionists made an active canvass. At the elecElection. Immediately after the constitu- tion on Oct. 1 the proposed Constitution was tional convention completed its work, the can adopted by a vote of 27,441 in its favor to 8.107 vass for the election of State officers was opened. manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquor re

against it. The proposed article prohibiting the A Republican State Convention was called to ceived 18,552 affirmative and 17,393 negative meet at Fargo on Aug. 22. This convention selected the following candidates : For Governor, votes, or a majority of 1,159 votes in favor of its John

Miller ; Lieutenant-Governor, Alfred Dick' adoption. The entire Republican State ticket ey; Secretary of State, John Flittie; Auditor, 365 votes and Roach 12,733; for Member of

was elected. For Governor, Miller received 25,John P. Bray; Treasurer, L. E. Booker; Attorney-General, George F. Goodwin ; Superintend- Congress, Hansbrough received 26,077 votes and ent of Public Instruction. William Mitchell; In- dates obtained correspondingly large majorities

Maratta 12,006, The other Republican candisurance Commissioner, A. L. Cary; Commissioner Members of the first State Legislature were of Agriculture and Labor, H. T. Helgeson; elected as follow: Senate Republicans 24, Demo Railroad Commissioners, F. S. Underhill, David Bartlett, George S. Montgomery; Justices of the crats 6; House-Republicans 56, Democrats 6.

The result of this election, duly canvassed as Supreme Court, Guy C. H. Corliss, Alfred Wallin, and J. N. Bartholomew; Member of Con provided by the admission act, was officially de gress, L. C. Hansbrough. The platform con

tified by the Territorial Governor to President tained the following declarations:

Harrison, who on Nov. 3 issued his proclamation

admitting North Dakota to the Union. That we fully and unreservedly recognize agriculture as the paramount material interest of North Da- of Gov. Miller was to call the first meeting

Legislative Session.-One of the first acts kota ; that there should not and can not reasonably the Legislature at Bismarck on Nov. 19. Its be any antagonism between this and the commer- first duty was to choose two United States Senabecause all these are inseparably identified with the tors. A caucus of Republican members on Xor. great central agricultural interest and dependent upon 19 nominated ex-Gov. Gilbert A. Pierce to fi

one of these offices by a vote of 50 to 17 scatter- lutions and a memorial to Congress. (See article ing, and on Nov, 20 he was chosen Senator by IRRIGATION, in this volume.) the following vote: Senate-Pierce 24, M. L. (See DAKOTA and South DAKOTA.) McCormack (the Democratic candidate) 6; House NOVA SCOTIA. There were no changes in -Pierce 56, McCormack 6. For the second the Nova Scotia government in 1889. Senator the Republican caucus was unable to Trade.-The imports of Nova Scotia during select a candidate, by reason of the large number the year ending June 30, 1889, were valued at of aspirants for the nomination. The contest $9,235,554; the exports at $8,832,281 ; giving a was transferred to the joint session of the Legis- total trade with all countries, exclusive of the lature, after one ineffectual ballot in the two other Canadian provinces, of $18,067,835. This Houses separately, and ten ballots were there trade was divided as follows: Exports to Great taken before a choice was reached. On the final Britain. $2,011,982; imports from Great Britain, ballot Lyman R. Casey received 62 votes, M. N. $4,022,007; total, $6,033,989; exports to the Johnson 16, and D. W. Maratta (Democrat) 4. United States, $2,729,547; imports from the Johnson was the leading candidate until the last United States, $2,848,077; total, $5,577,624; exballot, and was once within four votes of elec- ports to the West Indies. $2,580,575; imports tion. The legislative work of the session had from the West Indies, $1,429,580; total, $4,010,not been completed at the close of the year. 155. The trade of the province with other coun

Finances.--At the close of the year, the tries than those named did not reach $1,000,000 amount of cash received by the State Treasurer in any case. from the Territorial Treasurer was $57,513.41, The Nictaux and Atlantic Railway from Midof which $30,290.07 belonged to the general fund. dleton, Annapolis County, to Lunenburg, on the The final settlement between the States of North Atlantic seaboard, seventy-five miles, was opened and South Dakota, as provided by the report of for traffic during the year. the Joint Commission, had not been made, but Ship Railway.- An important work was it was estimated that North Dakota would have begun in Nova Scotia in 1889—a ship railway to to assume $24,841.62 of the Territorial indebted- unite the Bay of Fundy with Northumberland ness, and in addition thereto her share of the un- Strait. The distance between these two bodies audited outstanding bills against the Territory. of water is fourteen miles, and the plan is to These sums are payable out of the general fund, build a railway that will take vessels from the and will reduce it below $5,000. The receipts to water on the one side and transport them to the be derived from the Territorial levy of this year water on the other side without breaking cargo. are estimated at $271,898.55 and the expendi- This ship-railway scheme has been substituted tures for the fiscal year 1889–'90 payable out of for that of a ship canal across the isthmus, which these receipts, are also estimated at $380,769.35. was projected more than sixty years since. Much In addition, there is the bonded debt assumed by discussion on the project has taken place within the State to the amount of $539,807.46. The Ter- that period. From this, the weight of opinion ritorial tax rate for 1889 is three mills.

of most eminent engineers has been to the effect State Institutions. In the year ending Nov. that, although the construction of a canal pre1, the average number of prisoners at the Bis- sented no serious obstacles, the operating of it marck Penitentiary was 44, and the total number would be beset with difficulties, if not quite im67. The average per capita cost of maintaining practicable, owing mainly to the peculiar charthe institution was $556.75. The Insane Hos- acter of the Bay of Fundy tides—their violence pital contained an average of 184 inmates, and and immense mud deposits. The Dominion the per capita cost was $460.95.

Government has given an annual subsidy in At the North Dakota University 199 students aid of the project, and work is well advanced. were enrolled during the year, the average be Legislation. The principal acts passed by ing 125. For educating these students the State the Legislature in the session of 1889 were: paid $228 per capita. Agriculture. The following are the offi

A franchise act, under which the following persons cial returns of the acreage and yield of farm

are entitled to vote: Persons assessed on real propproducts in 1889 for the North Dakota counties: crty to the value of $150, or personal property or real

and personal property together to the value of $300, Wheat, 2,655,991 acres, 26,721,660 bushels; oats,

or a tenant of real property of the value of $150; the 450,563 acres, 9,746,093 bushels ; corn, 30,022 sons of persons having the above-named qualificaacres, 1,000,175 bushels; barley, 128,631 acres, tions, provided the father has sufficient property to 2.760,902 bushels ; potatoes, 16,119 acres, 1,401,- quality more than one voter, and provided the son 130 bushels.

resides with his father; the son of a widow having Capitol.—The Capitol building at Bismarck, property sufficient to qualify a voter, provided he realthough incomplete, will be adequate for the sides with her; a person having an annual income needs of the State for some time." Up to April of $150.' Every person, in order to vote, must be a

of $250 ; a fisherman with fishing-gear of the value 1 of this year, the expenditures for construction male British subject, twenty-one years of age. had been $222,356.46. Of this sum $100,000 was Making important amendments in the Townsgiven by citizens of Bismarck, $38,849 was de- Incorporation act. rived from Capitol lots sold, and $83,507.46 rep Amending and consolidating the laws relating to resents the construction debt incurred.

the county courts. Irrigation.--A State convention containing

Authorizing the establishment by the Governinent about one hundred delegates, met at Grand of schools of instruction for niners.

To encourage the formation of mutual-relief socieForks, on Nov. 12, to give expression to the de- ties by miners, by authorizing the Government to sire of the people for Federal aid in solving the contribute from the royalty on mines toward their irrigation problem. It adopted a series of reso- support.

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OBITUARIES, AMERICAN. Sketches of Allibone, Samuel Austin, bibliographer, born in Phila few of the more noted Americans that died in adelphia, Pa., April 17, 1816; died in Lucernc, Switz1889 may be found in their alphabetical places erland, Sept 2, 1889. He was educated for mercan. in this volume.

tile pursuits and conducted an extensive business till

1853, when he beAlexandre, Francis, shipping merchant, born in the gan to apply himIsie of Jersey, Aug. 5, 1808; died in New York city, self wholly to the June 8, 1889. He went to sea when thirteen years old, execution of a literand when twenty-one was placed in command of á ary project he had ship. Seven years later he settled in New York city formed early in life. In the mean time he applied his spare time to reading In 1854 he puband attended night school when bis vessel was in lished the first of port. He established himself in the commission bus- three volumes of iness, and soon afterward established a line of sailing his “ Critical Dicvessels between New Work and Honduras. This prov- tionary of English ing successful, he supplemented it with one between Literature and BritNew York and Vera Cruz, and managed both lines ish and American till 1867, when he sold his sailing vessels and estab- Authors," and in lished a line of steamships between New York city 1871 brought out and Havana and Mexico. These vessels carried the the remaining volmails for seventeen years. In 1888 Mr Alexandre re umes. In these oc- , tired in favor of his three sons. He was a director tavo volumes of and President of the Pacific Mail Steamshlp Company more than 1,000 for many years.

pages each, he gave Allen, Horatio, civil engineer, born in Schenectady, biographical and N. Y., May 10, 1802; died in Montrose, N. J., Dec. critical notices of 31, 1889. "He was graduated at Columbia College in 46,499 authors. While this work was in preparation 1823; entered the service of the Delaware and llud- he published " A Review by a Layman of a Work son Canal Company as civil engineer, and in 1826, entitled New Themes for the Protestant Clergy" when the news of the success of George Stephenson's (Philadelphia, 1852); " New Themes condemned" locomotive reached the United States, he was sent to (1853); "An Alphabetical Index to the New TestaEngland to study the new motive power and to pur- ment” (1865); and “The Union Bible Companion” chase three locomotives. He bought two from Ste- (1871). He likewise made selections of 13,600 passphenson and one from Foster, Rastrick & Co., and in ages from 550 authors, and classified them under 485 August, 1829, they were shipped to Honesdale, Pa., then subjects for bis “Poetica! Quotations from Chaucer to the end of the company's railroad line. The rails of Tennyson” (1873), and compiled the greater part of this road were of hemlock timbers bearing bars of roll the 8,810 quotations

from 544 authors, classified uniron 24 inches wide and inch thick, and the loco- der 571 subjects, contained in his “Prose Quotations motive bad a truck device to keep it on the rails. In from Socrates to Macaulay” (1876). Ile indexed the spite of prophecies of failure and the inability to se. “Orations and Speeches of Edward Everett" (1850cure an engineer, Mr. Allen got up steam himselt, '59); and the “Life and Letters of Washington Irand on Aug. 9, 1829, successfully ran the “Stour-ving” (1861-'64); published “Explanatory Ques bridge Lion over the three-mile strip of track and tions on the Gospels and the Acts" (1869); contribback again, that being the first locomotive trip in uted numerous articles to periodicals; wrote tracts America. In the following mouth he became chief and religious essays, and was book editor and come engineer of the South Carolina Railroad. He remained sponding secretary of the “ American Sunday-School in South Carolina several years, and after his return Union" from 1867 till 1873. After an interval of four to New York became principal assistant engineer of years he resumed bis office with the "Sunday School the Croton Acqueduct, member of the Board of Water Union," and held it till 1879, when he was appointed Commissioners in 1842, a proprietor of the Novelty librarian of the Lenox Library, New York city, with Iron Works in 1844, consulting engineer and president which he remained until his death. of the Erie Railway, and consulting engineer of the Anderson, Adna, engineer, born in Ridgeway, OrNew York and Brooklyn Bridge. "He invented the leans County, N. Y., in 1827; died in Philadelphia, four-wheeled truck for passenger cars, the paper rail- Pa., May 14, 1889. He studied civil engineering, and road car-wheel, and a cut-off for steam engines. was employed first as an assistant engineer in the con

Allen, Nathaa, physician, born in Princeton, Mass., struction of the New York, New Haven, and HartApril 25, 1813; died in Lowell, Mass., Jan. 1, 1889. ford Railroad in 1847. From this road he went to the He was graduated at Amherst College in 1836, and at Connecticut River, and then the Mobile and Ohio the Pennsylvania Medical School in 1841, and began road, and in 1850 was first employed as a regular enpractice in Lowell. He was elected a trustee of Am- gineer on the Michigan Southern Railroad. During herst College in 1856, and aided largely in establish- the next ten years he was chief engineer of the Tening the department of physical culture there. In 1864 nessee and "Alabama road, superintendent of the he was appointed a member of the Massachusetts State ('entral Southern, connected with the Ilender-on and Board of Charities ; served by successive reappoint- Nashville, and receiver of the Edgefield and Ket ments till 1880, was frequently chairman, and in 1872 tucky. At the outbreak of the civil war he offered was appointed a delegate to the international congress his services to the National Government, and his that met in London and discussed reforms in correc- large engineering experience led to his assignment to tional institutions. He reccived the degree of LL. D. the military railroad construction corps. He served from Amherst College in 1873. His published works from June, 1862, till February, 1863, with the Amy include: “The Opium Trade" (1853); " Important of the Potomac; during 1863 he was chief engineer Medical Problems'' (1874); " State Medicine and In- of the military railroads in Virginia; in 1864 le uus sanity" (1876); “Normal Standard of Women for in charge of the military railroads in Mississippi ; and Propagation" (1876); and " Physical Development" from November, 1864, till the close of the war he bed (1888).

the office of chief superintendent and engineer of the

military railroads of the United States. In 1867 he State Legislature in 1861, United States assessor in was appointed engineer of the projected railroad 1862-'67, Mayor of Madison in 1868, and on l'eb. 15, bridge at St. Louis, Mo., and he was subsequently 1870, was elected representative in Congress as a Rechief engineer of the Kansas and Pacific Railroad, gen- publican to fill a vacancy. eral manager of the Toledo, Wabash, and Western, Averill, John T., manufacturer, born in Alna, Me., president of the Lafayette and Bloomington, and re March 1, 1825; died in St. Paul, Minn., Oct. 4, 1889. ceiver of the Chicago, Danville and Vincennes road. IIc was graduated at the Maine Wesleyan University, In 1880 he became engineer-in-chief of the Northern removed to Minnesota, and engaged in manufacturPacific Railroad, and after the completion of that road ing; was a State Senator in 1858-59; entered the nahe remained with the company as honorary vice-pres- tional service in August, 1862, as lieutenant colonel ident till about a year before his death, when illness of the Sixth Minnesota Infantry, served through the from overwork obliged him to retire.

war, and reached the rank of brigadier-general; and Arms, William, physician and clergyman, born in was elected Representative in Congress as a RépubWilmington, Vt. May 18, 1802; died in Du Quoin, lican in 1870 and 1872. 111., June 21, 1889. 'Ile was graduated at Amherst Babbitt, Benjamin Talbot, manufacturer, born in College in 1830, and at Andover Theological Semi- Westmoreland, N. Y., in 1811; died in New York nary in 1833, was ordained in Boston, and with Dr. city, Oct. 20, 1889. He was brought up on a farm, Coan sent on a missionary exploring tour to Patago but abandoned it at the first opportunity for mechannia. He was unable to establish a mission there, and real employment, in which he gave evidence of conreturned to the United States. In 1835 he set out siderable inventive genius. Ilis first patent was for a with his wite on a missionary trip to Java, Sumatra, thrashing machine, and his second for the first morand Borneo. At Singapore his wite died, and he was iny machine ever made. In 1843 he began manufactfurther detained by the efforts to obtain permission uring saleratus from soda ash, as a substitute for the of the Government to establish missions. "Ile there- pearlash previously used, and subsequently he estabfore went direct to Borneo, labored several years lished a soap manufactory in New York. In order to ainong the natives as a physician and clergyman, cheapen the cost of production, he set up a machine and retired when it was deemed best to place the and foundry plant in Whitesboro' N. Y., at a cost of mission under the control of the Dutch Government. $600,000, and there made machinery, for use in his In 1848 he returned to the United States, preached factories. He invented a steam canal boat, a rotary and practiced medicine in Wisconsin in 1849–59, and steam engine without piston, cylinder, or valves, and passed the remainder of his life in southern Illinois, a combined steam generator, condenser, and heater. employed in fruit-raising.

Baker, Alfred, painter, born in New York city in Ashburner, Charles Albert, geologist, born in Phila 1824; died there, Feb. 26, 1889. In 1854, while a redolphia, Pa., Feb. 9, 1854; died in Pittsburg, Pa., porter on the New York Herald,” he suggested to Dec. 24, 1889. He was graduated at the scientific de- the chief engineer of the fire department that the partment of the University at Pennsylvania in 1974, causes of large and mysterious fires should be sought as a civil engineer, standing first in his class. In systematically. The suggestion was approved by the 1872 he was one of the party that made the survey chief and the police justices to whom he referred it, of Delaware river, and on graduating he at once en- and Mr. Baker was appointed the first fire marshal tered the light-house survey service. On the organ- of the city without pay. Within a year he demonization of the second geological survey of Pennsylva- strated thč usefulness of the office so clearly that the nia in 1874, he was appointed an assistant and assigned insurance companies contributed a fund for his comto the surveys of Juniata and Mifflin counties. A pensation. He held this office till 1868, when the year later he became assistant State Geologist and Legislature made it a part of the city government, had charge of the works in Cameron, Elk, Forest, and on retiring applied himself to portrait painting, and McKean counties. In 1880 he was made geolo- which he bad learned without a teacher. In this ho gist with charge of the survey of the anthracite coal became successful, and was employed

until his death. fields of Pennsylvania, where he originated a method Among his best portraits was one of George Walling, of surveying and represcnting the geology of that grcat ex-superintendent of the police department.. coal-bed, which reccived the approbation of mining Baker, Peter Carpenter, publisher, born in North engineers both in this country and abroad. The Hempstead, N. Y. March 22, 1823; died in New ability and skill with which this undertaking was York city, May 19, 1889. Ho removed to New York performed led to his being appointed in 1885 gcolo- city when a boy, was educated in Harlem Academy, gist in charge of all the office and field work of the entered a book store and learned the printing and pubsurvey. Meanwhile he made a careful study of the lishing trades, and in 1850 joined Daniel Godwin in natural-gas fields, and was an accepted authority on establishing the law publishing firm of Baker & Godthat subject. In the autumn of 1886' he resigned from win. He remained with this firm till 1865, when he the survey and entered upon private practice as an founded the firm of Baker, Voorhis & Co., which is expert. He was actively engaged with the Fuel-Gas still in existence. Mr. Baker published the "Steam and Electric Engineering Company of Pittsburg, and Press" periodical during the civil war, in aid of the was closely associated with the various interests in national cause. He was a founder of the Metropolithat direction controlled by George Westinghouse, tan Literary Association, the Eclectic Club, and the with whom he organized the Duquesne (Arizona) Cop- Typothetæ; was a member of the Sons of the Revoper Company, becoming its general manager. The lution and the Union League and Lotus Clubs; an degree of Sc. D. was conferred upon him by the Uni- originator and chairman of the committee on erecting versity of Pennsylvania in 1889, and he was a mem the statue of Benjamin Franklin in Printing-House ber of scientific societies, including the American Square. He was active in charitable enterprises, parPhilosophical Society, the American Geological Soci- ticularly in promoting the Hahnemann Hospital and ety, and the American Institute of Mining Engincers, he wrote numerous addresses and monographs, includto whose proceedings he contributed papers. He also ing." European Recollections” (1861), and · Frankcontributed to the scientific and technical journals, lin” (1865). and prepared more than twenty of the reports of State Barbour, Oliver Lorenzo, lawyer, born in Cambridge, geological survey.

Washington County, N. Y., July 12, 1811; died in Atwood, David, journalist, born in Bedford, N. H., in Saratoga, N. Y., Dec. 17, 1889. He was graduated at 1815; died in Madison, Wis., Dec. 11, 1889. He was Fredonia Academy in 1827; was admitted to the bar apprenticed to the printer's trade in 1830, removed to in 1832; and was reporter of the New York Court of Wisconsin and became connected with the Madison Chancery in 1817–49, and of the New York Supreme ** Express " in 1847, was soon afterward appointed Court in 1848–76. His publications include: Equieditor and manager of the paper, and left it in 1852 to ty Digest" (4 vols., Springfield, 1836-41); " Treatise establish the “State Journal," with which he re- on Criminal Law" (Albany, 1841; 3d ed., 2 vols., mained until his death. Ele was a member of the 1883); " Treatise on the Law of Set-Off" (1841)

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