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“Monmouth.” Amid the booming of guns, the screeching of steam whistles, the waving of flags, and the cheering of the people, both on the boats and on shore, the party set out for New York city. Meanwhile in the upper bay the finest naval display ever seen in its waters was being formed. From Bedlow's Island to Robbin's Reef were ranged in parallel rows the participating vessels. Anchored in line nearest the city were the representatives of the new navy and the old historic men-of-war beginning with the flag-shi “Chicago,” and followed by the “Kearsarge,” “Yantic,” “Essex,” “Brooklyn,” “Atlanta,” “Jamestown,” “Juniata,” “Yorktown,” and “Boston"; then came the revenue division and harbor tugs, ending with the yachts, including those from the New York, Atlantic, Corinthian, Seawanhaka, American, and Larchmont clubs headed by the steam yacht “Electra.” Back of these and in front of them was the merchant marine arranged in double columns. The Government vessels were trimmed with a rainbow decoration of flags reaching over the mast tops from bow to stern, and the other vessels were resplendent with colors and flags. The entire fleet, divided into ten squadrons, was commanded by Admiral David Porter of the United States navy. About noon the clouds threatening rain cleared, and the sun came out, shining in full glory on the scene. Soon the blue flag of the President was seen on the “Despatch,” emerging from the Kills, and swiftly the boat made its way between the two lines up the boy in front of the city to the pier at the foot of Wall Street on East river. As the boat passed the naval vessels, the yards were manned and the salute of twenty-one guns, in honor of the President, fired while the colors were dipped. The banks of smoke soon obscured the view, and when they had passed away the “Despatch" was anchored off Wall Street. Here the President was met by a barge manned by twelve retired sea-captains, all members of the New York Marine Society, and commanded by Capt. Ambrose Snow, and rowed ashore, where he was received by Hamilton Fish, attended by Gov. David B. Hill and Mayor Hugh J. Grant. A procession, commanded by Col. Floyd Clarkson, including several companies of regulars, veteran military organizations, and members of the Society of the Sons of the Revolution, escorted the President to the Equitable Building, 120 Broadway, where a reception was held in the rooms of the Lawyers' Club, and upward of 2,000 persons—citizens of distinction who were specially invited— were presented to him, including visiting governors of thirty States and Territories, who were introduced to him in the order in which the States or Territories that they represented were admitted into the Union. After an elaborate luncheon, presided over by Hamilton Fish, the procession reformed and escorted the President up Broadway to the City Hall. In front of this buildin were ranged double rows of girls, two from eac of the female grammar schools, and thirteen young ladies, representing the original States, from the New York Normal College. As the President alighted from the carriage and advanced up the steps between the girls, flowers were strewed in his pathway, and on reaching the inside of the building he was received with an address of welcome from a member of the senior
class of the Normal College. Passing into the Governor's room, and supported by the Governor and the Mayor, the President received the peole of the city, of whom more than 5,000 passed fore him. At 5 o'clock the doors were closed and Mr. Harrison was driven to the residence of the Vice-President, whose guest he was, and on that evening he was entertained at a dinner iven in his honor by Stuyvesant Fish. The estivities of the day closed with a grand ball at the Metropolitan Opera House, where the President arrived after ten o'clock, and the ceremonies then began with a quadrille of honor, in which it was intended that only those should join who were descended from participants in the similar dance led by George Washington the week after his inauguration. Under the broad bands of red, white, and blue cloth that fell in luxurious curves from the center of the ceiling to the uppermost gallery of this most beautiful building were gathered more than 10,000 people. Representatives of families whose names are identified with the history of the country, men of reputation in every art, science, and trade, and woman of surpassing beauty made this audience the most o one ever seen in the great metropolis of the new world. The Second Day.—This day, the actual anniversary of the inauguration, opened with artillery salutes at sunrise. The exercises pertaining to the celebration began with a special religious service in St. Paul's Chapel, where the President and Vice-President were received by the two wardens, Stephen P., Nash and Allan Campbell, and escorted to the pew which Washington occupied during his residence in New York city. A form of prayer and thanksgiving was prepared for this service. Only those specially invited were able to gain access to the chapel, and they were received by an aisle committee whose members were descendants of families of historic rominence. Ex-Presidents Hayes and Cleveand, members of the Cabinet, Senators, the chief officers of the New York State and municipal governments, governors of States, Gen. Sherman, and citizens of distinction were present. As President Harrison entered the chapel the congregation rose to their feet, and, in respect, after the exercises, they remained seated until he had left the building. Rev. Morgan Dix, the rector of the parish, began the services by reading several selections from the Holy Scriptures, and the lessons were read by Bishop Littlejohn of Long Island and Bishop Quintard of Tennessee. Then followed the address, by Bishop Potter of New York, and the closing prayers were read by Rev. James Mulchahey, the rector of the chapel. Meanwhile, similar services of an appropriate character were held in other churches by their respective clergy. The purely literary exercises followed at the United States Sub-Treasury, on the corner of Wall and Nassau Streets; a platform had been erected over the very spot where Washington took the oath of office a century ago. The same chair in which he sat was there, and the same Bible on which he was sworn was likewise there on a table once owned by Chancellor Livingston, and now the property of his descendants. A vast multitude of people were gathered to witness the ceremonies, and on the platform was the venerable Ex-Vice-President Hannibal Hamlin and Chief-Justice Fuller, besides the visitors of distinction who had followed the President in carriages from St. Paul's Chapel. The assembly was called to order by Hamilton Fish, who presented the chairman of the occasion, Elbridge T. Gerry. A prayer was then offered by Rev. Richard S. Storrs, after which Clarence W. Bowen read a poem entitled “The Vow of Washington,” written by John G. Whittier for the occasion, and then followed an oration by Chauncey M. Depew. When this was delivered
r. Gerry introduced the President, who replied very briefly, saying: “We have come into the serious, but always inspiring, presence of Washington. He was the incarnation of duty, and he teaches us to-day this great lesson—that those who would associate their names with events that shall outlive a century can only do so by consecration to duty.” Then the Roman Catholic Archbishop, Michael A. Corrigan, in the pur
le robes of his high office, pronounced the bene
iction. The President was driven to the stand on Fifth Avenue, opposite Madison Square, from where he reviewed the passing troops, who formed the greatest military procession ever witnessed in New York city. In numbers it exceeded the army first ića out by President Lincoln to suppress the Rebellion. The line of march was up Broadway to Waverly Place, thence up Fifth Avenue to Fourteenth Street, where a detour was made to Broadway, around Union Square, and back through Fifteenth Street into Fifth Avenue, following that thoroughfare to Fifty-seventh Street, where the procession disbanded. The chief marshal was the commanding general of the United States army, John M. Schofield, who rode at the head of the parade, followed by a brilliant staff including twenty-three aids, chosen from as many different States, each of which had sent its representative to take part in the celebration. The procession was divided into three divisions. At the head of the first was the entire battalion of cadets from the United States Military Academy at West Point. The magnificent appearance of these four hundred men as they swept up the avenues gained for them the continuous applause of the people. The naval brigade of 1,200 men, including marines, naval apprentices, and boys from the training ships, followed, and then came the regulars in their blue uniform, nearly 1,200, with representative detachments of artillery, cavalry, and infantry. The second division was composed of the States' militia arranged in the order in which the States had ratified the Constitution. At the head of the representatives from each State rode its governor and his staff. Delaware came first with 450 men, led by Gov. Biggs, followed by Gov. Beaver, who having lost a leg in the civil war was strapped to his saddle, with the Pennsylvania contingent of 7,200 men. New Jersey, represented by 4,000 men, led by Gov. Green, was next. Georgia sent only 50 men, but these were commanded by Gov. Gordon, whose record is that of a brave soldier. Then came Gov. Bulkeley of Connecticut with 650 men, including the brilliantly uniformed Hartford Foot Guards. Gov. Ames, escorted by two corps of Boston cadets, was at the head of the Massachusetts troops, 1,500 strong, among whom were the ancient and honorable artillery
of Boston. Maryland sent its famous Fifth Regiment with Gov. Jackson and 600 men. South Carolina followed, 360 strong, under Gov. Richardson, who was escorted by the Washington Light Infantry who brought with them the historic Eutaw flag which they carried in the Revolution. Then came 1,300 soldiers from New Hampshire with Gov. Sawyer at their head. Gov. Fitzhugh Lee rode in front of the 1,000 men that Virginia sent, among whom were the Richmond Light Blues who organized in 1789. New York had 13,223 men in line, with Gov. Hill at their head. The famous Seventh Regiment came first, and the well known Twenty-second, Twentythird, and Sixty-ninth Regiments, and the Old Guard were recognized. North Carolina was represented by Gov Fowle with 150 men, and R. Island sent her detachment of 400 soldiers with Gov. Taft. Following these was Gov. Buckner of Fort Donelson fame with 300 men from Kentucky. Gov. Foraker and 3,500 troops from Ohio were next, and then Louisiana came, 180 strong, with representatives of the New Orleans Washinton Artillery, whose colors bear the names of fifty battles, and belongs to the early history of the State. Missouri was represented by Gov. Francis and 300 of its State troops. Michigan sent Gov. Luce with 115 men. The Washington Light Infantry, with its white uniform, and other militia from the District of Columbia were present, 700 strong. Forty of the Ocala Rifles from Florida, and a contingent of the Belknap Rifles from Texas were in line. West Virginia sent Gov. Wilson and 200 of its militia to join the procession. The third division consisted of 10, men, representing various posts of the Grand Army of the Republic. These were led by Department Commander Harrison Clark and the National Commander-in-Chief, William Warner. A battalion of the Loyal Legion, some 100 in number, commanded by Col. William C. Church, were the last of the ii. In all, it is estimated that over 50,000 persons took part in the parade. In the early part of the evening displays of fireworks, under the auspices of the civic authorities, took place at Battery Park, Canal Street Park, Tompkins Square, Washington Square, Union Square, Central Park Plaza, East River Park, and Mount Morris Square. The German musical societies from New York and vicinity, fifty in number, gave together a large open-air concert in Madison Square. Reinhold Schmelz directed a band of 75 pieces, and began the music with the Ploing of the grand march from “Tannhauser.” Then 2,000 voices sang the “Jubilee Overture” under the leadership of dore Thomas. The “Hallelujah Chorus,” “Hail Columbia,” and the “Jubilee Chorus” followed, ending with the “American National Hymn." the chorus of which was taken up by the vast multitude who had come to listen, and the great uare rang with the music till the last note, when it faded away as the concert ended and the people turned their faces homeward. The event of the evening, however, was the Inauguration Centennial Banquet, held in the Metropolitan Opera House. The entire auditorium of this great bui ing had been boarded over, and where, on the evening before the dancing had taken place.* tables were now arranged in rows. At 8 o'clock President Harrison, leaning on the arm of Mayor Grant, entered the hall, and as he advanced the guests raised their voices in cheers of welcome, while the band added its recognition by playing “Hail to the Chief.” At the head of the presidential table sat Mayor Grant, as the host of the occasion and the official representative of the city of New York. On his right was President Harrison, the Vice-President, the Chief-Justice of the United States, Gen. Schofield, Senator Evarts, Ex-President Hayes, Bishop Potter, Secretary Proctor, and Gen. Sherman; while on his left were the Governor of the State, the Lieutenant-Governor, Judge Andrews, Admiral Porter, Senator Hiscox, Ex-President Cleveland, Speaker Cole, Samuel S. Cox, and Clarence W. Bowen ; and facing him was Elbridge T. Gerry. The boxes above the hall were filled with ladies, whose presence in their evening costumes added beauty to the scene and inspiration to the speakers. Among the special guests, besides Mrs. Harrison, were the following ladies who had been mistresses at the White House: Mrs. Grant, Mrs. Hayes, Mrs. McElroy, and Mrs. Cleveland. Grace was asked by Bishop Potter, and after the banquet Mayor Grant introduced Gov. Hill, who made the “Address of Welcome.” The toast of “George Washington’’ was drunk in silence as the guests stood. In regular order the following toasts were then called and responded to : “The People of the United States,” Grover Cleveland; “The States,” Fitzhugh Lee; “The Federal Constitution,” Melville W. Fuller; “The House of Representatives,” James G. Blaine (omitted owing to the absence of Mr. Blaine): “The Senate,” John W. Daniel; “The Presidency,” Rutherford B. Hayes; “The Judiciary,” William M. Evarts; “The Army and Navy,” William T. Sherman: “Our Schools and Colleges,” Charles W. Eliot : “Our Literature,” James R. Lowell; and “The United States of America,” Benjamin Harrison. . At the tables were places for 800 persons, and over 5,000 were present in the house during the banquet. The Third Day.—Like its predecessors, the day opened with artillery salutes from the forts and national vessels in the harbor. Essentially, however, this day was given over to the people, and its particular feature was the civic parade, planned and directed by Gen. Daniel Butterfield, who was its grand marshal. The line of march was from Fifty-Seventh Street and Fifth Avenue downward, along the same route as before, to Canal Street and Broadway, where it disbanded. The President, Vice-President, Mr. Cleveland, members of the Cabinet, and other citizens specially invited assembled on the reviewing stand, on Fifth Avenue opposite Madison Square, at 10 o'clock. At the head of the line marched Mayor Grant, who stopped in front of the grand stand and handed to the President a silver cylinder, about fourteen inches long, prettily chased and bearing the inscription: “ 1789 Centennial Celebration. 1889. Civic and Industrial Parade. Addressed to the President of the United States by the Civic, Industrial, and Commercial Bodies of New York City. Daniel Butterfield, Chief Marshall; Hugh J. Grant, Mayor.” Within the cylinder was a scroll of parchment several feet long on which was engrossed an address to Mr. Harrison that was signed by more than one hundred citizens of New York city. This ceremony over,
Mayor Grant took his place at the side of the President, and the procession, headed by Gen. Butterfield and his large staff, advanced. The educational division, led by J. Edward Simmons, President of the Board of Education, came first. Delegations from Columbia College, the College of Physicans and Surgeons, the to. of the City of New York, the New York University, the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, and the public schools followed. Then came the military organizations of foreign-born citizens; French, German, Irish, Italian, Scotch, Swiss, and other bodies were represented. , Harry Howard led the division of firemen which included the old volunteer companies, not only of New York city but of Philadelphia and other adjacent cities. From the primitive hose-cart, through the various developments, to the modern engine propelled by steam, the different varieties of fire-extinguishing machine passed before the reviewing stand. The Irish division followed, including two thousand members of the Ancient Order of Hibernians. Then the Tammany Braves, led by Gen. John Cochrane, once a candidate for the presidency, passed down the avenue. The many trades sent their associations, including the bakers, the butchers, the piano-forte makers, the
lasterers, and many others, dressed in the peculiar dress of their respective pursuits. At various intervals large floats appeared in the line of the procession. . Of these some were historic, representing such subjects as “John Smith and his Party, 1607”; “Hendrik Hudson and his Crew, 1609”; “William Penn and the Quakers, 1682”; “Declaration of Independence, 1776"; “Washington crossing the Delaware, 1776”; “The Inauguration of the First President, 1789.” Others were suggestive of the times, such as “The Press and Public Opinion,” consisting of a Washington hand-press and a modern press worked by electricity, on both of which circulars were printed and distributed of the route. “The Kindergarten,” showing children grouped around a monument to Froebel and at work at basting and braiding, “Civil Engineering,” and “Architecture,” were represented by followers of these professions at work. Still others were of allegorical character, among which were “Arion,”“Bacchus,” “Prince Carnival,” and “Christmas,” from whose titles an idea can be Fathered of what they were like. “The Brewery,” “the Bakery,” “Artificial Mineral Waters,” are typical of those which symbolized trades. “The German Opera” and “Wagner Opera” were living tableaus of scenes from the works of great composers, and were perhaps the most striking of the floats. Upward of 75,000 persons took part in the parade. The presidential party left for Washington early in the afternoon, but in the evening a municipal banquet was given at the Academy of Music in Brooklyn, over which Mayor Chapin, of that city, presided. Over five hundred guests were present, who listened to speeches made by eminent, citizens in response to appropriate toasts. During the same evening the Association of the Bar of the City of New York gave a reception to the justices of the Supreme Court of i. United States. The chief justice and several of his associates were present, and were received by the president of l. club, Joseph H. Choate. With this event the celebration closed. During several weeks a Washington loan exhibition of historical portraits and relics were held in the assembly rooms of the Metropolitan Opera House. In commemoration of the celebration a medal was designed by Augustus St. Gaudens and modeled under his direct supervision by Philip Martiny. Literature.—“The Century Magazine” devoted its April issue largely to subjects pertaining to the Washington Centennial. Likewise the December, 1888, the February and March, 1889, issues of “The Magazine of American History” were given up to historical papers!". taining to the event. These were reprinted in [..." form. The “New York Mail and xpress” published on April 27 a “Centennial number” and the “Evening World" of April 30 was printed on specially prepared red, white, and blue paper. The “Sun and Shade” for May, 1889, contained illustrations reproduced from hotographs of the principal events of the celeration. The articles contained in “The New York Tribune” of April 29, 30, and May 1, were reprinted as a “Tribune Extra.” Clarence W. Bowen, who was Secretary of the Executive Committee, has in preparation a work giving a full account of the celebration, including a description of the original inauguration one hun. years ago; also of the semi-centennial fifty years ago; and a history of all the preliminary work, as well as an account of the celebration. NEW ZEALAND, a colony of Great Britain in the Pacific Ocean. The Legislative Council consists of 45 members, nominated for life by the Crown, and the House of Representatives of 95 members, elected by the people for three years under the system of manhood suffrage. The resent ministry took office in October, 1887. The remier is Sir Harry Atkinson; G. F. Richardson is Minister of Lands, Mines, and Immigration ; T. Fergus is Minister of Justice and Defense; G. Mitchelson is Minister for Public Works and Native Affairs; Sir F. Whitaker is Attorney-General; and E. C. J. Stevens is Minister in the Legislative Council without portfolio. G. Fisher, Minister of Education and Customs, having disagreed with his colleagues on various matters, resigned early in 1889, and Capt. W. Russell has joined them in his place. T. W. Hislop, the &ou Secretary, having been censured o, a parliamentary committee for interfering with one of the district judges, resigned his portfolio, and also his seat for Oamarn, at the close of the session of 1889. He was re-elected, and has taken his place as Minister of Education and Customs, Capt. Russell being Colonial Secretary. Late in 1889, the Earl of Onslow succeeded Sir William Jervois as Governor. Area and Population.—The area of the islands is 66,710,320 acres, of which 18,914,370 acres had been alienated before the close of 1887. I)uring 1887 and 1888 there was an exodus of population, rising often to as many as 2,000 a month, chiefly to Victoria and New South Wales. But in 1889 it not only stopped, but in the latter months turned. The population, exclusive of Maoris, in 1888 was 605,371. Finances.—The debt of the colony in December, 1888, amounted to £35,536,381, deduction being made of the accrued sinking fund. The debt per head of the population was nearly £60.
More than two thirds of the liabilities were incurred for o and public works. Under the premiership of Sir Julius Vogel, the colony, borrowed till at last the London money market was closed to it. The ministry under which the public debt had been incurred was compelled to hand over to another the task of devising new taxes to restore the financial equilibrium. The public and private debts together reach the sum of £89,500,000; but the unsold land is accounted worth £118,000,000; private capital, £82,000,000; and the state railroads, telegraphs, and other property, £19,000,000. The total revenue in 1888 was £4,109,815, includin £2,031,658 raised by taxation—i.e., £3 7s. 1d. per head. The expenditure in the same year was £3,962,912, including £1,868,111, the annual charge on the |. debt of $36,971,771. The railways paid, between March, 1888, and March, 1889, 2-60 per cent. on the capital invested in them, while in the previous financial year they earned only 2:30 per cent. Some of the earlier loans at a high interest have been reissued at 34 per cent., at a satisfactory price. Railroads, Telegraphs, and Post-Office.— Two considerable railways during these three years have been begun by private companies on the system of land grants from the public estate. The Wellington-Manawatu line has been comleted, and had successful sales of some of its ands. The Midland line, to join Westland and Canterbury, is being ...'..." forward. But a bill to place the Otago Central line on the same footing was thrown out. The railroads in 1888 had a total length of 1,841 miles. Their cost was about £16,000,000. The t-office, in 1887, transmitted 39,377,774 letters and 15,381,323 newspapers. On Jan. 1, 1888, the telegraph lines had a total length of 4,646 miles, o 375 miles of wire. The number of dispatches in 1887 was 1,835,394. Commerce.—The value of imports in 1887 was £6,245,515; of exports, £6,866,169. The wool export was £3,321,074; gold, £747,878 ; grain and flour, £468,970 ; frozen meat, £455870; Kauri gum, £362,434; hides, skins, and leather, 4.229,478. The capital invested in manufactories in 1885 amounted to £6,697,117; the number of persons employed was 25,655. New Zealand is now emerging from a period of depression, which was part of the general current of commercial depression throughout the world, but it had also special and local causes to prolong it; these were a reaction from a period of over-speculation in land, the fall in the price of her great staples, wool and wheat, and the great debt necessitating increased taxation. The chief causes of the change are the rise in the price of wool and wheat in European markets, the rapid growth of the trade in so mutton, the new demand for New Zealand flax, or hemp, the exFo of her Australian markets for dairy and arm produce through great droughts and failure O o in Australia, a succession of fine seasons and crops, the increase and prosperity of local industries, the disappearance of the deression in England and the restored confidence in the Bank of New Zealand, which, after passing its dividend and otherwise facing its difficulties, has again begun to pay dividends and add to its reserve fund."
The imports have gone down from £7,479,921 in 1885 to £5,941,900 in 1888, the significance of this being that fewer railways are being built at public expense, and the country is relying more and more on its own manufactures. The exports rose from £6,819,939 in 1885 to £7,767,325 in 1888, and the results are still better in 1889. chiefly because of the rise in the value of wool, wheat, and hemp, and the development of the frozen - mutton trade. Thus, while the imÉ. per head of population (excluding Maoris)
ve receded in these years from £1348. 9d. to
failed, but, uniting with the economists, they were able to curtail the expenditure upon it to a slight extent. In the session of 1889 there was a struggle over a representation bill that gives the country districts a third more representatives than the towns. During the contest, which ended in the passage of the Government's bill, the House once remained in session for 76 hours. The Government has been put to considerable expense in guarding against the threatened up: rising of the Maoris, who accuse the whites of
£9 16s. 4d., the exports have advanced from £12 1s. 5d. to £12 16s. 7d. ; and the rise is more significant when it is considered that the exports had gone down as low as £119s. 3d. per head in the year 1886. The Exhibition.—There was opened at the end of November, 1889, the New Zealand and South Seas Exhibition at Dunedin, the largest exhibition yet held in the country. The journalists who have visited it have expressed surprise at the advance made by the country and pleasure at the gathering sounds of prosperity throughout it. The harvests of the year promise to be excellent and the prices of all produce and stock are high; while native industries are rapidly displacing foreign manufactures. gislation.—In 1888 the Protectionist members of the Opposition united with the ministry against its own Free-trade followers, and helped it to raise the tariff to 25 per cent. ad valorem, chiefly on kinds of goods that are or might be manufactured in the colony. An attempt was made by the opponents of the present system of education to change its secular character; it vol. xxix.-39 A
breaking treaty engagements and of robbing them of their lands. Te Kooti, a leader of the natives, was expected in February to attack the Poverty Bay district, which the Maoris claimed as their own, and which whites had seized and occupied with the aid of colonial troops. Toward the end of February Te Kooti was arrested while on his way home, and was taken to Auckland and committed to jail.
NICARAGUA, a republic in Central America; area, 51,600 square miles; population, in 1886, 262,372.
Government.—The President is Dr. Roberto Sacasa, whose term of office will expire on March 1, 1891. The Cabinet is composed of the following ministers: Foreign Affairs and Public Instruction, Don Isidro Urtecho; Interior, Señor Barrios; War, Don David Osorno: Public Works and Communications, Señor Gonzalez. The Nicaraguan Minister at Washington is Dr. Horacio Guzman: the Consul-General at New York, Alexander Cotheal; the American Consul at Managua is D. Bernard Macauley; at Greytown, William A. Brown.